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WAR DEPARTMENT-L'Uia'.S UF ENGINEERS, U. S ARMY. 



REPORT 



iiMix Tiir. 



Third hiEKiiTKiMi {mmmw Mmi m Eihibiiioi 



VEINriCE, ITA^LY, 1881, 

ACCOMrANIED BY DATA CONCERNING THE PRINCIPAL GOVERNMENT 
LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS OF THE WORLD. 

riiKrAREI) AM) SLBMITTKD BV 

CAPTAIN GEORGE M. WHEELER, 

« * 

CORPS OF FNGHNEERS, XJ. S. A.RRIY, 

Commissioner and D.-legatk, 

IX PriiSUAXCE OF OHDEliS OF THE 

Honorable ROBERT T. LINCOLN, the Secretary of War, 

A N I > 

PUBLISHED BY RESOLUTION OF vOXGSDSE. 



TVASniNGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1 S S . 




WAR DEPARTMENT -CUKPS IIE ENGINEERS, U. S ARMY. 



REPORT 



rrox Tiiv; 



InEiaiiliM kmmm fiwciiEss md E,' 

AT 

VEN^ICE, ITA^LY, 1881, 



ACCOMPANIED BY DATA CONCERNING THE PRINCIPAL OOVERNMENT 
LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS OF THE WORLD. 

PRKrARED AND SfUMITrKD BY 

CAPTAIN GEORGE M. WHEELER, 

CORPS OF Jt;t^C=HNEBRS, TJ. S. AR3MY, 
Commissioner and D^:legate, 

in- pursuance of ordehs of the 

Honorable EGBERT T. LINCOLN, the Secretary of War, 



PUBLISHED BY RESOLUTION OF POXJJS^^S. ; 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1 S S O . 



Eesolved by (he Senate {the House >/ Itepresenlalives concurring), That the report of Captain George M, 
Wheeler, United States Army, on the Third InteruatioDal Geographical Cocgress and Exhibition, at 
Venice, Italy, with the accompanying illustrations, transmitted to ihd Senate by the Secretary of War 
on the tenth of December, eighteen hundred and eighty-three, be printed in quarto form, and that 
three thousand five hundred additional copies be printed, of which one thousand copies shall be for the 
use of the Senate, two thousand copies for the use of the House, and five hundred copies for the Depart- 
ment of War. 

{Passed hj the Senate Jannanj 14, 1885, and ly the Bouse February 17, 1885.) 
2 



[Honse Ex. Doc. No. 270, Becoud session Forty-eighth Congress.] 

War Department, 
Washington City, December 10, 1883. 

The Secretary of War has the honor to transmit to the United States 
Senate the report of Capt. George M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, United 
States Army, on the Third International Geographical Congress and Exhi- 
bition, at Venice, Italy, to which he was appointed a commissioner. 

This report embraces valuable information concerning the origin, 
organization, functions, history, and progress of the several Government 
topographic, hydrographic, and geologic surveys; and it is therefore rec- 
ommended that the report, with its accompanying illustrations, be ordered 
to be printed, in quarto form, with the view to its wide distribution. 

Robert T. Lincoln, 

Secretary of War. 

The President pro tempore of the United States Senate. 

Note. — The above letter -was printed as Senate Ex. Doc, No. 9, Forty-eighth Congress, first session. 

3 



Washington, D. C, June 11, 1883. 

Sir: As directed by your "orders" of March 30, 1881, I have the 
honor to forward herewith the report therein called for upon the Third 
International Geographical Congress and Exhibition, at Venice, Italy. 

As it has been possible to extend the scope of this report, begun with 

data examined at Venice, to embrace information concerning the origin, 

organization, administration, functions, history, and progress of the several 

Government topographic, hydrographic, and geological surveys, I have the 

honor to request that it (with accompanying illustrations) be printed in 

quarto form, either by administrative or legislative authority, and widely 

distnbuted. 

******** 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. M. Wheelek, 
Captain of Engineers, U. S. Arwuy. 

To the Honorable Robert T. Lincoln, 

Secretary of War. 

(Through the Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army.) 

[First Indorsement.] 

Office Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, 

June 12, 1883. 
Respectfully forwarded to the honorable the Secretary of War with 
the recommendation that the report be sent to Congress, at its next session, 
with a recommendation from the War Department that it be printed. 



6 LETTEE OF TRANSMITTAL. 

Captain Wheeler has been able to collect a large amount of valuable 

information in regard to European surveys, in addition to that obtained at 

the Third International Geographical Congress and Exhibition, to which he 

was appointed a commissioner. 

John G. Parke, 

Acting Chief of Engineers. 

[Second indorsement.] 

The Secretary of War concurs in the recommendation of the Acting 
Chief of Engineers. 

Let this be submitted at the next session of Congress. 
By order of the Secretary of War. 

John Tweedale, 

Chief Clerk 
War Department, June 14, 1883. 

[Third indorsement.] 

Office Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, 

December 4, 1883. 

Respectfully returned to the honorable the Secretary of War, renew- 
ing the recommendation contained in the indorsement of June 12, 1883, 
from this office, and suggesting the propriety of printing Captain Wheeler's- 
report in quarto form. 

H. G. Wright, 

Chief of Engineers, 
Brigadier and Brevet Major- General. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Introductory note 13-16 

I -OEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS. 

1. Divisions of Congress and Exhibition 18-19 

2. Common initial meridian and uniform standard time 23-38 

3. Extracts from resolutions of the Congress 39-41 

4. List of Governmeut commissioners and delegates 41-4 1 

II.-EXHIBITION. 

1. International jury 47-48 

2. Awards to the United States 48-49 

3. Eesponse to organizing committee concerning United States Exhibit, at 

Paris, 1875 50 

4. Eesponse to organizing committee concerning United States Exhibit, at 

Venice, 1881 51-58 

5. State surreys in the United States 59-61 

6. Exhibition by classes 62-75 

III.-GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

(ORIGIN, OKGANIZATION, ADMINISTKATION, FUNCTIONS, HISTORY, AND PROGRESS.) 

LAND SURVEYS. 

Government surveys defined 76 

Introductory 76-87 

Origin 87-90 

Organization 90-101 

Administration 101-103 

Functions 103-110 

History, reference to 110 

Progress, reference to . Ill 

Summary tables of general and special Government topographic sur- 
veys (embracing entire countries) opposite i)age. . 112 

Lists of published Government general and special topographic and 
miscellaneous maps of land areas (including cadastral and geo- 
logic) 112-139 

Names, conventional signs, abbreviations, colors, &c., used on topo- 
graphic maps 140-145 

7 



5 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Extent of detailed topogrnpliic surveys 145-14C 

Cost of detailed topographic surveys 146-147 

Countries baviug organizations for geological examination and inves- 
tigation 1 48 

List of conntries prosecuting hydrograpliic surveys 149 

Summary of facts and conclusions 156-158 

1. Great Britain and Ireland (United Kingdom) and Colonies 159 

Topographic (the Ordnance Survey) 159-179 

Canada, Quebec, and British Columbia (land subdivision) 179-180 

Jamaica ISO 

Victoria, topographic (land subdivision) 180-183 

South Australia (land subdivision) 183 

Queensland 183 

New Zealand (land subdivision) 183-185 

Fiji Islands 185 

Cape Colony 185-186 

West Africa 186 

The United Kingdom (geologic) 187-190 

Canada (geologic) 190-191 

Newfoundland (geologic) 192-193 

Victoria, Cape Colony, New Zealand, South Australia, Queensland, 
Natal, Orange Free State, West Australia, Tasmania, New South 

Wales (geologic) 193-197 

2. Germany. 

Topographic 198-204 

(a) Prussia. 

Topographic (Laudes-Aufnahmc) , 204-225 

Geodetic Institute and European Degrees Measurements . 225-230 
{b) Saxony. 

Topographic (Generalstabs Topographisclies Bureau) 230-234 

(c) Bavaria. 

Topographic (Generalstabs Topographisches Bureau) 235-245 

{(1) Wurtemberg. 

Topographic (Statistisch -Topographisches Bureau) 246-250 

(e) Baden. 

Topographic (Topographisches Bureau) 250-254 

Germany (geologic). 

Alsace- Lorraine (geologic) 255 

(Commission fiir die Geologische Landes-Untersuchung und Kar- 
tirung von Elsass-Lothringen.) 

Prussia (geologic) 255-258 

(K. Preussische Geologische Landesanstalt.) 

Saxony (geologic) 25S-259 

(Geologische Landesuntersuching des Kon'g. Sachsen.) 

Bavaria (geologic) 260 

(Bureau derGeognostischenUntersuching desKonigreichs Bayern.) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9 

Page. 
Gemiauy (geologic) — Coiitiuucd. 

Wurteuiberg (geologic) 260-261 

(Kciiiigl. StatistischTopograpbisches Bureau). 

Badeu (geologic) 261 

Hesse-Darmstadt (geologic) 261-262 

(Grossberzoglicb Uessiscbe Geologiscbe Laudesaustalt.) 

3. Austria-Huugary. 

Topograpbic (K. K. Milittir-Geograflscbes lustitut) 263 

Geologic (K. K. Geologiscbeu Keicbsaustalt) . . 281 

Hungary (geologic) (Konigl. Uiigariscbe Geologiscbe Keicbsaustalt) . . 281 
Bobeiuia (geologic) (Com. zurWisseuscbaftlicbeu Durcbt'orscbuugvou 

Bobuieu) 281-282 

Servia (geologic) 282 

4. France, iucludiug Uepartuieuts in Algeria. 

Topograpbic (Depot de la Guerre, Service Geograpbique del'Arm^e). 283-300 

Geologic (Service de la Carte Geologique detaill^e de la France) 300-304 

Algeria (geologic) 301 

5. Switzerland. 

Topograpbic (Bureau Topograpbique Federal) ■ 304-309 

Geologic (Beitrag zur Geologiscben Karte der Scbweiz) 309-311 

6. Holland. 

Topograpbic (Institut Topograpbique) 311-318 

Geologic (Coumiissie voor de Geologiscbe Kaart van Nederland) 319 

Luxembourg (geologic) 320-321 

Dntcb East Indies (Java, &c.), topograpbic 321-322 

Dutcb East Indies (Java, &c.), geologic 322-323 

7. Spain. 

Topograpbic (Instituto Geogrdflco y Estadistico) 324-328 

Geologic (Comision del Piano Geologico de Espaua) 329-330 

Cuba and Porto Eico (geologic) 330-331 

Tbe Canaries and Pbilippine Islands (geologic) 331 

8. Italy. 

Topograpbic (Istituto Geografico Militare) 331-340 

Geologic (lieale Comitato Geologico d'ltalia) 341-343 

9. Sweden. 

Topograpbic (Topografiska Corpsens Karta ofver Svferige) 344-357 

Geologic (Sveriges Geologiska Uudersokiug) 357-300 

10. Eussia. 

Topograpbic (Section Topograpbique de TEtat-Major) 360-380 

Balkan Peninsula (topograpbic) 380-382 

Geologic (Comit6 G^ologique de Eussie) (Geologiguecrato Komiteta) . 383 

Finland (geologic) 384-386 

11. Belgium. 

Topographic (Institut Cartograpbique Militaire) 380-397 

Geologic (Service de la Carte Geologique de la Belgique) 397-402 



10 TABLE OF CO:N^TE]SfTS. 

Pagp. 

12. Denmark. 

Topographic (Generalstabeus Topograflske Afdeling) , 402-411 

Geologic 412 

Greenland (geologic) (Meddelelser over Grenland) 412 

13. Norway. 

Topographic (Norges Gcograflske Opmaaling) 413-419 

Geologic (Norges Geologiste Uudersogelse) 419-421 

14. Portugal. 

Topographic (Trabalhos Geodesicos) 42 1-425 

Geologic f Secgao dos Trabalhos Geologicos) 425-429 

15. India. 

Topographic 429-444 

Geologic 445-448 

16. Greece. 

Topographic . . 448 

17. Turkey in Europe. 

Topographic 448-449 

18. Eoumauia. 

Topographic 449-452 

Geologic 452 

19. Japan. 

Topographic . 452-453 

Geologic 453-459 

20. San Doiuiugo. 

Topographic and Geologic .' 459 

21. Argentine Eepublic. 

Geologic ' 459-460 

22. Bolivia. 

Topographic and Geologic 460 

23. Chili. 

Topographic and Geologic 460-461 

24. South and Central America. 

Geologic 461-462 

25. United States. 

Topographic 464-489- 

(fl) Origin 464-467 

{b) Organization 467-469 

(f) Functions 469-473 

id) History 472 

(e) Progress and cost 473-476 

(/) The measure — the men — the results 476-479 

{(/) Future surveys of the United States 480-482 

(/() Survey of northern and northwestern lakes 482-484. 

(■/) Explorations and surveys west of the Mississippi 484-485 

(j) Geographical surveys west of 100th Meridian 485-486 

(k) Subdivision of the public lands 487-488 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. H 

Pago. 
25. United States — Continued. 

Geologic — 

(fl) Origin, Organization, Administration 490-491 

(b) Geological Exploration of 40tb Parallel 491-493 

(c) Geological Survey of the Territories, Geological and Geo- 

graphical Survey of Rocky Mountain Kegion, and Geological 

Exploration of Black Bills 492-494 

(d ) Geological Survey 494—196 

MARINE SURVEYS. 

Introductory; List of Government Hydrographic Works 497-498 

Hydrographic — 

Great Britain 499-502 

Germany 502-504 

Austria-Hungary 504-505 

France 506-509 

Holland and Dutch East Indies 509-510 

Spain 510-513 

Italy 513-517 

Sweden, Russia, Belgium, and Denmark 518-520 

Norway, Portugal, and India 521-523 

Brazil, Chili, and Japan 523 

United States { ^""'^^ ^""'^ Geodetic Survey 524-535 

( Hydrographic Otfice 535-538 

IV.-WORKS OF REFERENCE. 

1. English topographic surveys 539-540 

2. French topograjihic surveys 540-542 

3. German topographic surveys 542-543 

4. Italian topographic surveys 543-544 

5. Danish topographic surveys 544 

6. Spanish topographic surveys 544 

7. Portuguese 544 

8. Geologic surveys (general) 544-545 

V.-METHODS OF REPRODUCTION. 

1. Heliogravure 547-555 

2. Photozincography 555-557 

3. Chromolithography 657-559 

4. Means of reproduction (summary) 559-500 

VI.-REMARKS, 

Extract from report of Colonel Versteeg, Royal Dutch Engineers 560-561 

Extract from report of M. Arrilaga, Spanish commissioner 561 

Extract from Petermann's Mittheiluugen, 1881 502 

Explanation of plates 563-509 

Index 570 



LIST OF MAPS AND PLATES. 

MAPS AS PLATES. 

Plate. Page. 

1. Map of the world, showing areas of systematic detailed toipograpbic 

surveys, trigonoraetrically based; completed, in progress, and pro- 
posed opposite . . 145 

2. Sketch, showing divisions and extent of the general topographic sur- 

veys, trigonouietrically based, of Europe opposite . . .158 

3. Index to atlas of India opposite . . Hi 

4. Sketch showing proposed disposition of sheets for a general topographic 

atlas of the United States, 1875 . , opposite . . 489 

PLATES (QUARTO). 

5. Section from the Dufour maps of the Swiss Alps, showing hachures 

(oblique light, scale, 1 : 100,000) opposite. . 563 

G. Section from genei^al topographic map of Germany (scale, 1 : 100,000) 

(iu hachures with vertical light) ... opposite. . 564 

7. Section from topographic map of Switzerland (Siegfried atlas), showing 

hachures and curves combined (scale, 1 : 50,000) opposite. . 565 

8. Section from regular atlas sheet of Spain, showing curves alone (scale, 

1 : 50,000) opposite. . 566 

9. Section from special topographic map of Saxony, showing curves and 

crayon hill shading (scale, 1 : 25,000) opposite . . 567 

10. Section from general economic and topographic map of Java (scale, 

1 : 100,000), showing chromolithography (Eckstein process) .opposite. . 568 

11. Section from regular topographic sheet of France (scale, 1 : 50,000) 

showing combination of colors opposite. . 569 

12 



INTRODUCTORY^ NOTE. 



The scope of this report has somewliat exceeded my expectations, 
since, having been undertaken wlien in a delicate state of health and while 
attempting to recover from a long and dangerous illness, whatever value it 
may contain is due first of all to the liberal allowance of time placed at 
my disposal in Europe, and not a little to the facilities furnished by the 
Hon. James G. Blaine (late Secretary of State) for obtaining official infor- 
mation at other points, as well as at Venice. 

It is trusted that the information it has been possible to gather will 
throw some light on the extent and object of the great land and water 
surveys of the world, and that it may form the basis of further researches 
in the direction outlined, which can best be made especially by the large 
foreign Government offices conducting these works. Should such a result 
follow (taken in connection with the present illustrations of current doings, 
accompanied by samples of a number of the best topographic maps), the 
labor on my part will have been well spent, since only good can come to 
the cause (that of the systematic and practical development of topographic 
and geographic surveys) to which I have been able to devote a number of 
years. 

Receiving only kindness in all directions, I could not omit this occasion 
to express thanks to the following from among a large number who have 
cheerfully afforded information and kind assistance : General A. C. Cooke, 
Royal Engineers, in charge of the Ordnance Survey of P^ngland, and Col- 
onel Scott and Captains Hussey and Beamish, his assistants; General 
Thuiller, Royal Engineers, late Surveyor-General of India; Prof A. Geikie, 

13 



14 INTEODUCTOEY NOTE. 

Director of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, and Mr. Best, his 
first assistant; Colonel Perrier and his officers (Colonel Rouby, Captain Bas- 
sot, and others), of the War Department Geographical Service of France, and 
Prof Daubrde, Director of the School of Mines, Paris; General Mayo, Chief 
of the Militaiy Topographical Institute at Florence; the Prince of Teano, 
Acting President of the Congress and President of the Italian Geographical 
Society, and Professor Vedova, the General Secretary ; Professor Giordano, 
Director of the Geological Service of Italy, and his assistant, Mr. Demarchi, 
Mining Engineer; Captain Kalmar, Royal Navy, Chief of Triangulation 
bi-anch of the Military Geographical Institute at Vienna, and Mr. W. A. 
Roese, First Technical Assistant of the Reproduction branch; Dr Gustave 
Nachtigal, President Berlin Geographical Society, and Colonel Regely, the 
present Chief of the General Staff Topographical Survey of Prussia; Colo- 
nel Orff, Chief of the Topographical Survey of Bavaria, and Oscar Loew, 
Ph. D., of Munich; Mr C. A. Eckstein, Chief of the Topographical Institute 
at The Hague; Mr. Arrilaga, Engineer in Chief of the Geographical and 
Statistical Institute of Spain ; Sir Louis Mallet, Permanent Under Secretary 
of State for India, and many others In scores of instances brief memoirs 
or statements have been received, either directly or through the intervention 
of the State Department, prepared mostly by officials of the several foreign 
Government surveys, whose names will be found in the text, deserving 
mention of whom is herewith tendered for each and all. 

Among the diplomatic and consular officers of the United States, with 
whom it was my good fortune to meet, and who were enabled to furnish 
counsel and assistance, it affords me pleasure to recall, among others, the late 
Hon. George P. Marsh, minister to Italy; the Hon. James R. Lowell, min- 
ister to the court of St. James, and his secretary of legation, Mr. William 
J. Hoppin; the Hon. Levi P. Morton, minister at Paris, and Mr. Henry 
Vignaud, his secretary; the Hon J. 0. Putnam, minister resident at Brus- 
sels; the Hon. WiUiam Walter Phelps, at Vienna; Mr. J. Schuyler Crosby, 
consul at Florence; Mr. Chapman Coleman, secretary of legation at Berlin; 
and especially the Hon. E. Meigs Smith, consul at Mannheim, Germany. 

It affords me further pleasure to have the opportunity of referring to 
the courtesy extended by Mr. Maunoir, General Secretary of the French 
Geographical Society, and Mr. James Jackson, librarian to that institution, 



INTKODUCTOKY NOTE, 15 

and also Mr. Coles, in charge of the map department of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society of London. 

To my friend and assistant at Venice, Mr. Eugene L. Vail, my appre- 
ciative thanks are especially due for that ready and faithful assistance with- 
out which, on account of ill health, it would have been impossible to have 
fulfilled the duties there. Thanks are due Capt. Eric Bergland, Corps of 
Engineers, for voluntary translations from Swedish text. 

The timely and generous voluntary assistance of Prof Jules Marcou 
(whose extensive researches and world-wide geological studies have so emi- 
nently fitted him for such a task) has made it possible to give so coni^jlete a 
sketch of the Government geologic works. He has contributed, in accordance 
with the plan adopted for grouping and condensing facts, most and in many 
cases all the data for the ^eo^o^^c works of the English colonies, except Canada 
and Newfoundland, also Wurtemberg; all that for Alsace-Lorraine, Bavaria, 
Baden, Bohemia, Hungary, Denmark, Greenland, Russia, Servia, and Spain, 
the South American States, and Dutch East Indies. He has also supplied 
notes regarding France, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, 
Italy, Portugal, India, and Japan, as well as information relating to certain 
geologic maps with general references to existing organizations ; while all the 
proof of the foreign geologic works has been before him (not including, how- 
ever, the " introductorif parts, pp. 76 to 155). 

The data regarding the surveys of the several countries, all based on 
official records (published and manuscript), have been made as complete as 
means and time would permit. Where omissions, if any, occur, information 
thereof, as well as regards changes and progress for all Government Topo- 
graphic and Hydrographic Surveys and Geologic examinations throughout 
the world, will prove acceptable for future use. 

If the facts and conclusions regarding Government surveys, stated 
herein, shall suggest to older Governments the extension of their endeavors 
into unmeasured ground, and to others to organize topographic works, and 
aid in leading the United States to undertake the great general topographic 
survey of the country as required (thus taking the rank in such matters to 
which it is entitled), the long and untiring labor devoted to this part of the 
report will have had a recompense. 



16 INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

Voluminous translations from foreign official publications in German, 
Dutch, Danish, Portugese, and Italian have been made for this report by 
Mrs. V. B. Janin, and from the German by Messrs. A. Schausten and 
Francis Klett. 

The illustrations, faithfully and artistically reproduced by the establish- 
ment of Messrs. Julius Bien & Co., of New York city, speak for themselves. 

G. M. W. 



I -GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS. 

Pursuant to orders of the honorable Robei't T. Lincohi, the Secretary 
of War, of March 30, 1881, I have the honor to submit the following 
report: 

The instructions therein provided that I should proceed to Venice, 
Italy, to be present at and participate in the Third International Geographi- 
cal Exhibition and Congress, and make a detailed report thereon for the 
use of the War Department. 

As delegate of that Department, I was to prepare, forward, and exhibit 
a collection of reports, maps, &c., illustrative more particularly of the later 
geograpliical undertakings of the Engineer Department, as well as results, 
that the Signal Service could conveniently present. 

Before leaving the United States correspondence with other Depart- 
ments of the Government developed a desire on the part of certain offices 
to participate in so far as the limited time and means would allow, and 
hence there appeared contributions from the Postmaster-General, Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture, the Nautical Almanac Office, Naval Observatory, 
the Light-House Board, and Bureau of Statistics. 

The Coast Survey forwarded, through the United States consul at 
Venice, a model of the Gulf of Mexico, resulting from late deep-sea sound- 
ings, and the Hydrographic Office, through Commodore Baldwin, United 
States Navy, appeared with maps and memoirs touching their current 
doings. 

Finding my status through the minister of foreign affairs of Italy and 
the regulation.s of the Congress fixed as commissioner general from the 
United States, and this being corroborated by the credentials furnished ]>y 
1366 WH 2 17 



18 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

the honorable James G. Blaine, the Secretary of State, I held myself in 
readiness for the execution of such duties connected with the Congress as 
might be requisite or necessary. 

The report, then, naturally embraces the "Congress" as well as the 
"Exhibition." 

CONGRESS. 

The Third International Geographical Congress and Exhibition took 
place at Venice, Italy, during the last half of the calendar year 1881, under 
the direction of an organizing committee, with Prince Teano, president, 
and Prof G. Dalla Vedova, general secretary of the Italian Geographical 
Society, as president and general secretary respectively. 

The Congress and Exhibition were under the patronage of His Majesty 
the King of Italy, and the presidency of his royal highness the Duke of 
Genoa, patronized also by the mayor of Venice, Count Dante Serego 
AUighieri, Senator Prince Giuseppe Giovanelli, of Venice, and by the 
two "presidenti fondatori" of the Italian Geographical Society, "Comm." 
Cristoforo Negri, and "tl. E. Comm." Correnti. 

Venice, the "City of the Sea," a place of prime and central impor- 
tance when geography as a science was in its infancy, and the theater of 
the known world was largely confined to the countries bordering the 
Mediterranean, was selected by the central or permanent committee ap- 
pointed at the second meeting at Paris, in 1875, as the latter had been 
chosen by a like committee constituted at the first Geographical Congress 
and Exhibition at Antwerp, in 1871. 

DIVISIONS OF CONGRESS AND EXHIBITION. 

The Congress and Exhibition both were divided into eight classes, fol- 
lowing the order of importance of the subjects which as a whole constitute 
geography, as follows: 

1. Mathematical geography, geodesy, and topography. 

2. Hydrography. 

3. Physical geography, meteorology, geology, mineralogy, paleon- 
tology, zoology, and botany 



DIVISIONS OF CONGRESS AND EXHIBITfON. 19 

4. Anthropology, archaeology, ethnography, ethnology, and philology. 

5. Historical geography. 

6. Economical geography, commercial and statistical. 

7. Methods of" teaching and diffusion of geography. 

8. Explorations and travels. 

The general sessions were held in the senate chamber of the Doge's 
Palace, the grand hall having been pronounced unsafe because of repairs 
then being made to its foundations. 

The Congress was composed of honorary, effective, adhering, and 
other members to the number of 1,178, as follows: 



Honorary 117 

Effective 243 

Adhering 522 

Others 296 

1,178 

Among the honorary members was noticed (from the United States) 
the name of Brig, and Bvt. Maj. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, late Chief of Engi- 
neers, U. S. Army. 

The general management of the Congress was intrusted to a commit- 
tee composed of the president of the Congress, of the president and vice- 
presidents of the organizing committee, two delegates from the city of 
Venice, and the principal representative from each of the several Govern- 
ments. 

Fifty-eight questions had been prepared for submission to the Con- 
gress before its sessions began, which number was increased during the 
interval, and votes were taken upon forty-seven of the subjects embraced. 

Commodore C. H. Baldwin, U. S. Navy, was present, appearing as 
delegate from the Navy Department and also the American Geographical 
Society. 

Near the close of the last day's session Mr. McWalter B. Noyes received 
a telegram from Washington, announcing his appointment as assistant 
commissioner; too late, however, to participate in the proceedings. 

The American Geographical Society was represented also by Judge 
Charles P. Daly, its president; Bvt. Maj. Gen. G. W. Cullum, first vice-presi- 



20 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

dent; William Lee Howard; General S. W. Crawford, U. S. Army; Pro- 
fessor Botta, Whitelaw Reid, and Judge C. H. Peabody, of New York City. 

The following gentlemen were appointed as delegates from the Amer- 
ican Metrological Society and Canadian Institute: Prof. F. A. P. Barnard, 
President of Columbia College, New York City, of the foi'mer, and Brig. 
Gen. W. B. Hazen, Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army, and Sandford Flem- 
ing, chancellor of Queen's University, Toronto, of both. 

Mr. Fleming was present; Pi'esident Barnard was represented by Judge 
Daly; and, at the request of General Hazen, 1 presented a communica- 
tion upon the subject of a common initial meridian and uniform time- 
reckoning, with regard to which these delegates had been commissioned. 

The following distinguished Americans attended the meetings of the 
Congress: Stephen J Field, Associate Justice of the United States Su- 
preme Court; Hon. David Dudlo}'' Field, New York City; and General L. 
Palma di Cesnola, director of the American Museum in New York City, was 
also present. 

Representatives appeared from twenty-nine distinct nationalities, the 
combined area cf which embraces three-fifths of the land surface of the 
globe, and the population of which comprises more than three-fourths of 
the earth's inhabitants. There was a representation from thirty-six geo- 
graphical and forty-four other societies, academies of science, and institu- 
tions of learning, independent of those contributing to the exhibition. 

The Third International Geographical Congress was formally opened 
at 10 a. m. of September l(i, in presence of the King and Queen of Italy 
and suite; the Prince of Naples and Duke of Aosta; the mayor of Venice; 
the patriarch of Venice and suite; the Prince of Teano and Prince Giova- 
nelli; Baron de Lesseps; the ministers of war, navy, and public instruction 
of Italy; Baron Negri; the presidents of various geogi'aphical societies; 
commissioners and delegates from foreign Governments; consuls residing at 
Venice ; special representatives of the Senate and Chamber of Deputies of 
Italy; other senators and deputies of Italy and notables from various parts 
of the world ; other members of the Congress, including eminent geogra- 
phers and a number of African explorers ; and representatives of the press. 

The size of the hall precluded the attendance of guests by invitation 



RESOLDTTONS OF THE CONGRESS. 21 

A speech ot" g-reeting' was made by Monsieur de Lesseps, the president 
of the central committee, who announced the Congress open; whicli was 
responded to by Prince Teano, the acting president, followed by Count 
Dante Allighieri, mayor of Venice. The formation of the groups was 
announced and the work of the Congress distributed prior to the adjourn- 
ment of this the opening session. 

The following explorers, &c., were present: 

Nachtigal, Cameron, Burton, Massari, Rohlfs, Serpa Pinto, and 
Schweinfui'th, African explorers. 

Messrs. Vambery and Richthofen, Asiatic travelers and investigators. 

Messrs Behm, Wagner, and Ball, geographical writers. 

Dr. Schliemann, the excavator of Grecian antiquities. 

The Government representatives numbered many from those connected 
with the large establishments for geographic and topographic survey already 
so well advanced and brought to so high a state of perfection in Europe. 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE CONGRESS. 

The Prince of Teano, acting president, at the session of September 21, 
expressed the grief experienced upon learning of the death of President 
Garfield, in the following terms: 

Third International Geographical Congress.— Extract from the" cowpie- 
rciiiiu" of the general session of September 21, 1881. 

[Trauslation from tlio Italian.] 

Prince of Teano. This Congress has received the sad news of the death of Mr. 
Garfiekl, President of the Republic of the United States of America. Although this 
event was foreseen, nevertheless it has shocked and grieved us deeply. 1 think that 
from a cosmopolitan assembly such as ours, representing science and progress, a cry of 
anguish must go forth today. Let us express the hope that our work and our efforts 
may contribute to cancel forever from history these dark pages that dishonor humanity. 
[Applause.] 

Count Schio. In reply to the noble expressions of Prince Teano, which all of us 
heartily applaud, let it be proposed to send a telegram in the name of tlii.s Congress to 
the United States Government. 

The President. 1 think it unnecessary to put the proposition of Count Schio 
to the vote. It shall at once be carried out. f Applause.' 



22 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

[Copy of telegram. ] 

To Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 

Washington, United States : 
The International Congress of Geographers express sympathy with United States 
for death of President. 

Tbano, 

President. 
Received at Washington September 21, 1881. 

Simultaneously the following telegram was sent by me to the honor- 
able James G. Blaine, the Secretary of State: 

Blaine, Washington : 

International Geographical Congress passed nnanimously resolutions of sym- 
pathy for America's loss. 

Wheeler. 

Received at Washington September 21, 1881. 

The following is a copy of the telegraphic response from the State 
Department : 

Prince Teano, 

President Geographical Congress, Venice: 
Sorrowing family and American people most grateful for tender sympathy mani- 
fested in your telegram. 

HiTT, 

Acting Secretary. 

During the general session of September 20, Baron Negri proposed to 
send an attestation of homage to His Majesty the King of the Belgians, and 
special thanks to the very meritorious promoters of geographical exploration, 
Bennett, Dickson, Wilczek, Borghese, and Baron von Mueller, and during 
that of the 21st, Dr. Nachtigal, the African explorer, and the general secre- 
tary recalled the attention of the Congress to the second expedition sent 
out by the Grovernment of the United States in search of the Jeannette, and 
proposed a vote of praise to James Gordon Bennett, which was approved. 

During the general session of September 2 i , a communication was read 
by Massari, the companion of Matteucci, deceased, giving an account of 
their African journeyings. The subject of African and polar explorations 
received special attention in Group 8, as will appear in the '^proces-verbal" 
and ^' com^ite-rendu" of the group, apart from the act of the general sessions. 



INITIAL MERIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 23 

Certain votes taken by the Congress according to groups are here- 
with, viz : 

Group I. — After the discussion in this group of question 2 (What is 
the actual condition of the telegraphic determinations of differences of lon- 
gitude?), the following proposition was arrived at, viz : 

No. 2. The Geographical Congress issues the vote that in the coming 
Congress there may be caused to be presented statistics upon the determi- 
nation of telegraphic differences of longitude. It expresses, moreover, the 
desire that this labor may be confided to the Military Topographical Insti- 
tute of Italy. 

The following is vote No. 10: 

The Geograplaical Congress expresses the wish that all the nations that 
are not yet inscribed in the International Geodetic Association may take 
steps to join it. 

COMMON INITIAL MERIDIAN AND UNIFORM STANDARD TIME. 

The following vote (No. 19) regarding the establishment of a common 
initial meridian and uniform time reckoning, more than any other action of 
the Congress, interests the United States : 

[Translation from the Italian,] 

No. 19. The first group expresses the vote that the Governments may 
appoint an international commission, within a year, for the purpose of con- 
sidering the subject of an initial meridian, taking account not alone of the 
question of longitude, but especially that of hours and dates. 

This commission should be composed of scientific members, such as 
geodesists and geographers and of persons representing the interests of 
commerce, learning, &c. 

The president of the Italian Geographical Society is asked to take the 
necessary steps looking to the realization of this vote with his Government 
and foreign geographical societies. 

This vote was obtained through the exertions of Judge Daly, Mr. 
Fleming, and myself, after a discussion of the subject, in which repre- 
sentatives from eleven countries took part. This vote followed also the 
motion of the American delegates acting in concert, and at time of the 



24 INTERNATIONAL GEOGEAPniGAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

presentation of the papers herewitli, and marked A and B, together with 
the joint resolutions found in Paper C, agreed upon after a personal consul- 
tation among the American delegates at Venice. 

Paper A.* 

Resolutions offered to the International Geographical Congress at Venice, by Judge Charles 
P. Daly, for President F. A. P. Barnard, delegate from the American Metrological 
Society. 

Wbereas, since tlie creation of a vast system of artificial lines and rapid transit 
and telegraphic couiinunication, extending through wide diflerences of longitude upon 
both continents, great confusion in time reckoning has arisen in consequence of the 
use throughout the same districts of conntrj' of the dift'ering times of many local me- 
ridians; and 

Whereas the actual time in use at any place is generally arbitrary and at vari- 
ance, often by many minutes, with the true local time of such place ; and 

Whereas such differences between true and arbitrary time are in no way practi- 
cally disadvantageous in the affairs of life, when universally understood and observed; 
and 

Whereas it is practicable, by referring the time of all places on the globe to a 
limited number of meridians suitably chosen, to create a time system for the world 
so nearly uniform that the minute and the second shall be everywhere the same, and 
the time of places widely differing in longitude shall differ only by entire hours — a 
system of great simplicity, and likely to be conducive to the convenience of all man- 
kind: Therefore, 

Resolved, That this Congress approves and recommends to the favorable consid- 
eration of the Governments of all nations, as well as to all scientific associations, 
chambers of commerce, boards of trade, and telegraphic and transportation comjia- 
nies, a time system for the world, founded on the following principles : 

1. Twenty -four standard meridians to be fixed upoTi, distant from each other fif- 
teen degrees, or one hour each, in longitude, to which, and to which only, the arbitrary 
local time kept at all places on the earth's surface shall be referred. 

2. The prime meridian, or that by reference to which the positions of all the 
remaining one-hour meridians are to be determined, to be the meridian situated in 
longitude one hundred and eighty degrees, or twelve hours, distant from the meridian 
of Greenwich, which prime meridian passes near Behriugs Straits and lies almost 
wliolly on the ocean. 

3. The diurnal change of count in the monthly calendar to begin when it is mid- 
night on this prime meridian, and ttie same change to take place for the several 
meridians successively, until the circuit of the globe has been comi>leted from east to 
west. 

*Tliis p.aper is found printed in full in Volume II of Publications of tlie Congress, pages 7 to 9, 
inelusive. 



INITIAL MERIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 25 

4. The hour of the day iit aii.> place to be regulated by the staudard meridian 
nearest such place in longitude — it being reckoned as 12 o'clock noon at the moment 
the mean sun passes such standard meridian; the minute and second to be the same 
at all times and lor all places throughout the earth. ' 

5. The hours of the day to be numbered from one to twenty-four without inter' 
rui)tion, and the division of the day into two halves, of twelve hours each, to be aban- 
doned. 

G. For special purposes, as with a view to promote exactness in chronology, and 
to facilitate syndironous observations in sci(Mu;e, the day and the time of day as de 
termiued by the prime meridian to be emi)loyed as a kind of universal time reckoning, 
under the name of cosmopolitan time. 

7. For the sake of distinction, the hours of cosmopolitan time to be denoted by 
.symbols and not by luimbers, and preferably by the letters of the English alphabet, 
taken in their order, which, omitting J and V, are twenty-four in number; these 
letters being also associated with the standard meridians, in regular order from east 
to west, so that F corresponds to the 90° meridian, passing near Calcutta; M to the 
Greenwich meridian of 180°; S to the meridian of New Orleans, 270°, and Z to the 
I)rime or zero meridian. 

Papek B.* 

Resolutions offered to the International Geographieal Congress at Venice, by Gapt. George 
M. Wheeler, for General William B. Hazen, delegate from the American Metrological 
Society. 

Whereas it is the province of the National Government to establish, prescribe, and 
legalize aH the standards of measurement to be adopted in their relations with the 
people in the collection of revenue, the management of post offices, the protection 
against storms, the conduct of railways, telegraphs, &c. ; and 

Whereas the time indicated by watches and clocks is an artificial invention and 
convenience, intended to facilitate intercourse between men, and has very little to do 
with the rising and setting or meridian transit of the sun; and 

Whereas it is perfectly easy for large sections of any country to abandon the 
attempt to adopt local mean time in the strict astronomical sense of the word, and to 
abolish the differences thereby introduced into the indications of clocks and watches; 
and 

Whereas the adoption of different local time leads to confusion and mistakes, and 
is utterly impracticable in the conduct of railways, telegraphs, and transportation 
companies (who have already, in many cases, abandoned such local times); and 

Whereas the actual time in use at any place can only become accurate by being 
regulated from an astronomical observatory, which regulation can be easily effected 
at any distance by means of the telegra))h ; and 

Whereas the adoption of one uniform time will especially conduce to the advance- 
ment of the study of the atmosphere, earthquakes, meteors, auroras, storms, and other 
important natural phenomena, more or less affecting human interests: Therefore, 

* See ViilniiiP II, Piilili<atiiin8 of Congress, pages 18 and 19. 



26 INTERNATIONAL GEOGEAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

Be it resolved,, That this association approves and recommends to the favorable con- 
sideration of the Governments of all nations, as well as to all commercial organizations 
and all scientific associations, the following international time system: 

1. That the prime meridian be that situated 180° or 12 hours distant from the 
meridian of Greenwich, which prime meridian lies almost wholly on the Pacific Ocean. 

2. That clocks and watches throughout the world be regulated by the times proper 
to this meridian, or to such meridians as are precisely one or more whole hours distant 
therefrom, so that the minutes and seconds shall be the same at all times and at all 
places throughout the earth. 

3. That each country adopt as its secondary meridian one that will, as far as pos- 
sible, accommodate the largest part of its area; thus, for the whole of North and South 
America, the 90th meridian would be acceptable. 

4. That the civil day begin with midnight on this prime meridian, and with the 
succeeding midnights on the secondary meridians, proceeding westward with tlie sun, 
until the circuit of the globe has been completed. 

5. That the hours of the day be numbered consecutively from at midnight to 
24 or at the succeeding midnight, and the division of the civil day into a. m. and p. 
m. be abandoned. 

Paper C* 

Resolutions offered by Hon. Sandford Fleming, and as agreed to by American delegates at 

Venice. 

1. Resolved, That the unification of initial meridians of reference for computing 
longitude is of great importance in the interests of geography and navigation. 

2. Resolved, That the selection of a zero meridian for the world would greatly pro- 
mote the cause of general uniformity and exactness in time reckoning. 

3. Resolved, That in the interests of all mankind it is eminently desirable that civ- 
ilized nations should come to an agreement with respect to the determination of a 
common prime meridian, and a system of universal time reckoning. 

4. Resolved, That the Governments of different countries be appealed to, immedi- 
ately alter the close of this Congress, with the view of ascertaining if they are disposed 
to assist in the matter by nominating persons to confer with each other, and endeavor 
to reach a conclusion which they would recommend their respective Governments to 
adopt. 

5. Resolved, That in view of the representations which have come to this Congress 
from America, it is suggested that a conference of delegates, who may be appointed 
by the different Governments, be held in the city of Washington, and that the confer- 
ence open on the first Monday in May, 1883. 

6. Resolved, That the gentlemen whose names follow be an executive committee 
to make arrangements for the proposed meeting of delegates, and to take such steps as 
may seem expedient in furtherance of the objects of these resolutions; and that all 
communications in respect thereof be transmitted to — 

General W.B.Hazen, Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D.C.; Dr. F. A. P. Barnard 
president American Metrological Society, New York; Capt. George M. Wheeler, Corps 

* See Vol. II, Publications of Congress, pages 10 to 19, inclusive. 



INITIAL MERIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 27 

of Eiiginoeis, United States Army, Wasliiiigtou, D. G. ; Chief Justice 0. P. Daly, presi- 
dent Americau Geographical Society, New York ; Associate Justice Stepheu J. Field, U. 
S. Sui)reme Court, Washington, D. C. ; General (r. W. Cullum, vice-president Amer- 
ican Geographical Society, New York; JudgeCharles A. Peabody, American Geograph- 
ical Society, New York; Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Army Signal Office, Washington, D. 
C, chairman of committee of American Metrological Society on Standard Time; 
Hon. David Dudlej' Field, Americau Geographical Society, New York; James H. 
Francis, president American Society of Civil Engineers, Boston; Dr. Daniel Wilson, 
president of Toronto University, Toronto; John Langton, president of the Canadian 
Institute, Toi'outo; Saudford Fleming, chancellor of Queen's University of Canada, 
Ottawa, Canada. 

7. Resolved, That the Italian Government be respectfully requested to communi- 
cate these resolutions to the Governments of all other countries. 

This vote (No. 19), of Group I, having been brought before the general 
session, it was decided that no further action was necessary than the adop- 
tion of the recommendation of the group in the proceedings of the Congress. 

The president of the Congress Jiaving communicated tliis decision to 
Prince Teano, president of the Italian society, he at once requested the 
minister of foreign affairs for Italy to communicate the subject to all other 
Governments, with an invitation to appoint delegates, after which, in case 
of a favorable response from a sufficient number of Governments, there will 
alone remain the necessity of fixing time and place, all of which is in the 
hands of the president of the Italian Geographical Society, who informs 
me also that the attention of foreign geographical societies, academies of 
science, &c., was called to the matter. 

The communications of Professor Barnard, presented by Judge Daly, 
with his remarks, of General Hazen, presented by me, and of Sandford 
Fleming, are published in full in the printed proceedings of the Congress. 

It is learned that the action of the Geographical Congress on this point 
was communicated through the diplomatic channels of the Italian Govern- 
ment to the various geographical societies of the world. 

The principal propositions that had been made on the subject at the 
date of the discussions at Venice may be briefly summarized as follows: 

1. The establishment of one uniform standard time common to the whole globe, 
for the uses of railways, telegraphs, and steamboats, for all purposes of commerce, for 
synchronous and other scientific observations, to iiromote exactness iu chronology, and 
for every usual local requirement. 

2. This standard time to be based on a single unit, measured between two con- 
secutive mean solar passages over an initial meridian, to be common to all nations, to 
be used for all measured intervals of longitude, time, and all other needful purposes. 



28 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

3. The greater number of suggestions point to an initial meridian passing through 
Greenwich, measuring directly therefrom, or from a point 180° distant in longitude. 

4. This unit to be divided into 24 equal parts, or hours numbered in a single 
series from 1 to 24, and the hours to be subdivided as ordinary hours into minutes and 
seconds, to be defined by standard hour meridians, 15 degrees apart, which as well as 
all longitudes to be measured around the globe from east to west. 

5. Thesestandard meridians to bedenoted by the 24 letters of the English alphabet, 
omitting J and V.* The zero meridian to be lettered Z; the balance to be lettered in 
order from east to west, commencing with A. 

6. This unit of hours to be known and held as a day absolute and designated an 
universal or cosmopolitan t day. 

7. Cosmopolitan standard to be distinguished from local standard time by denot- 
ing the hours of the former by letters corresponding to the 24 standard time meridians 
and of the latter by numerals. 

8. Local time reckoning or standard time for a given place to be regulated by the 
standard hour meridian nearest in longitude or most convenient, it being reckoned 12 
o'clock noon at the moment the mean sun passes such standard meridian ; the minutes 
and seconds to be the same at all times for all places throughout the earth. 

9. The local standard day denoting the diurnal change of count in the monthly 
calendar to commence 12 hours before and end 12 hours after the (mean) solar passage 
at the standard hour meridian governing the time at the place, and the local standard 
time to be known by the letter of this particular standard hour meridian. 

10. Instead of dividing the day into halves of 12 hours each, as at present, two 
alternative plans have been suggested : 

First. To have one series of hours from midnight to midnight, numbered, con- 
secutively, from 1 to 24. 

Second. To number the hours from midnight to noon, as now, from 1 to 12, de- 
noting the hours from noon to midnight by alphabetical letters. 

11. Standard time to be determined and disseminated under governmental au- 
thority. 

12. Each city and town of importance to have a public time-signal station, elec- 
trically connected with a central observatory, from which all railway, telegraph, and 
public time clocks shall be controlled and checked. 

At the close of the first session of the Forty-seventh Congress an act 
looking to the establishment of a conference was passed, as follows : 

An act to authorize the President of the United States to call an international con- 
ference to fix on and recommend for universal adoption a common prime meridian, 
to be used in the reckoning of longitude and in the regulation of time through- 
out the world. 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
Amtrica in Congress ay.semblcil, That the President of the United States be authorized 
and requested to extend to the Governments of all nations in diplomatic relations with 
our own an invitation to appoint delegates to meet delegates from the United States in 



' Numtirals instead of letters were siibse(iueutly suggesDed for the time or hour meridians. 
tThe word "cosmic" has been suggested as a suhsfitnfe for " eosiiiopolitaii." 



INITIAL MERIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 29 

the city of Washington, at such time as he may sco lit to designate, for tlie imii)ose ot 
lixiuu' upon a meridian proper to be emi)loyed as a common zero of lougitude and 
standard of time reckoning throughout the globe; and that the President be authorized 
to appoint delegates, uot exceeding throe in number, to represent theUuited States in 
such iuternational confereuce. 
Approved, August 3, 18813. 

Comnuinications on this subject were made at Venice by eleven dele- 

o-ates from six different coitntries, all of which will appear in the published 

proceedings. This subject has engaged the attention of the International 

Congress for "the Codification of the Law of Nations, held at Cologne in 

August, 1881, and subsequently at Liverpool in 1882. 

A permanent committee of the American Metrological Society has the 
matter in hand, as likewise committees of the American Society of Civil En- 
(rineers and American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal 
Society of Canada, and the Canadian Institute. The International Institution 
for Preserving and Perfecting Weights and Measures, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
have the subjectunder consideration, and communications regarding it appear 
in the published proceedings of the geographical societies of Madrid, Paris, 
Geneva, and Berlin, while the American Geographical Society have taken 
steps to assist in the establishment of an international commission. Profes- 
sors Struve, of St. Petersburg, and Forster, of Berlin, both eminent astron 
omers, have given it their attention, and have favored the adoption of a 
sino-le initial meridian and a scheme for uniform time reckoning referred to a 
common standard; Professor Struve, however, pointing out the obstacles 
from a practical point of view of the latter. 

Geographical co-ordinates as a means of defining the positions of given 
points upon the earth's surface were first suggested by Hipparchus, "the 
founder of Astronomy," who also reckoned the twenty-four hours, or day 
intervals, from midnight to midnight. 

The desirability of adopting a uniform time was agitated as long since 
as 1828 by Sir John Herschel, who proposed the adoption of equinoctial 
time for scientific and chronological purposes; while among modern astrono- 
mers La Place seems to have been the first (abovtt the year 1800) to point 
out the utility of the establishment of a common initial or first meridian in 
the following terms: " It is desirable that all the nations of Europe, in place 



30 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

of arranging geographical longitude from their own observatories, should 
agree to compute it from the same meridian, one indicated by nature her- 
self, in order to determine it for all time to come. Such an arrangement 
would introduce into the science of geography the same uniformity which 
is already enjoyed in the calendar and the arithmetic, and, extended to the 
numerous objects of their mutual relations, would make of the diverse peo- 
ples one family only." 

Col. Sir Henry James, Royal Military Engineers, director-general of 
the topographical department of the English War Office, recommended the 
adoption of a first meridian and an uniform system for maps for all nations 
in 1868, suggesting that of Greenwich (see publication of Ordnance Survey 
on the rectangular tangential projection). 

It is understood also that it has engaged the consideration of a number 
of learned societies on the Continent, while in America, in addition to bodies 
named, the Time Convention of Railway Superintendents has the subject 
seriously under discussion, guided by the practical needs of railway con- 
nections and time correspondence. 

As time advances the benefits of a single meridian of reference for all 
geographical as well as nautical maps and charts of continental areas will 
become more and inore obvious. 

Upon examining specimens of the extended general topographical map 
series of Europe fourteen separate and independent meridians of reference 
are found: (1) Greenwich, for the United Kingdom and India; (2) Paris, 
for France, Algeria, and Switzerland; (3) Lisbon, for Portugal; (4) Rome, 
for Italy; (5) Amsterdam, for Holland; (6) Isle of Ferro, westernmost of 
the Canaries, for Prussia, Saxony, Wurtemberg, and Austria; (7) Ferro and 
Christiana, for Norway; (8) Copenhagen, for Denmark; (9) Madrid, for 
Spain;* (10) Stockholm and Ferro, for Sweden; (11 and 12) Ferro, Pul- 
kowa, Warsaw, and Paris, for Russia; (13) Brussels, for Belgium; and (14j 
Munich, for Bavaria. 

Both Greenwich and Washington, principally the former, have been 
used for maps of land areas in the United States. The meridian of Green- 

* Spain at different epochs has counted longitude from no less than eleven distinct and separate 
meridians. 



INITIAL MERIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 31 

wicli is used on the Government marine charts of England, and India, 
Prussia, Austria, Russia, Holland, Sweden nnd Norway, Denmark, and the 
United States; while France employs Paris; Spain, Cadiz; Portugal, Lis- 
bon, and Naples is found on some Italian as well as likewise Pulkowa on 
certain Russian hydrographic charts. As will be seen from the above, for 
the greater part of the nautical charts of the world the meridian of Green- 
wich has been taken, the British Admiralty issuing more of these charts than 
any single nation. 

After the introduction of geographical co-ordinates for defining and fixing 
terrestrial positions, the meridian of reference first used to any great extent 
was a principal meridian assumed as passing through the most westerly of 
the group of Fortunate Islands (now known as the Canaries), supposed then 
to be the most westerly land in the known world; but the co-ordinates of this 
point were not established except by arbitrary assumption of distance from 
the astronomical observatory at Alexandria, which substantially enjoys the 
distinction of being the first well-authenticated meridian of reference. 

As nautical and astronomical tables came into more general use a 
number of meridians of reference were established, as at Toledo, Cracow, 
Uranibourg, Copenhagen, Goes, Pisa, Nuremberg, Augsburg, London, 
Paris, Rome, Greenwich, Washington, Vienna, Ulm, Berhn, Tubingen, 
Venice, Bologna, Rouen, Dant/ig, Stockholm, St. Petersburg, &c. 

The connection of the meridians of the astronomical observatories at the 
several places thus established has, since the introduction of the telegraphic 
methods of time comparison, been made in many cases with great accuracy, 
and can now be ascertained for all, so that the probable errors of the differ- 
ences of longitude have been or can be rendered inappreciable ; and hence, 
with more than former certainty, in the above tables reference can be made 
to a single meridian in all the publications, and their common value height- 
ened and uses simplified. 

One of the delegates from France advocated, in addition to the estab- 
lishment of uniform time, and an initial meridian, a metrical division of both 
time and arc, as well as calendar divisions; a step in advance, but as yet 
perhaps somewhat premature. 



32 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

The following publications on this subject have already come to my 
attention, some of which have been consulted : 

1. System of National Time, by Prof. Chas. F. Dowd, Saratoga, N. Y. Pamphlet. 
8°. pp. 107. 1870. 

2. Adoption of a Prime Meridian. Prof. Otto Struve, before the Geographical 
Society of S-t. Petersburg, February 4, 1870, reproduced also in the Bulletin of the 
Paris Geographical Society, sixth series, Vol. IX, 1875, pp. 46-64. 

3. Adoption of a common meridian. Proceedings (Compte rendu) of the First 
International Geographical Congress and Exhibition at Antwerp, 1871. Tome I, pp. 
176, 183, 206, 389. Tome II, pp. 234, 254. 

4. Prime meridian. Proceedings (Compte rendu) of the Second International 
Congress of Geographical Sciences at Paris, 1875. Tome I, pp. 29, 30, 33-4-5, 61. 
Tome II, pp. 38, 401. 

5. Memoir on Terrestrial Time, by Sandford Fleming. 8°. 37 pp. London, 1876. 
French translation. Paris, 1878. 

6. Proceedings of the American Metrological Society, Vols. 1,11, III, and IV. 
New York, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, and 1^3. 

7. Papers on Time Reckoning, &c. Sandford Flemiug. Toronto, 1879. Pam 
phlet. 8o. pp. 63. 

8. Time Reckoning and Prime Meridian, by Sandford Fleming, before Canadian 
Institute, January, 1879. Republished pamphlet. 8°. 68 pp. 1880. 

9. Regulation of Time, &c., before the Association for the Reform and Codification 
of the Law of Nations. Prof. F. A. P. Barnard. Pami^hlet. 8°. pp. 16. Loudon, 1881. 

10. The Adoption of a Prime Meridian, &c. Sandford Fleming. Venice, 1881. 
Pamphlet. 8°. pp. 14. 

11. Discussion of current problems, especially as regards the establishmeut of a 
German standard time. (Die Beurtheilung einiger Zeitfrageu, iusbesondere gegen die 
Einfiihrung einer deutschen Normalzeit. Deutsche Revue, 1881, Nos. 3 and 4, Prof. 
W. Forster, Berlin.) 

12. Remarks upon a common normal time by Dr. G. V. Boguslawski. Journal of 
Berlin Geographical Society. 1881. 

13. Remarks upon Cosmopolitan Time and Universal Prime Meridian (Cueuta de 
Tiempo Cosmopolita, Prima Meridien Universel), Don Juan Pastoria, Lieutenant-Com 
niander, Spanish Navy. Madrid, April 30, 1881. 84 pp. 

14. Essay upon the adoption of a single initial meridian, presented to the Geo- 
graphical Congress at Nancy, by Bouthillier de Beaumont, President Geographical 
Society of Geneva. Pamphlet. (See Vol. 1, Proceedings of Venice Geographical Con 
gress. " Rome, 1882. pp.172.) 

15. Extract from Transactions of New York Academy of Sciences, January 16, 
1882. Professor Eees, International Time. 8°. pp. 8. 

16. Standard Time, &c., before American Society Civil Engineers, March, 1882. 
Pamphlet. 8°. pp. 34. 

17. Regulation of Time, before Royal Society of Canada, March, 1882. 

18. Report of Special Committee, American Society of Civil Engineers, May 17, 
1882. 8°. pp. 3. 

19. Committee on Standard Time of the Association for the Eetbrm aud Codifica- 
tion of the Laws of Nations. Pamphlet, pp. 20, June 16, 1882. 



INITIAL MEEIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 33 

20. Letter of Saudford Fleming to the American Association for the Advaucement 
of Science, August, 1882. Pamphlet, pp. 120. 

21. Gonnnou initial meridian and uniform standard time. Proceedings of Third 
hiteruatioual Geographical Congress at Venice, Italy. (Terzo Congresso Geograflco In- 
ternazionale.) Rome, 1882. Vol. I, pp. 243-248, 392, 397; Vol. II, pp. 7-22, 591-595. 

22. Remarks upon Standard Time. Bulletin of Antwerp Geographical Society 
1882. By Colonel Wauveruians, President. 

23. Papers on Initial Meridian and Standard Time. Bulletin of Belgian Geo- 
graphical Society. By Colonel Adan, Director of Royal Military Academy, Brussels. 

24. Examination of scheme of time reform by Feidinando Borsari, at the request 
of the Italian Geographical Society, Naples, 1883. pp. 62. 

25. Proceedings and results of the International Meridian Conference held at 
Washington, D. C, October, 1884. (House Ex. Doc. No. 14, 48th Cong., 2d sess.) The 
above was also printed in English and French uuder the auspices of the Conference. 

26. Paper on Universal or Cosmic Time, read by Mr. Sandford Fleming before the 
Canadian Institute, December 20, 1884. Pamphlet. 8°. pp. 24. (See Proceedings of 
the Canadian Institute, 3d series. Vol. III.) 

27. Universal or Cosmic Time, by Saudford Fleming, C. E., C. M. G., «&c. Pro- 
ceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, 1884, 3d series. Vol. Ill, Fasciculus, No. 
2, pp. 101. 

A series of papers have appeared during 1884 on this subject, in the International 
i<tandard, published at Cleveland, Ohio, contributed by the following gentlemen con- 
nected with the International Institute : Prof. C. Piazzi Smith, Astronomer Royal for 
Scotland; Prof. John N. Stockwell, Astronomer, Cleveland; Commodore William B. 
Whiting, U. S. Navy; Mr. Jacob M. Clark, C. E., New York; Mr. Charles Latimer, 
C. E., Cleveland ; and others. 

At a meeting of the General Time Convention of Railway Superin- 
tendents and Managers at Saint Louis, Mo, April 11, 1883, the following 
resolutions regarding a uniform time standard, based on hour differences, 
presented by the secretary, Mr. W. F. Allen, were adopted : 

Resolved, That this convention recommends the adoption of the following as the 
future standards for the use of the railway lines of the country: 

1st. That all roads now using Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Toronto, 
Hamilton, or Washington time as standard, based upon meridians east of those points 
or adjacent thereto, shall be governed by the 75th Meridian or Eastern time (4 minutes 
slower than New York time). 

2d. That all roads now using Columbus, Savannah, Atlanta, Cincinnati, Louisville, 
Indianapolis, Chicago, Jefferson City, Saint Paul, or Kansas City time, or standards 
based upon meridians adjacent thereto, shall be run by the 90th Meridian time, to be 
called Central Time (one hour slower than Eastern Time and nine minutes slower than 
Chicago Time). 

3d. That west of the above-named sections the roads shall be run by the 105th and 

120th meridian times, respectively two and three hours slower than Eastern Time. 

• • • ' # * » • 

Note. — Time referred to 105th Meridian is designated Mountain Standard Time; 
that referred to 120th Meridian, the Pacific Standard Time. 
1366 WH 3 



34 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

The same resolutions were also adopted at the General Time Conven- 
tion at New York City, April 18, 1883. This system of time standards was 
approved for adoption by the association of American Railroad Superin- 
tendents at their meeting in Chicago, May 28 and 29, 1883, while at the 
meeting of October 11, 1883, roads aggregating 78,158 miles had agreed 
to the adoption of these standards, and the system went generally into 
effect November 18, 1883.* The 75th meridian time was adopted as the 
standard for the District of Columbia by act approved March 13, 1884, 
while certain departments anticipating legislative action have made use of 
the same standard,t as also the Signal Service at its several widely sepa- 
rated stations. 

From the important action taken at the Venice Congress (which was 
communicated to the Italian Government by Prince Teano, president of the 
Italian Geographical Society at Rome, and thence to foreign Governments, 
as well as scientific societies), appears to have sprung the discussion at the 
meeting of the Seventh General Conference of the International Geodetic 
Association, in Rome, Italy, in October, 1883, where resolutions to the fol- 
lowing eff"ect were adopted: 

The unification of longitude and time is desirable in the interest of science, navi- 
gation, commerce, and international communications; and the scientific and practical 
utility far surpasses the sacrifices necessary to attain it. A uniform system of longi- 
tudes, to be adopted by an international convention, is recommended for all institutes 
and geodetic bureaus, especially for geographic and hydrographic maps, as well as in 
all astronomical and nautical ephemerides, except where it is more convenient to 
retain a local meridian. For practical considerations the subject of the decimal divis- 
ion of the quadrant should be kept apart from the measure of unification proposed, 
while it is recommended, pending the multiplication and perfection of tables, that this 
system be employed in the most important operations of numerical calculations, 
although the sexagesimal division be preserved for observations, and maps, in navi- 
gation, &c. It was proposed to select for an initial meridian, the one defined by 

* The above and similar additions have been introduced while proof-reading, June, 1885. 

tThe Naval Observatory on December 4, 1884, issued a General Order, announcing that on and 
after January 1, 1885, " the astronomical day shall be considered as beginning at midnight ;" this was 
suspended on December 29, 1884, in deference to the views of Prof. Simon Newcomb, the Superintendent 
of f he Nautical Almanac, until the Ephemerides are constructed in accordance with, and a general 
coucert of action had upon the recommendation of the late International Meridian Conference. (See 
Senate Ex. Doc. No. 78, 48th Cong., 2d sess.) Prof. Newcomb also takes the ground that the chauge 
should not be made at all, unless stronger reasons than those hitherto advanced are presented, and 
even then only at some common date agreed upon by all astronomers, the beginning of the coming 
century being suggested as a convenient epoch. (See Monti ly Notices of the Royal Ast. Soc, Vol. XLV, 
No. 3, January, 1885.) 



INITIAL MERIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 35 

the middle of tlic i)il]ar.s of the uicridian iiistrnmeut of the (xrceiiwicli Observatory, 
since that oue is at ])reseiit most widely employed. 

The CoiifereiU'i' recogiii/A'd, foreertaiii seieutific wants and for tiie internal admin- 
istration of railroad and steamship lines, telejiraph, and posts, the ntility of adopting 
a universal hour, besides local and national hours, which shall necessarily be employed 
in civil life, and the point of departure recommended for universal hours and cosmo- 
liolitan dates is the mean noon of Greenwich, which coincides with tlit^ instant of 
midnight, or the commencement of the civil day, at the meridian of 180° from Green- 
wich, the hours to be counted from to 24. 

It was decided to bring the resolutions to the knowledge and favorable consider- 
ations of the Governments, to the end that an international convention, dedicated to 
the unification, of longitudes and hours, may be speedily attained through a special 
conference, such as that proposed by the United States. 

The above abstract has been takeu from a copy (in French) of the 
resolutions of the association, furnished by the late Mr. R. D. Cutts, Assist- 
ant, United States Coast Survey, and delegate to the Convention at Rome. 

When a sufficient number of favorable responses to the State Depart- 
ment circular, growing out of the act of 1882, had been received, the Presi- 
dent issued invitations to an International Conference to which twenty-five 
countries responded by sending delegates. This International Meridian 
Conference, of which C. R. P. Rodgers was President, and R. Strachey, J. 
Janssen, and L. Cruls, were Secretaries, assembled at Washington, and 
adopted the following resolutions on October 22, 1884. (See House Ex. 
Doc. No. 14, Forty-eighth Congress, second session, pp. 111-113.) 

The President of the United States of America, in pursuance of a special pro- 
vision of Congress, having extended to the Governments of all nations in diplomatic 
relations with his own, an invitation to send delegates to meet delegates from the 
United States in the city of Washington, on the 1st of October, 1884, for the purpose 
of discussing, and, if possible, fixing upon a meridian proper to be employed as a 
common zero of longitude and standard of time-reckoning throughout the whole world, 
this International Meridian Conference assembled at the time and place designated, 
and, after careful and patient discussion, has passed the following resolutions : 

I. 

" That it is the opinion of this Congress that it is desirable to adopt a single prime 
meridian for all nations, in place of the multiplicity of initial meridians which now exist.^ 
This resolution was unanimously adopted. 

II. 

" That the Conference proposes to the Governments here represented the adoption of the 
meridian passing through the center of the transit instrument at the Observatory of Green- 
wich as the initial meridian for longitude.'" 



36 IKTEENATIOIS'AL GEOGRAPmCAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

The above resolutiou was adopted by the following vote: 

In the affirmative: Austria-Hnngaiy, Chili, Colombia, Costa Rica, Germany, 
Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, Italy, Japan, Liberia, Mexico, Netherlands, Para- 
guay, Russia, Salvador, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, Venezuela. 

In the negative: San Domingo. 

Abstaining from voting: Brazil, France. 

Ayes, 22; noes, 1; abstaining, 2. 

III. 

'' That from this meridian longitude shall be counted in two directions up to 180 
degrees, east longitude being plus and west longitude minus." 

This resolution was adopted by the following vote: 

In the affirmative : Chili, Colombia, Costa Rica, Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, 
Japan, Liberia, Mexico, Paraguay, Russia, Salvador, United States, Venezuela. 

In the negative: Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland. 

Abstaining from voting : Austria- Hungary, Brazil, France, Germany, San Do 
mingo, Turkey. 

Ayes, 14; noes, 5; abstaining, 6. 

IV. 

" That the Conference proposes the adoption of a universal day for all purposes for 
which it may be found convenient, and ichich shall not interfere with the use of local or 
other standard time ichen desirable." 

This resolution was adopted by the following vote: 

In the affirmative: Austria-Hungary, Brazil, Chili, Colombia, Costa Rica, France, 
Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, Italy, Japan, Liberia, Mexico, Netherlands, Para- 
guay, Russia, Salvador, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, Vene- 
-zuela. 

Abstaining from voting: Germany, San Domingo. 

Ayes, 23: abstaining, 2. 

V. 

" That this universal day is to be a mean solar day ; is to begin for all the world 
at the moment of mean midnight of the initial meridian, coinciding with the begin- 
ning of the civil day and date of that meridian ; and is to be counted from zero up to 
twenty-four hours." 

This resolution was adopted by the following vote: 

In the affirmative: Brazil, Chili, Colombia, Costa Rica, Great Britain, Guatemala, 
Hawaii, Japan, Liberia, Mexico, Paraguay, Russia, Turkey, United States, Venezuela. 

In the negative : Austria-Hungary, Spain. 

Abstaining from voting: France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, San Domingo, 
Sweden, Switzerland. 

Ayes, 15 ; noes, 2 ; abstaining, 7. 

VI. 

" That the Conference expresses the hope that as soon as may be practicable the astro- 
momical and nautical days will be arranged everywhere to begin at mean midnight." 
This resolution w^s carried without division. 



INITIAL MERIDIAN AND STANDARD TIME. 37 

VII. 

•' That the Conference expresses the hope that the technical studies designed to regulate 
and extend the application of the decimal system to the division of angular space and of 
time shall be resumed, so as to permit the extension of this applicaiion to all cases in which 
it presents real adrantages." 

The motion was adopted by the following vote: 

lu the affiriuative: Austria HuuH'ai'.V, Brazil, Chili, Colombia, Costa Eica, France, 
Great Britain, Hawaii, Italy, Jai»an, Liberia, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay, Russia, 
San Domingo, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, Venezuela. 

Abstaining from voting : Germany, Guatemala, Sweden. 

Aj^es, 21 ; abstaining, 3. 

References to the history of the movement in favor of time reform and 
a common initial meridian will be found in Vols. II and IV of the Proceed- 
ings of the American Metrological Society, and in the paper read by Mr. 
Fleming before the Canadian Institute in December, 1884. It is stated that 
Prof Charles Dovrd, of Saratoga, N. Y , was the first to present a plan for a 
national standard time based on hour differences in October, 1869. 

Prof Otto Struve presented a paper on the subject of a prime meridian 
to the Geographical Society of Russia on February 4, 1870, recommending 
from a geographical standpoint Grreenwich as a common meridian. 

The International Geographical Congress at Antwerp in 1871 recom- 
mended the adoption of the meridian of Greenwich for marine charts, but 
that each country, for coasting charts and maps of its own territory, should 
adhere to the meridian then already in use. One of the groups at the Inter- 
national Geographical Congress at Paris in 1875 took the view that action on 
the question of a prime meridian was not appropriate, expressing, however, 
the opinion and hope that a single meridian should be adopted, leaving the 
selection to an international commission. 

On May 19, 1875, the American Meteorological Society appointed a 
committee and adopted resolutions favoring action to secure the adoption 
of a uniform standard of time. 

In May, 1879, Professor Abbe, as chainnan, made a report embracing 
both meridian and time, referring to a suggestion originally made by Prof. 
Benjamin Peirce, as to standard meridians exactly four, five, and six hours 
west of Greenwich. (See Vol. II, Proceedings American Metrological So- 
ciety, p. 25 ) 

NOTK. — Material assistance in obtaining information has been furnished by Professors Barnard, 
Abbe, and Kees, Mr. Sandford Fleming, and also Mr. Sevellou Brown, chief clerk, State Department. 



38 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHIOAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

Professor Barnard, as president of the American Metrological Society, 
has taken a pronounced interest in the subject, presenting it to the Associa- 
tion for the Reform of the Laws of Nations in 1881 at Cologne Mr. Sand- 
ford Fleming appeared in behalf of the matter (about which he had hitherto 
written) in 1878, since which date he has been one of its most active supporters 

Mr. Beaumont, president of Geneva Geographical Society, and Pro- 
fessor Chancourtois, of the School of Mines, Paris, entered largely into the 
discussions at Venice. 

Standard time for railroad purposes seems first to have been formally 
acted upon at a convention of the Railway Association of America in May, 
1873, when it was deferred until the public interest should appear to cal' 
for it In October, 1881, at the General Railway Time Convention, thf 
whole subject was referred to the secretary (Mr W. F. Allen) for report 
By request he formulated the propositions arrived at in October, 18H2, and 
when presented to the General Time Convention at Saint Louis, April 11, 
1883, they were favorably received, adopted, and are now in general use 
for railroad purposes in the United States and Canada. 

Meanwhile Congress passed the act of August 3, 1882, legalizing the 
call for a meridian conference, whereupon circulars were issued by the State 
Department to all countries holding diplomatic relations with our own, to 
elicit comment and arrive at a common understanding, which latter being 
had, the conference of 1884 was called and held at Washington, with results 
as herein stated. 

A formulated proposition now awaits final adoption by the several 
Governments, the railway, steamboat, and telegraph lines, and the commu- 
nity at large. 

Only a crude outline of this important matter, with the data at dis- 
posal, has been attempted, in the hope that thereby may be awakened a 
wider interest wherever this report shall reach. Among others known to 
have contributed, and whose names are not found in the list of publications, 
are Mr. Christy, the English Astronorner Royal, as well as his predecessor. 
Sir G. B. Airy; Prof Piazzi Smith, Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Pro- 
fessor Thury, University of Geneva, and Monsieur Germain, Hydrographic 
Engineer, French Navy. 



RESOLUTIONS OF THE CONGRESS. 39 

The following votes may be found of special interest : 
Group 7. — Considering the importance of emigration, even as a geo- 
graphical fact, the Congress wishes : (a) That it may please the Governments 
to continue and develop statistical researches upon emigrations and immi- 
grations, distinguishing the permanent from the temporary, not confining 
them to the collection of numerical data, but pushing their researches to the 
examination of the causes of these movements and to their results, espe- 
cially in the view of commerce and navigation. 

***** 

Group 2. — No. 22. The second group utters the vote that all the Gov- 
ernments should secure the trigonometric data for the determination of the 
exact geographical position of the light-houses when these structures are 
established, and recommends to the maritime nations to examine and prove 
that the lights existing may be joined in a network of triangulation. 

No. 24. The third group desires that whenever magneto-meteorologic 
stations are established in the polar regions, after the plan of Monsieur 
Weyprecht, there be located also meteorological stations of inferior order, 
which may be connected with stations in middle latitudes, each in the same 
meridian, where observations have been made for several years. 

No. 27. The third group expresses the vote that the meteorological 
observations made on mountains, and, in general, at great altitudes, may 
be published "in extenso," relying above all upon the vote formulated by 
the ]\Ieteorological Congress at Rome upon the proposition of Dr. Hann. 

No. 29. The third group having learned with satisfaction that hereafter 
the observations of the supei-ficial temperature of the soil will be registered 
at the meteorological stations of Italy and France, expresses the wish that 
similar obse^■^'ations may be made elsewhere, and especially at mountain 
stations. 

No. 36. The fourth gi-oup expresses the wish that the compilation of a 
universal phonetic alphabet be undertaken. 

Group 7. — No. 39. In relation to Theme I, question 1, the seventh 

group has established the following maxims : 

(«) The scientific object of geography com preh ends the study of the superficial 
forms of the earth ; it extends also to the reciprocal relations of the different branches 
of the organic world. 



40 INTEENATIONaL geographical congress at VENICE. 

(b) Geography, although a special science, borrows, nevertheless, from other sci 
ences all that is necessary to obtain completely its end. 

(c) That which eminently distinguishes geography from the auxiliary sciences is 
that it localizes objects ; that is to say, it indicates in a positive and constant manner 
the distribution of beings, organic and inorganic, upon the earth. 

It was impossible, on account of ill health, to attend but a few of the 

sessions of the various groups, hence I was unable to suggest in place of 

the above, as had been intended, a possibly more practical view of the 

scope to be assigned to geography expressed somewhat as follows : 

As a branch of physical science the domain of geography is limited alone by the 
ultimate measure, as accurate as science can make it, of the entire inorganic globe, 
as well as of the reciprocal relations of all forms of organic life; in its utilitarian sense 
it is the adaptation of the means afforded by all known scientific methods (applicable 
alike to celestial and terrestial objects aud phenomena) to the accouiplishment of this 
end, ever subordinating its endeavor to the current wants of man. 

No. 40. The seventh group, considering that the representation of 
mountains by hachures gives a false idea of the relief, expresses the desire 
that in the elementary atlases there may be adopted as soon as possible the 
system of representation by level-curves of a single color, or plain colors 
superposed, and the sea-depths in like manner. 

No. 41. The seventh group notices with satisfaction the progress already 
made pursuant to the decisions of the congresses of Antwerp and Paris, and 
renews these votes, insisting principally upon the following points: 

(a) Application of a topographic system which should bring to cartography a 
form always more complete. 

(b) Augmentation of time devoted to geography. 

(c) Creation of special chairs for superior instruction in geography, and with a 
special diploma. 

No. 42. The seventh group submits to all nations the following 
questions: 

PRIMARY INSTRUCTION. 

I. Primary schools: To what extent are topographical methods taught? Have 
topographical walks been organized ? How many hours per week have been set apart 
for this instruction ? 

II. Primary superior schools : The same questions, and the following : Has there 
been established scholastic excursions during vacations'? 

III. Normal school for tutors and gos'ernesses : The same. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

The same, and the following : What topographical maps are employed ? Are 
ihere special professors of geography ? If there are not, what professors are charged 



RESOLUTIONS OF THE CONGRESS. 41 

with that instruction? Is there selected from the course of geography a locality of 
special and great geographical interest? How are the difiereiit courses of geography 
distributed f 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

Do special chairs of geography exist iu the faculties of science and letters? 
Bring up to date an exact list of these chairs. Does there exist special grades carry- 
ng baccalaureate, admission, doctorship, and other diplomas? 

AUXILIARY SCHOOLS. 
What is the organization of these schools in the different countries ? 

No. 43. The seventh group expresses the wish to see determined and 
fixed uniformly both the colors and signs to indicate the heights and depths 
and the different kinds of "terrain" in all the geographical maps and atlases 
after such fashion that at the next Congress a uniform system may be pre- 
sented. 

No. 45. The eighth group expi-esses the desire that the savans of each 
country prepare for the future Congress complete lists of their scientific 
explorers and travelers who shall have made explorations (aided by 
instruments) in various parts of the world, after the date of the present 
Congress. 

It expresses the desire to see this work executed, or at least verified, 
by the geographical society of each country. 

No. 47. The eighth group wishes that there be instituted a central 
office, serving as an intermediary for the communications that the geographi- 
cal society may have to send for the propagation of the votes of the Con- 
gress, and for reciprocal communications, the most general and important. 

At the closing of the last day's session, Prince Teano pronounced a 
valedictory discourse, in recitation of the results of the Congress, being 
followed by Baron Negri, and responded to by Lord Abedare, President of 
the London Royal Geographical Society, answering for all the geographical 
societies represented, when the Third International Congress was declared 
closed by Prince Teano in the name of the Duke of Genoa. 

It is understood that the proceedings and results of the Congress will 
be published in extenso by the organizing committee, together with state- 
ments concerning the several Government exhibits, in Italian, with certain 



42 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

parts as well in French and English, and copies will doubtless reach the 
United States.* 

Before adjournment a central committee was constituted, with the 
Prince of Teano as president, whose duty it is to prepare for the fourth 
international meeting and exposition, to be held on or about the fifth suc- 
ceeding year. 

The following is the list of Government representatives: 

Argentine Republic. — Charles M. Moyano, Captaiu of the Argentine army, 
delegate to the Congress and commissioner for the Exhibition. 

Austria- Hungary. — Chev. Frederick de Pihit, Conseiller actuel de Legation, 
delegate to the Congress. Alexander, Ritter von Kalniar, Captain of corvette, director 
of the Trigonometric branch of the Military Geographical Institute, Vienna, commis- 
sioner for the Exhibition from that institute. 

Austria. — Chev. Francis Le Monnier, ministerial secretary of the Ministry of 
Religion and Public Instruction, Librarian of the Geographical Society of Vienna, com- 
missioner for the Exhibition. 

Bavaria. — Chev. William Fiers, German consul at Venice, delegate to the Exhi- 
bition. 

Belgium. — Couvreur, vice-president of the Chamber of Deputies, delegate to the 
Congress. Prof. J. du Fief, general secretary of the Belgian Geographical Society, del- 
egate to the Congress. Prof. Louis Genonceaux, delegate from the Ministry of Public 
Instruction. Count Goblet d'Alviella, President of the Geographical Society of Brussels, 
delegate to the Congress. Augustus Meulemans, late Consul-general and secretary of 
legation, director of the "Moniteur du Consulat," delegate to the Congress. Henry 
Wauvermaus, Colonel of engineers, President of the Geographical Society of Antwerp, 
delegate to the Congress. Gotfart, Lieutenant of engineers, commissioner for the Exhi- 
bition from the Military Cartogi-aphic Institute. 

Brazil. — Viscount de Araguaya, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of the Emperor of Brazil to the Holy See, delegate to the Congress. Chevalier 
Leopold Bizio, Vice-consul at Venice, commissioner for the Exhibition. 

Canada. — Count Giambattista Viola, Vice-consul at Venice, commissioner for the 
Exhibition (Province of Quebec). 

Chili. — Santos Joaquim Rodriguez, Consul-general, commissioner for the Exhi- 
bition. 

* Since forwardiug the above, the publications of the Congress have appeared in two royal 8° 
volumes. The first, issued in 188'2, of 397 pages (mostly in Italian with certain parts in French), contains 
notesupon the Congress and Exhibition, and a journal of "the proceedings of the general meetings ; the 
second, printed in 18bi4, embraces 36 introductory and 658 other pages (substantially in Italian, with 
minor parts iu French and English), is composed entirely of couiinunications and memoirs. The pro- 
ceedings of the First International Geographical Congress, held at Antwerp, in I87I, consists of two 
royal 8° volumes, of 445 and 612 pages, respectively, issued in 1871 and 1872; while those for the sec- 
ond, held at Paris, in 1875, appear in two royal 8° volumes, one of 646 pages, in 1878, and a second of 
439 pages, issued in 1880. 



LIST OF GOVEENMENT KEPEESENTATIVES. 43 

Colombia. — Riccardo Pereira, secretary of the legation of Colombia at Paris, 
delegate to the Congress. Chevalier Ugo Botti, delegate to the Congress. 

Denmark. — Prof. Edward Ersler, secretary-general of the Geographical Society, 
Copenhagen, delegate. 

EaYPT. — General C. P. Stone (Pasha), President of the Khedival Geographical 
Society, delegate and couimissionergeneral. Dr. Abbate Bey, Vice-president of the 
Khedival Geographical Society, couiiuissiouer. Falaki Mahuiond Bey, commissioner. 
Comm. Eurico de Vecchi, honorary delegate. Cavaliere Federico Bonola, commissioner- 
general for the Exhibition. 

England, India, and Colonies. — Lord Aberdare, P. R. G. S., President of Lon- 
don Geographical Society, delegate to the Congress. Sir Austin Heury Layard, G. C. 
B., delegate to the Congress. The Right Hon. Johu Stone, delegate to the Congress. 
General Sir Henry L. Thuiller, C. S. I.. F. R. S., delegate; also delegate from the India 
Othce. Col. C. T. Haig, Royal Engineers, Survey of India, delegate from India OflSce 
and Government of India. Capt. A. W. Baird, Royal Engineers, Survey of India, 
commissioner for Exhibition from India OfiQce and Government of India. Oscar Meyer, 
commissioner from New South Wales. Hon. Howard Spensley, commissioner from 
Victoria (Australia). 

France. — Eambaud, chief of the cabinet of the presidency of the Council aud of 
the Ministry of Public Instruction, professor of history and geography of the faculty 
of letters of Nancy, commissioner-general at Paris. Ernest van den Brock d'Obrenan, 
late commissioner to the Exposition and Congress at Paris, general delegate to Ven- 
ice. H.Baudouin, commissioner. Baron deRoujoux, commissioner. M.delaTullaye, 
commissioner. H. Chabert, assistant commissioner. P. Leturc, assistant commis- 
sioner. J. L. Dutreuil de Rhins, delegate from the Ministries of Public Instruction, 
and Public Works. Girard de Rialle, curator of the archives of the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs. Captain Defforges, adjunct to the general staff, delegate from the Minis- 
try of War. Edward Anthoine, engineer, chief of the service of the map of France 
(1:100,000), delegate from the Ministry of the Interior and of Spiritual Affairs. Charles 
Titre, Captain of cavalry of the general staff' (retired), delegate from the governor- 
general of Algeria. 

Germany. — Dr. Gustave Nachtigal, President of the Geographical Society of 
Berlin, delegate to the Congress. Chevalier William Fiers, Consul of the German 
Empire at Venice, commissioner for the Exhibition. Waldemar Eckert, topographi- 
cal inspector of the royal Prussian general staff, commissioner for the Exhibition. 
Adolph Fiers, assistant commissioner. Ernest Trinker, assistant commissioner. 

Greece. — Cavalier Panagino Tipaldo Foresti, Consul at Venice, commissioner 
for the Exhibition. 

Hungary. — Dr. John Hunfalvy, President of the Hungarian Geographical Soci- 
ety, delegate to the Congress. Henry Vdmb6ry, Vice-president of the Hungarian 
Geographical Society, delegate to the Congress. Dr. Bela Erodi, general secretary 
Hungarian Geographical Society, commissioner for the Exhibition. Mircse Janos, 
commissioner for the Exhibition. Farhas Horwath, engineer commissioner for the Ex- 
hibition at Buda-Pest. Prof. Joseph Matkassy, commissioner for the Exhibition 
of the royal commissariat at Szeghedine. Alexander Hegedus, delegate from the 
Ministry of Commerce. 



44 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

Holland. — Prof. C. M. Kau, secretary of the Amsterdam Geographical Society, 
delegate to the Congress. Dr. S. C. J. W. van Musschenbroek, delegate to the Con- 
gress. Lieut. Col. W. F. Versteeg, Royal Engineers (retired), Vice-president of the 
Geograi)hical Society of Amsterdam. Cavaliere Giuseppe Eurico Texieira de Mattos, 
Consul at Venice, commissioner for the Exhibition. C. A. Eckstein, delegate from the 
Military Topographical Institute at the Hague. 

Italy. — Prof Luigi Bodio, director of statistics from the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture, Industry, and Commerce. Lieut. Col. Giacomo Bogliolo, delegate from the Min- 
istry of War. Prof. Alessandro Betocchi, delegate from the Ministry of Public Works. 
Comm. Napoleone Vazio, delegate from the Ministry of the Interior. Comm. Galeazzo 
Maldini, delegate from the Ministry of Marine. Comm. Giacomo Malvano, delegate 
from the Ministry of Foreign Aflairs. Comm. Cristofero Negri, delegate from the Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs. Dr. Prospero Padoa, delegate from the Ministry of Public 
Instruction. 

Japan. — Dr. William Berchet, Consul at Venice, delegate to the Congress and 
commissioner for the Exhibition. 

Mexico. — Francis Covarrubius Diaz, late Minister of Mexico to Guatemala, del- 
egate to the Congress. 

Portugal.— Barboza du Bocage, President of the Geographical Society of Lisbon, 
delegate to the Congress. Luciano Cordeiro, general secretary of the Lisbon Geo- 
graphical Society, delegate to the Congress. Major A. Serpa Pinto, delegate to the 
Congress. 

Russia. — Alexander Woieikott', member of the Imperial Geographical Society, 
delegate to the Congress. Alexander Grigoriew, commissioner-general for the Exhi- 
bition. General W. de Kokhowsky, commissioner for the Exhibition. Basil Dodonow, 
assistant commissioner. Dr. Charles Ferdinand Ignatius, commissioner for Finland. 

Salvador. — Count Giuseppe Tombesi del Poggio, Consul-general, delegate to the 
Congress. 

Spain. — Comm. Francisco di Paola Arrilaga, commissioner for the Exhibition. 
Comm. Napoleon Pardo, assistant commissioner. 

Sweden. — Dr. Hans Hildebrand, commissioner-general. E. Ekhoff, commissioner 
for the Exhibition. Baron H. von Schwerin, commissioner for the Exhibition. F. 
Kjellmann, assistant commissioner for the Exhibition. G. Bagge, assistant commis- 
sioner for the Exhibition. 

Switzerland. — Cavaliere Victor Ceresole, Consul, delegate to the Congress and 
commissioner for the Exhibition. Col. Jules Dumur, Corps of Engineers, commissioner- 
general. David Kaltbruner, commissioner. 

Venezuela. — Bartholomew Campana di Sarauo. Senator of the Eangdom, Consul 
at Venice, delegate to the Congress. 



II.-EXHIBITION. 

The Exhibition was held in seventy-four rooms in the Royal Palace, 
facing the Plaza of San Marco, granted by King Humbert, and also a 
special structure situated on the Grand Canal, near the Royal Palace and 
Garden, and convenient for observations with tide-measuring apparatuses. 
It comprised books, maps, parchments, globes, atlases, instruments and 
apparatuses, and other objects belonging to the eight classes above men- 
tioned from the following countries : 

(1) Italy; (2) France; (3) Germany; (4) Austria-Hungary; (5) Russia 
in Europe and Asia, including Finland; (6) England; (7) India; (8) Spain; 
(9) Sweden; (10) Switzerland; (11) Belgimii ; (12) Holland; (13) United 
States; (14) Greece; (15) Egypt; (16) Brazil; (17) Argentine Republic; 
(18) Canada; (19) Venezuela; (20) Chili; (21) Australia (colonies of 
Victoria and New South Wales), including New Zealand ; (22) Japan. 

The number of visitors to the Exhibition was naturally less than that 
at Paris in 1875, where it reached approximately 150,000, while the num- 
ber of articles exhibited was 6,645, as against 4,877 in that year. 

The area embraced within the political jurisdiction of the twenty-two 
Governments exhibiting is approximately 25,202,674 square miles, with an 
approximate population of 674,694,790, distributed as follows : (1) Europe, 
3,335,119 square miles, and population 291,143,761; (2) Asia, 8,562,419 
square miles and population 294,721,852 ; (>i) America, 12,489,508 square 
miles, and population 80,760,045; (4) Africa, 394,345 square miles, and 
population 5,586,200; (5) Australia and Polynesia, 501,283 square miles, 
and population 2,482,852. 

The following nationalities, embracing approximately 5,246,384 square 
miles of territory and 452,827,750 inhabitants, were represented at the 

45 



46 INTERNATIONAL GEOGEAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

Congress, but not at the Exhibition : (1) Europe — Portugal, Denmark, and 
Roumania ; 1 2) Asia — China ; (3) Africa — Algeria ; (4) America — United 
States of Colombia and Salvador ; thus increasing the area represented to 
approximately 30,449,058 square miles, and population 1,127,522,540, as 
compared with approximately 52,530,979 square miles, the total land area of 
the globe, and a population censused or estimated in (Die Bevolkerung der 
Erde — population of the earth — Behm and Wagner) 1880 at 1,455,923,500. 

The following nations, principalities, &c., were neither repi'esented at 
the Congress nor Exhibition: (1) Europe — Norway, Turkey, Servia, Mon- 
tenegro, Roumania, and Bulgaria; (2) Asia — Turcoman-Thibet, China, 
Bokhara, Asiatic Turkey, Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, Kafiristan, Beloo- 
chistan, and parts of India and East India islands ; (3) Australia and 
Polynesia alone by Victoria and New South Wales; (4) Africa — nothing 
except Egypt and Algeria ; (5) America — part of Canada, Newfoundland, 
all of Central America except United States of Colombia and Salvador : 
Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay ; (6) the North 
and South Polar regions entire. 

Thus it appears that the larger part of the Governments of Europe, 
North America, and Asia contributed directly or were present through com- 
missioners, resulting in a more or less full representation of the current 
geographical undertakings of all the civilized nations. 

Of the twenty-two Governments participating, two were absolute 
empires ; one a limited constitutional empire ; one a limited empire ; six 
limited constitutional monarchies ; four limited monarchies ; four constitu- 
tional republics ; one a republic (France) ; one a constitutional confeder- 
ation ; and two colonies. 

Not less than two hundred Government departments, or offices, appear 
in tbe catalogue as contributors, donating about 3,350 sets of articles; the 
remainder coming from geographical societies, public libraries, publishing 
houses, and individuals. 

Fourteen of the nineteen main offices of the distinct systematic areal 
topographical surveys of the several Governments presented examples of 
their work and progress. 



INTERNATIONAL JURY. 47 

There were wanting only those of Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sax- 
on}-, and Wurtemburg, the two latter forming an integral part of the sys- 
tematic general topographical survey of the German Empire, although 
having independent offices within their own jurisdiction issuing separate 
publications 

Fourteen nationalities exhibited in all the eight classes; one (Belgium) 
in 7; one (United States) in 6; one (Australia) in 4; three (England, India, 
and Venezuela) in 3; and two (Chili and Canada) in only 2. 

Other than myself, the only Government representative from the United 
States was Commodore C. H. Baldwin, U. S. Navy, delegated by the Sec- 
retary of the Navy, and to whom were addressed the articles sent by the 
Hydrographic Office of the Bureau of Navigation. 

Everything displayed in the United States section was received and 
cared for by me, and prepared for exhibition under my personal supervision. 

INTERNATIONAL JURY. 

The international jury, consisting of eight sets of jurors — one from 
each country for each class was selected by the principal representatives 
from each nation and approved by the Congress, thus permitting as many 
jurors in each set as there were countries represented — was composed of 
the following nembers from the United States other than myself, viz: 
Commodore Baldwin, Class II ; Sandford Fleming, Class IV; William Lee 
Howard, Class V; General Cesnola, Class VI; and Judge Daly, Glass VII. 

The awards were of the following orders: 

1. Letter of distinction. 

2. Diploma of honor of first class, with medal. 

3. Diploma of honor of second class, with medal. 

4. Honorable mention. 

The exhibition of the United States, although not by any means com- 
plete, was the object of more than the usual attention by observers from 
all countries. 

From the Engineer Department there appeared, notably, its Annual 
Reports for a number of years : Charts of the Trigonometric, Topographic, 
and Hydrographic Survey of the Northern Lakes, the Saint Lawrence and 



48 IXTEENATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

Mississippi Rivers ; Annual and Quarto Reports of Geographical Surveys 
West of the One Hundredth Meridian; also from above work, original To- 
pographical Sheets; sets of Observation and Computation Forms, including 
printed examples of the systematic Topographical, Land Classification, and 
Geological, Atlas Sheets of this Survey, making in all twenty-four volumes, 
thirty-one record forms bound, and ninety-four separate maps, integers of 
the regular series; final Reports of the Geological Exploration of the For- 
tieth Parallel (seven volumes and twenty-one maps in atlas); detailed maps 
of rebellion battle-fields ; Reports and Maps of Explorations and Reconnais- 
sances West of the Mississippi River, of Military Wagon Roads, and upon 
the completion of the boundary measurement along the Forty- ninth Paral- 
lel, between the United States and the British Possessions. The Signal 
Service furnished a bound set of majDS, showing the tri-daily observations 
for a number of years. The Hydrographic Office sent a number of current 
charts and reports ; the Nautical Almanac Office an ephemeris, and also the 
Nautical Almanac for 1884; the Naval Observatory, special publications on 
professional subjects The Coast Survey contributed alone a model show- 
ing the general conformation of the bed of the Gulf of Mexico, from late 
deep-sea soundings; the Light-House Board sent annual and other publi- 
cations, and a set of compiled charts, giving positions of lights, &c. ; the 
Bureau of Statistics, examples of current publications. The Postmaster- 
General contributed an atlas of post-route maps, annual and other publi- 
cations; and the Commissioner of Agriculture, Annual and Special Reports. 

AWARDS TO THE UNITED STATES. 

Awards by the international jury were adjudged in the classes num- 
bered 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8, as follows: 

Class 1. — Mathematical geography, geodesy, and topography. 

Letter of distinction. Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, for completeness 
of cartographical and other works. 

Letter of distinction. Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth 
meridian (Wheeler), for completeness of cartographical and other works. 



AWAEDS TO THE UNITED STATES. 49 

Class 2. — Hydrography. 

Letter of distinction. Coast and Geodetic Survey, for model of the bed 
of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Letter of distinction. Navy Department, for completeness of reports and 
maps from the Hydrograpliic and Nautical Almanac Offices and Naval 
Observatory. 

Di})loma of honor of first class. Light-House Board, for the complete- 
ness of its works. 

Class 3. — Physical geographi/, meteorology, geology, mineralogy and paleontology, 

zoology and botany. 

Letter of distinction. Engineer Department, U. S. Army, for complete- 
ness of published works relative to explorations of the fortieth parallel 
(King), and Pacific Railroad surveys. 

Letter of distinction. Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth 
meridian (War Department), for "completeness of geological and other natural 
history works west of the Mississippi River. 

Letter of distinction. Signal Service and Weather Bureau, for complete- 
ness of series of tri-daily weather maps. 

Class 6. — Economical geography, commercial and statistical. 

Letter of distinction. Post-Office Department, for completeness of series 
of postal charts and other publications. 

Diploma of honor of second class. Commissioner of Agriculture, for com- 
pleteness of annual and forestry reports. 

Honorable mention. Bureau of Statistics, for completeness of current 
reports, &c. 

Class 8. — Explorations, surveys, and travels 

Letter of distinction. Engineer Department, U. S. Army, for complete- 
ness of explorations and surveys west of the Mississippi River. 
1366 WH 4 



50 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE, 

Mesponse to letter requesting information from President of the Organising 

Committee* 

The United States at Geographical Exhibition at Paris in 1875. 

Space. — The space occupied was a small alcove chamber in rear of the 
main exhibit rooms. 

Exhibitors. — Eight offices, representing four Departments of the 
Government, contributed, viz: (1) Signal Service and Meteorological Bureau,, 
of the War Department; (2) Hydrographic Office; (3) Naval Observatory, 
of Navy Department; (4) Life-Saving Service and (5) Bureau of Statistics,, 
of the Treasury Department; (6) Geological Survey of the Territories, (7) 
Survey of Public Lands, and (8) Census Bureau, of the Interior Depart- 
ment. There were also exhibited wall maps of the United States, and by 
Col. Nathan Adams a collection of minerals from the State of Tennessee 
(29 sets). 

The articles exhibited were of the following classes: Walker's Statis- 
tical Atlas and Maps of the United States and Territories; reports of 
Isthmus route surveys for an interoceanic canal — by Captain Shufeldt, 
U. S. Navy (Tehuantepec), by Commander Lull, U. S. Navy (Nica- 
ragua), and by Commander Selfridge, U. S. Navy (Darien); report, 
on tlie interoceanic canals, by Rear-Admiral Davis, U. S. Navy; an- 
nual volumes of the astronomical and meteorological observations, and a 
number of separate treatises of the Naval Observatory; reports, bulletins, 
circulars, and instructions, &c., of the Meteoi'ological Bureau; annual 
reports of the Geological Survey of the Territories (Hayden); reports, 
lists, and statements of the Life-Saving Service and Bureau of Statistics. 
The articles were catalogued with twenty-nine numbers, according to con- 
tributions, in Classes 2, 3, 5, and 6, in an appendix to the main or general 
catalogue, and were contributed by and through Prof. J. E. Nourse, U. 
S. Navy, a delegate from the American Geographical Society, as well 
as under instructions from the Navy Department, and Mr. Washburne, 
American minister, and General Torbert, Consul-general at Paris. 

•This account appears in full, in Frencb, in Volume II of Publications of the Congress, pp. 639 - 
to 040, inelusi-^e. 



ARTICLES EXHIBITED BY THE UNITED STATES. 51 

The Uuited Statos at the Geographical Exhibition, Venice, 1881. 

Space. — The space allotted was two rooms, approximating twenty-six 
feet square, and a third, or storage room, with two vestibules leading to the 
main interior hall- way, all "au second" in the Royal Palace at Venice, 
Italy, facing the Royal Garden and Grand Canal. There were occupied 
one hundred and seventy feet of wall-tabling, four hundred and ninety-five 
square feet of table, and, approximately, four thousand three hundred 
square feet of wall-space. 

The following offices, eleven in number, representing five Departments 
of the Government, participated, viz: (1) Chief of Engineers, (2) Geo- 
graphical Surveys, and (3) Signal Service and Meteorological Bureau, of the 
War Department; (4) Hydrographic, (5) Nautical Almanac, and (6) Naval 
Observatory, of the Navy Department; (7) Coast Survey, (8) Light-House 
Board, and (9) Bureau of Statistics, of the Treasury Department; (10) the 
Postmaster-General; and (11) the Commissioner of Agriculture. 

There were 126 articles or sets of articles exhibited in Classes I, II, 
III, IV, VI, and VIII, 120 of which appear in the catalogue. Of this 
number, 31 belong to Class I, 6 of which were contributed direct from the 
Chief of Engineers, 24 from the Geographical Survey, and 1 from the 
Coast Survey; 15 to Class II — 10 from the Hydrographic Office, 2 from 
that of the Nautical Almanac, and 3 from the Naval Observatory; 37 to 
Class III — 10 from the Chief of Engineers, 26 from the Geographical Survey, 
and 1 from the Meteorological Bureau ; 1 to Class IV, from the Geographical 
Survey; 21 to Class VI — 5 from the Light-House Board, 7 from the Bureau 
of Statistics, 6 from the Postmaster-General, and 3 from the Commissioner 
of Agriculture; 21 to Class VIII — 15 from the Chief of Engineers, and 6 
from the Geographical Survey, of the War Department. 



52', INTEENATIONAL GEOGEAPHICAL CONGEESS AT VENICE. 

:n^ewest exhibits. 

Class I. 

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, U. S. ARMY, WAR DEPARTMENT. 

1. Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers (Brig, and Bvt. Maj. Gen. 
H. G. Wright), for the years 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, and 1880. 

These reports, for the first time exhibited, embrace the current annual 
results of this branch of the public service which consists of the Corps of 
Engineers, with their assistants and employes of various grades, and the 
Engineer Battalion. In addition to the purely military works upon perma- 
nent fortifications, with surveys incident thereto, including defensive torpe- 
does, there are embraced those of (1) interior improvements of rivers, 
harbors, and canals, with surveys therefor; (2) permanent improvement of 
the Mississippi River, with its detailed survey ; (3) trigonometric, topographic, 
and hydrographic survey of northern lakes, the Saint Lawrence and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers; (4) topographical surveys west of Mississippi River; (5) 
geological exploration of fortieth parallel; (6) explorations and reconnais- 
sance at headquarters military divisions and departments; (7) survey and 
construction of military wagon-roads; (8) surveys of military reservations; 
(i») survey of battle-fields; (10) construction of general geographical and 
topographical charts, &c. 

2. Completion of the international boundary along the forty -ninth 
parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Pacific Ocean, between the 
United States and the British possessions, executed by a joint commission, 
Archibald Campbell representing the United States, with Maj. W. J. Twi- 
ning, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, as chief astronomer. Professional 
contributions appear also from Capt. J. F. Gregory and Lieut. F. V. Greene, 
Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. 

5. Military topographical maps of Gettysburg, Five Forks, and other 
Lattle-fie-da of thb v/ar of the rebellion. 

6. Topogrkphic' aii'd hydrographic charts of parts of Lakes Ontario, 
Erie, H-uroii,' Michigan, and Superior, the Saint Lawrence and Mississippi 

Note. — The numbers stntcd are identical with those given to the exhibit of the United States 
<"Stati Uniti d'Ame/ica") ia tli6 Goneral Catalogue. 



ARTICLES EXniBITEDBY THE UNITED, STATES. 53 

Rivers, resulting from an extended work of survey, the field part of which 
has lately been completed under General C.B.Conistock, Corps of Engineers, 
the field force having been already transferred in great part to the trigo- 
nometric survey of the Mississippi River, established and being executed 
under a special commission, of which General Q. A. Gillmore, Corps of 
Engineers, is president, detailed sheets from which Avere also exhibited. 

OFFICE OF GEOGKAPHICAL SURVEYS WEST OF THE ONE HUNDREDTH MERIDIAN. 

Nos. 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 22 consist of quarto and otliei 
publications; original triangulation and topographical sheets, on scale of 1 
inch to 1 , to 2, to 4, and to 8 miles, of the systematic topographic map series, 
and special sheets on various scales, the largest being 1 inch to 1,500 feet. 
This work has been conducted in accordance with a plan presented by Cap- 
tain Wheeler, the officer in charge (while a lieutenant of Engineers), to Gen- 
eral Humphreys, then Chief of Engineers, which as authorized sanctions the 
prosecution of a systematic topographical survey (to which geological and 
other natural history examinations were incidentally added) of an area of 
1,443,360 square miles west of the one hundredth meridian of longitude 
from Greenwich, of which, during a period of eleven years, the space 
of 359,065 square miles has been covered, the greater part of the base or 
tojjographical charts of which are already published. Particularly notice- 
able are (7) Volume II (quarto series), containing astronomical and hypso- 
metrical results — the former by Lieutenant Wheeler and assistants. Dr. F. 
Kampf, J. H. Clark, and Prof T. H. Safford; the latter by Lieut. William 
L. Marshall, Coi-ps of Engineers; the catalogue of Mean Declination of 
2,018 stars, computed by Prof. T. H. Safford, the Lake Tahoe sheets, scale 
1:63,360; that of the Washoe mining region, and that showing proposed 
districts of survey for the entire United States. 

Nos. 23-28 embrace a set of twenty-seven blank record books in use 
in the mathematical branches of the survey, in the field and office, under 
the following heads : (1) Main astronomical, (2) field astronomical, (3) tri- 
angulation, (4) topographic, (5) magnetic, (6) meteorological. 



54 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAreiCAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 

No. 28. A model of the Gulf of Mexico, from the results of deep-sea 

soundings, by Lieutenant-Commander Sigsbee, U. S. Navy, and others, with 

a pamphlet by Prof. J. E. Hilgard, Superintendent Coast Survey. This is 

unique, in that for the first time data have been secured for determining the 

configuration of a comparatively large and connected part of this arm of 

the sea, and showing as well, by a popular representation, a portion of tho 

ocean bed. 

Class II. 

HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE, NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

No. 30. Report upon telegraphic determination of longitudes upon the 
east coast of South America, with latitudes, by Lieut. Commanders F. M. 
Green, C. H. Davis, and Lieut. J. A. Norris, U. S. Navy, and others, being 
examples of the results of astronomical observations made in foreign ports, 
which are being continued. 

No. 31. Azimuth tables, specially prepared for the use of the officers 
of the Jeannette in their expedition to the north polar regions. 

No. 32. Sailing Directions for the West Coast of Mexico, from the 
boundary to Cape Corrientes, including the Gulf of California, 1880. 

No. 34. Reported Dangers to Navigation in the Australian Sea and 
East Indian Archipelago of the Pacific Ocean, 1879. 

No. 35. Volume I of Directions for the Navigation of the Caribbean 
Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, 1877. 

No. 39. New charts of the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian 
Oceans, East India Archipelago, Straits of Tsugar, &c. These are examples 
of charts currently being compiled and corrected at the Hydrographic Office. 

NAUTICAL ALMANAC OFFICE, NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Nos. 40 and 41. The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (edi- 
tion of 1884), prepared under the direction of Prof. Simon Newcomb, U. 
S. Navy, presents among other features very complete data for the predic- 
tion of eclipses, especially the maps for tracing the courses and determining 
the approximate time of their beginning and ending, also complete tables for 



ARTICLES EXHIBITED BY THE UNITED STATES. 55 

predicting occultations. By means of tables and diagrams the position of 
the sateUites at any given moment are readily found. 

NAVAL OBSERVATORY (uot catalogued). 

Reports contributed by the late Rear-Admiral John Rodgers, Superin- 
tendent, of the several parties at western stations regarding the total solar 
eclipse of 1878, also upon the transit of Mercury of 1876, and of the 
transit of Venus, 1874, being special publications of this office. 

Class III. 

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, WAR DEPARTMENT. 

Nos. 42-48, and 50. Final publications of the "Geological Exploration 
of the Fortieth Parallel," consisting of seven quarto volumes and one atlas 
This examination, conducted by Clarence King, chief geologist, embraces a 
territory along the Central and Union Pacific Railroads of 86,390 square 
miles, extending from Cheyenne, Wyo., to the eastern boundary of Cal- 
ifornia. The topographical sheets, prepared on a scale of 1 inch to 4 
miles, as a basis for the geological representations, are double, and five in 
number. Contributions from Messrs. J. D. and Arnold Hague, Emmons, 
Gardner, Whitfield, Zirkel, Marsh, Gray, Watson, and Ridgway are to be 
found in the several volumes. 

OFFICE OF GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS. 

Nos. 52-56, 59, 60, 62-66, 68, and 75. These consist of reports and maps 
of the systematic surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, under Cap- 
tain Wheeler. Particularly noticeable are the quarto reports upon geology, 
paleontology, zoology, and botany; the later annual reports of progress; 
the list of reports and maps ; the sketch map, showing progress of Govern- 
ment surveys west of the Mississippi River; examples of geological and 
land classification atlas sheets, conjoining, and photograph of the topograph- 
ical model of the San Juan mountain and mining region. 

Reports and professional papers are contributed by the following persons 
other than the officer in charge: Lieutenants Lockwood, Marshall, Tillman, 
Bergland, Hoxie, Price, Symons, Young, and Griffin, Corps of Engineers; 



56 INTEEi^ATIOXAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGEESS AT VEll^flCE. 

Lieutenants Lyle, Whipple, Birnie, Morrison, Macomb, and Carpenter, U. 
S. Army; Messrs. SafFord, Rock, Stevenson, Marcou, Cope, Gilbert Loew, 
Marvine, Howell, Osten-Sacken, White, Mead, Watson, Yarrow, Rothrock, 
Verrill, Porter, Eaton, Engleman, Vasey, Henshaw, and others. 

The quarto reports embrace distinct results in the branches named up 
to the date of issue, while the maps (land classification and geological), upon 
regular topographical sheets as a base, form a part of the series projected to 
embrace the entire area of 1:443.360 square miles. 

Certain of the strictly mathematical features of this extended survey of 
the territory west of the one hundredth meridian appear in Class I. 

SIGNAL SERVICE AND METEOROLOGICAL BUREAU. 

No. 77. Bound volumes, consisting of one copy of each of the tri-daily 
weather charts for a period of eight years and two months, ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1879. 

Class IV. 

ENGINEER OFFICE OF GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY. 

No. 78. Volume 7 of the quarto series, being Reports upon Archaeo- 
logical and Ethnological Collections from Southern California, ruined 
pueblos, in Arizona and New Mexico and Interior Tribes, containing 
contributions from Prof F. W. Putnam, Drs. Abbott and Yarrow, Profes- 
sors Haldeman, Carr, Gatschett, and others. 

This volume (issued in 1881) refers to results attained in this branch 
by the Survey, which exhibits also in Classes I and III. 

Class VI, 

LIGHT-HOUSE BOARD, TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 

Nos. 79-83. Annual reports and other publications, including lists of 
light-houses, beacons, buoys, towers, and floating lights, and set of charts 
compiled for the use of this service in various scales, lately revised. 

BUREAU OF STATISTICS, TREASURY DEPARTMENT (Joseph Nimmo, jr., Chief). 

Nos. 84-90. Quarterly reports relative to imports, exports, immigra- 
tion, and navigation, with statements and abstracts on internal commerce 



ARTICLES EXUIBITED BY TOE UNITED STATES. 57 

and navigation, to March 31, 1881, with a treatise upon the commercial 
aspects of the American Interoceanic Canal. 

POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

Nos. 91-9G. Consisting of a set of post-route charts, compiled in the 
,)ffice of the chief topographer, ^Y. L. Nicholson, which are constantly un- 
dergoing revision, Avith annual reports of the Postmaster-General, and other 
[)ublications of this branch of the public service. 

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Nos. 'J7-99. Annual reports of the Commissioner, with special reports 
(1877-'80), by F. B. Hough, on forestry. 

Class VIII. 

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, U. S. ARMY. 

Nos. 110-114. Reports by Ludlow and Ruffner, officers of Engineers, 
in command of expeditions for explorations and surveys west of the Mi.ssis- 
sippi, also reconnaissance of Missouri River by Roberts, together with topo- 
graphic charts, including a new map of the territory west of the Mississippi 
River; scale 1: 1,500,000. 

Among the contributions in this class appear papers from "Warren, 
Ives, Macomb, Simpson, Raynolds, Barlow, Heap, Jones, and Lockwood, 
officers of Engineers, and Professors Newberry, Hayden, and Comstock, 
geologists. 

Classes V and VII. (Nothing was exhibited.) 

The progress made since 1875 by the Government in its undertakings 
of a strictly geographical character, wherein original data have been ob- 
tained from field observations fas exhibited), has been by the officers and 
assistants of the Engineer Department; the completion of the survey of the 
northern boundary along the forty-ninth parallel ; the completion of the 
field work of the trigonometric, topographic, and hydrographic survey of 
the northern lakes; the commencement of the topographic and hydrographic 
survey of the Mississippi River and its tributaries ; annual progress upon 
the interior geographical surveys in the trigonometric, topographic, meteo- 



58 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

rologic, geologic, and natural history branches; establishment of astro- 
nomic longitudes and latitudes, with topographic reconnaissances at 
headquarters of military divisions and departments, by Engineer officers; 
the completion of the geologic exploration of the fortieth parallel (King) ; 
by the Meteorologic Bureau, the data upon which are based the daily 
weather charts; by the Coast Survey, results in deep- sea soundings in the 
Gulf of Mexico; by the Hydrographic Bureau, in the international longi- 
tudes by telegraph of stations in foreign parts ; and by the Naval Observa- 
tory, the longitudes and latitudes of stations occupied during the total solar 
eclipse of 1878 and at the late transits of Venus and Mercury. 

The following offices of the Interior Department, alone, among those 
intrusted with works of a geographical nature by the General Government, 
failed to forward articles to the Exhibition: (1) Public lands, engaged in 
the subdivision of Government lands prior to sale; the survey of Indian 
reservations and boundaries between States and Territories (not organized 
for geographical purposes) ; (2) the geological surveys of Territories, of the 
Rocky Mountain region, and the exploration of the Black Hills, lately car- 
ried on by Messrs. Hayden, Powell, and Jenny, respectively, now merged 
in a survey (the Geological Survey) organized especially for geological pur- 
poses, and also the office engaged in ethnological examinations; and (3) the 
Census Bureau, under Francis A. Walker, Superintendent, producing at each 
decennial enumeration a series of compiled statistical charts; as well as the 
National Museum, a branch of the Smithsonian Institution (Prof. S. F. Baird, 
Secretary), being the repository of the natural history collections made by 
the Government exploring expeditions. There have lately been established 
in the interest of meteorology by the "War Department Weather Bureau, 
under General Hazen, two stations on the northeast and northwest coasts of 
North America, well towards the high Arctic regions ; one in charge of Lieu- 
tenant Greely, U. S. Army, at Lady Franklin Bay; another at Point Bar- 
row, Alaska, in the care of Lieutenant Ray, U. S. Army. 



STATE SUKVEYS IN THE UNITED STATES. 59 

STATE SURVEYS. 

The foUoNviug have been in operation since 1875 to date of the Congress: 

Alabama. — Geological survey of, commenced in 1875, still in opera- 
tion, under Prof Eugene A. Smith, having published five reports. 

California. — H3'drographic survey of lakes and rivers for irrigation 
purposes, commenced by W. II. Hall, State engineer, of which one pub- 
lished annual report has been noted. 

Colorado. — Geological examinations in, by Prof J. Alden Smith, 
pamphlet report, issued in 1 880. 

Georgia. — Mineralogical, geological, and physical survey of, in charge 
of Dr. George Little, begun in 1 874, the last published report being in 1 875. 

Indiana. — Geological survey of, by Prof E. T. Cox, was established 
in 1869 and discontinued in 1878; ha'i published three volumes since 1875, 
being sixth to tenth annual reports. Reorganized as department of statis- 
tics and geology in 1879, under Prof. John Collet, since which two volumes 
of reports have been issued. 

Kentucky. — Geological survey of (Prof. N. S. Shaler, director), has 
published since 1876 four volumes of reports and one of memoirs and is 
still in existence, temporarily in charge of John B. Proctor. 

Michigan. — Geological survey of, under C. Rominger, commenced in 
1873, publishing one volume in 1876; still in existence, but not actively 
engaged. 

Minnesota. — Geological and natural history survey of, under Prof N. 
H. Winchell, commenced in 1872 and still in operation, having published 
five reports since 1875. 

Missouri. — Geological exploration of, commenced in 1875, and pub- 
lished in 1877 a report on the lead and iron region. 

New Hampshire. — Geological survey of, in charge of Prof. C. H. 
Hitchcock, was commenced in 1868 and completed in 1873. The final 
reports in the quarto volumes were published in 1874, 1877, and 1878, with 
large folio atlas of sixteen plates. 

New Jersey. — Geological survey of, under Prof G. H. Cook, com- 
menced in 1863, and still in operation, having published annual reports 



60 INTERNATIONAL GEOGEAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

since 1870. The same commission directs also certain minor topographic 
work. 

Netw York. — Geological survey of, commenced in 1836 and completed 
in 1841. Paleontology still in course of publication, under Prof James 
Hall. Special volume issued in 1876, and Part I of Volume V published' 
in 1880. The appendixes to the annual reports of the State museum con- 
tain papers on paleontology, botany, and entomology. 

Topographic survey of the Adirondack wilderness region includes more 
than 10,000 square miles, or exceeding eight counties of Northeastern 
New York; Verplanck Colvin, superintendent, Albany, N. Y. ; originally 
a private work, for many j^ears at expense of present superintendent; 
organized as State work (Colvin, sujiei'intendent) in 1872; still in progress. 
Reports published on progress of triangulation and leveling, with meteoro- 
logic records; on botany, entomology, economic geology, &c. (volumes 
8° in 1873, 1873-74, and 1874-7 9, being 3d to 'ith, and progess report 
1880), all accompanied by maps. 

New York State survey, organized in 1876 for the purpose of making- 
an accurate survey of the State and for determination of State and county 
boundaries, conducted under a board of commissioners, by James T. Grard- 
ner, as director. The work has been confined to triangulation, the positions 
of nearly a thousand points having been determined; still in operation; has 
published four annual reports. 

North Carolina. — Geological survey of, under Prof. W. C. Kerr, com- 
menced in 1867 and yet incomplete. Volume I of final reports issued in 
1875, with occasional papers since. 

Ohio.— Geological survey of, under Prof J. S. Newberry, commenced 
in 1867 and completed in 1875. Three volumes, in five parts, were issued 
up to 1878, the publication remaining incomplete. 

Pennsylvania. — Second geological survey of, under Prof J. P.Lesley, 
commenced in 1874 and still in operation. Forty-five volumes of reports 
with atlases, commencing in 1875, have already been j^ublished. 

Texas. — Geological and agricultural examination of, under Dr. S. B. 
Buckley, suspended in 1875. Two pamphlets have been issued. 

Wisconsin. — Geological survey of, under Prof. T. C. Chamberlin, com-' 



STATE SURVEYS IN TOE UNITED STATES. 61 

inenced in 1875 and still in operation, has issued annual reports and two 
final reports, with larye folio atlases. 

The annual reports of the several g-eological surveys have usually been 
accompanied by sketches and maps. 

The States of Maine, Vermont, *Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Missis- 
sippi, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Louisiana, California, and Arkansas have 
had geological examinations more or less detailed of their territory, and of 
which reports have been published. 

The steamer Jeannette, commanded by Lieutenant De Long, U. S. 
Navy, was dispatched from San Francisco, California, in June, 1879, at the 
instance of James Gordon Bennett, of the New York Herald, to the north 
jjolar regions, via Behring's Straits, and late news, via St. Petersbui-g, tells 
of the rescue in the va]ley of the Lena River of one of the three boat par- 
ties into which the crew was divided when it became necessary to abandon 
the vessel in June, 1881, in (approximate) latitude 77° north, and longi- 
tude 157° east of Greenwich. At this writing no information has been 
received of the second party, but search is being made for it, as well as for 
party No. 1, headed by De Long (January, 1882). 

Lieutenant Berry, in the steamer Rodgers, sailed in June, 1881, from 
San Francisco in search and to the aid of the Jeannette, being still absent, 
having determined that the so-called "Wrangel Land" is but an island. 

The results of the Hall Arctic Expedition were still in 1880 being 
worked up in Washington by Dr. Kmil Bessels. 

The American Geographical Society of New York City, under tlie 
presidency of Judge Charles P. Daly, has continued its labors in aid of 
geographical research and in establishing a permanent library of books, 
maps, and geographical manuscripts, issuing a series of bulletins ; while in 
1878 there was sent out under its auspices a Franklin search expedition, 

"There was a trigonometric survey of Massachusetts hetweeu 1830-'40, conducted i)iiucii):illy by 
Simon Borden (au old oflicer of the Corps of Military Engineers), who contrived a double metal ))ar 
compensation base measuring apparatus and did most of the field work. The latter was commenced 
in 1831 and completed irrlJ^IiS, the map (scale l"=\ii miles) projected m 1842, engraved on copper, and 
published in 184-1. This map was afterwards ievi>ed and published in atlas form by Walling &. Gray, 
in 1871. A geological survey, in charge of Prof. E. Hitchcock, was associated therewith. (See Appa- 
lachia, Jnly, 1885.) 



62 INTEENATIOXAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

under the command of Lieut. Fred. Scliwatka, U. S. Army, in the Eotheru^ 
returning in 1880, the latest available information of which appears in the 
society's Bulletin, No. 1, for 1880. 

Thus an attempt has been made to outline the principal geographical 
endeavors during the past five years, and, although doubtless somewhat in- 
complete, it may serve to indicate the scope and progress of this science 
for that interval within the United States. For the data upon which the 
statements concerning the works other than those of the General Govern- 
ment are based, thanks are due to the president of the American Geograph- 
ical Society, and to Prof John J. Stevenson, New York City ; and for that 
relating to the part taken by the United States in the Exhibition of 1875 
at Paris, to Prof J. E. Nourse, U. S. Naval Observatory. 

EXHIBITION^ BY CLASSES. 

The following serves to give some of the impressions that it was pos- 
sible to form of the exhibits of each country as a whole, with reference to- 
the most important, especially in Classes I and II, although a delicate con- 
dition of health and the necessity of making more complete notes on a 
single subject (Government surveys) prevented a critical examination of 
but a few of the numerous objects exhibited. The subject will be related 
according to classes. 

Class I. — Mathematical Geogeaphy, Geodesy, and Topography. 

Italy.— There were noticed the geodetic works, four volumes of the 
Italian commission for degree measurement since 1865, where appear the 
names of Lorenzoni and Schiaparelli, and with astroijiomical observations- 
taken at the observatories at Padua, Brera, and Milan (two volumes); the 
triangulation of all Italy (four sheets, scale 1: 1,000,000 new); that of the- 
geodetic net of Europe (6 sheets, scale 1:3,000,000); sheets of the general 
topographic map of Italy, scale 1:100,000 (56 sheets then issued), topo- 
graphic maps of other scales; chromolithographic maps of Rome, Flor- 
ence, Turin (scale 1:25,000); specimens of original drawings (scales- 
J: 50,000 and 1: 25,000); specimens of photozincography (process Avet)^. 
very clear, distinct, and pleasing to the eye, together with publications on- 



EXniRITIOX BY CLASSES. 63 

topographio and allied subjects from the Military Institute at Florence. 
Among the many instruments may be mentioned the tacheometer by Sal- 
moiraghi, of Milan; a universal instrument byMileto, of Naples; a number 
of well-proportioned and finished instruments from the Officina Galileo at 
Florence, and an alt-azimuth by Professor Mariiielli, of Padua. 

Holland. — Specially admirable were the proofs of tlie new War 
Department chromolithographic map of Holland (scale 1 : 25,000) ; map of 
the residence of Java, reproduced by the artistic Eckstein process (scale 
1:100,000); general military topographic map of the Netherlands (scale 
1: 50,000), and the Waterstaat map on the same scale, photographic, photo- 
lithographic, and albertype reproductions of maps of Java and the surround- 
ing islands (scale 1: 100,000), eighteen in all, with one district (Passeroean) 
on the scale of 1:20,000 from the Dutch Government of the Indies; also 
from the ministry of colonies a postal map of Java and Madura; a large 
plan of Batavia, showing cadastral divisions, and the works of Professor 
Oudemans on the triangulation of the Dutch East Indies. The Geograph- 
ical Society of Amsterdam exhibited as M^all maps, the principal ones pub- 
lished in its periodical since 1875. 

Hui^GAEY. — Specially noticeable were some relief plans of islands and 
harbors, and a map, representing agricultural conditions and altitudes of the 
northwest. 

Spain. — There were one hundred and fourteen works or sets of works 
forwarded by twenty-two exhibitors. The general direction of the Geo- 
graphical and Statistical Institute exhibited specimens of the most excellent 
general topographical map (scale 1 : 50,000 with curves), ]jroduced under 
the direction of General Ibanez, with the assistance of officers of engineers, 
artillery, general staff, engineers of the "Pouts et Chauss(^es," of mines, of 
waters and forests, astronomers, of the topographical corps, and geodetic 
assistants, and also a number of admirable publications concerning this work. 

The general staflp exhibited plans of various cities at the scale of 1:5,000; 
Don Francis Coello, Colonel of Engineers, retired, his excellent and complete 
atlas of Spain and its possessions (scales 1:200,000 and 1:100,000); and 
the observatory at Madrid, eighteen volumes of annuals from 1861 to 1880. 

Germany. — Cartographic works, embracing the whole Empire, were 



64 INTEEISTATIONAL GEOGKAPBICAL CONGlfESS AT VENICE. 

exhibited by the general staff survey of Prussia; there were instruments of 
precision (among them specially worth)^ of mention five-inch theodolites, with 
reading microscopes, and an instrument for testing circle divisions, by Wan- 
schaff, of Berlin), and triangulation map of Schleswig and Holstein; a com- 
plete collection of all instruments or mechanical appliances used in surveying, 
specimen of an original plane-table sheet (1:25,000) in curves; lithographic 
samples (1:25,000) for immediate use and sale; also engraved sheets of the 
general topographic map of Germany (scale 1:100,000), independent of 
maps of cities and their environs (scales from 1:25,000 to 1:100,000); a num- 
ber of sheets of the Reymann chart of Central Europe (scale 1:200,000) of 
the year 1817 and up to date, illustrating progress in cartography; also 
heliographic maps of Alsace and Lorraine (scale 1:50,000). Trigonometric 
and topographic instruments of precision (of apparently fine patterns, solid 
and well finished,) were displayed by Sprenger, and also by Bamberg, of 
Berlin, and by Breithaupt and Son; also Arwed, of Cassel. The Royal 
Bavarian Topographical Bureau exhibited among other objects sheets of the 
general topographic atlas of Bavaria (scale 1:50,000), a fine production. 
The Grand Ducal Topographical Bureau of Baden displayed several sheets 
of the special topographic map of the Duchy (scale 1:25,000). This map. 
in curves, is exceedingly clear and pleasing. 

SwnztELAND. — The Federal Topographical Bureau at Berne presentee 
original drawings of sheets of the special topographical atlas (scales 1:50,00( 
and 1:25,000), based on a revision of the original Dufour survey, with print:' 
therefrom; also original drawings of the Dufour atlas (scale 1:100,000) 
The Swiss geodetic commission appeared with several publications relating [ 
to its labors. Various instruments of precision for geodetic, topographic, 
and leveling works were noticed from the estabhshments of J. Kern, Arau, 
and Holtinger & Co., Zurich. 

Japan. — The exhibits came entirely from the Government and the 
Society of Geography of Tokio. Noticeable was a small-scale map of the 
Empire (1877) in two colored sheets, with another lately made, and plans 
of Tokio and Kioto, including a few maps of islands. 

Belgium. — The Military Cartographic Institute made a highly creditable 
display of the general and special topographical maps (scales 1:40,000 ard 



EXHIIUTION I'.Y CLASSES. 65 

1:20,000), whirli, with a liypsonictiic chiiit (scale 1:800,000), iind a relief 
map (scale 1:400,000), ami various publications bearing upon the subject of 
Class I, proved highly interesting. 

Jh^qypt. — This was the onl)- African country represented. Fine cadastral 
charts of the Khedive's doniinious were exhibited. 

Bbazii . — There api)eared a iiiial report from the Commission upon the 
general map of Brazil (1875). 

Argentine Republic. — More than two hundred and fifty articles were 
shown by about one hundred exhibitors from Government, societies, and 
individuals. Of special mention are the astrt)nomical works of Professor 
Gould, a ground plan of Buenos Ayres, and a general map of Patagonia, 
by Captain Moyano, of the army, the Government representative at Venice. 

Franck. — France was w^ell represented, both from a Government and 
private point of view. The Geographical Service of the War Department, 
the mother geographic and topographic work of France, sent examples 
of its later productions, such as its maps of French territory, on the scales 
of 1:800,000, 1:600,000, 1:200,000, 1:80,000, 1:60,000, and 1:20,000, with 
many specimens of divers topographic studies and results. These, together 
with the Government map of the interior and pnl)lic works departments, 
as well as those of private publishers, would appear to give France a lead- 
ing, if not the leading, place among the topographic and orographic map 
producers of the world. The instruments employed in the astronomical 
and geodetic branches of this work (constructed by Bruner Brothers, of 
Paris) merit special mention. The general map of France (completed), 
scale 1 :500, 000, prepared by the fortification branch, as well as its topograph- 
ical section engaged in surveys of the sites of and approaches to fortified 
places, completes the most important of the articles noticed. 

Austria.— Special attention is due to the following objects: Specimens 
of the new topographic map of the empire (scale 1:75,000), seven hun- 
dred and fifteen sheets, of which three hundred and ninety have been com- 
pleted in nine years, reproduced by heliogravure; a type copper-plate, 
prepared by heliogravure, of a special sheet (1:75,000), as well as aphoto- 
zincograph plate, with proof sheets therefrom ; a new special map in colors 
of Vienna and environs (scale 1:12,500); school maps (scale 1:25,000 and 
1366 WH .5 



66 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

1:75,000); a pamphlet, by Major Voikoier, entitled "The execution and 
reproduction of military maps and plans of the Military Geographical In- 
stitute," with an atlas of fifty-live proof-sheets of specimens, showing differ- 
ent methods of reproduction, also the direct enlargement of the oi'iginal 
plane-table sheets (scale 1:25,000) to 1:7,500 for the war game or kriegsspiel. 

England and India. — The exhibits from England were peculiarly of 
a topographic and hydrographic character. Specially meritorious were the 
ordnance survey maps of scales 1:63,360, 1:10,560, 1:2,500, 1:1,056 and 
1:600, being the general topographic, county, cadastral, and city maps. The 
survey of India presented, mounted in wall-form, samples of its topograph- 
ic atlas (covering, next to Russia, the largest area of any single survey) 
on the scale of 1:255,561, with various maps of the Himalaya, Afghanistan, 
and other regions on different scales, together with manj^ publications of 
this great and worthy work. Special mention should be made of a self- 
registering tide-gauge, consisting of a cylinder with clock-work machinery, 
for registering tides of all amplitudes, constructed by Adie, of London, with 
the modifications suggested by Captain Baird, Royal Engineers. 

Russia. — The exhibits were more particularly from official sources and 
the Geographical Society. They were worthy of more attention than could 
possibly be extended, but a few among the many works of prominence 
are: The general topographic map of the empire, with a trigonometric 
basis, being executed on scale 1:126,000; another on the smaller scale 
1:42000, with specimens of field minutes for Russia and Finland of 1:21,000, 
and in the Balkans of 1:42,000 and 1:84,000. There are now seven topo- 
graphical sections, issuing maps and other publications, the central one 
being at St. Petersburg; of these there were present the Caucasus, 
Taschent, Omsk, Tiflis, and Orenburg. There should also be mentioned a 
"new map of European Turkey, scale 1:126,000, and of Afghanistan, scale 
1:2,100,000. There are special maps of the Balkans from works of 1877-78; 
also of Arctic Russia, Turkestan, and Khiva on small scales, with an index 
map showing progress of these works in Finland, and cadastral maps with 
a relief of Moscow, and various publications relating to all these matters. 
The Geographical Society were enabled to make also a liberal display of 
its labors since 1875. Fine astronomical and geodetic instruments made 



EXHIBITION BY CLASSES. 67 

by Repsold at Hamburg, after Russian designs, were also a marked feature 
of the exhibit, which was most ample and interesting. 

Sweden. — Maps of the general staff of the entire kingdom (scale 
1:100,000) and of a feAv separate departments (scale 1:200,000) were most 
worthy objects in the first class. 

Class II. — Hydrography. 

Holland. — In this class may be noted the special series of river charts 
(scale 1:10,000) and a number of marine charts of the East and West 
Indies. 

Spain. — The Hydrographic Office of Sjiain exhibited a large atlas in 
fifty-two sheets of the home coasts, of the north of Africa, of the Caribbean 
Sea, and Philippine Archipelago, together with reconnaissance meanders of 
many foreign coasts, with annuals (!9 volumes) from 1S63 to 1881, as well 
as a catalogue of maps, plans, &c., all meriting attention. 

Germany. — From the Hydrographic Bureau of the Admiralty there 
came new navitical charts of the German and adjacent seas; and from the 
Naval Observatory at Hamburg, sheets of an atlas of air and ocean cur- 
rents of the Atlantic, executed after Captain Maury's method. 

Italy. — The Hydrographic Office at Genoa (Commandante Magnaghi) 
was the principal exhibitor ; about fifty well executed charts and plans of 
harbors were noticed, also an interesting collectioii of instruments and pub- 
lications relating to this work, a description of which is given later on, show- 
ing that Italy no longer restricts her hydrographic work to home waters, 
as witness the voyages of the Magenta, the Vetter, Pisauo, and others. 

Belgium. — Attention here was drawn to a special map of the vicinity 
of Brussels, illustrating reservoir capacity. 

Japan exhibited about 100 coast island and harbor charts, one show- 
ing particularly the light-houses, the product of the Hydrographic Office at 
Tokio. 

Brazil. — Noticeable were the works on the Bay of Antonina and 
draining of the lagoon of Rodrigo de Freitas and an account of the voyage 
of the corvette Bahia. 

Argentine Republic. — The Geographical Institute exhibited a large 
number of English sea charts of the coasts and seas of the republic. 



68 • INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

France.— The French Hydrographic Office (Dc'pot des Cartes et Plans) 
presented many of its later highly valnable publications, 18 sets in all. 

Chili. — Notwithstanding its condition of war, Chili still exhibited most 
excellent articles from its Hydrographic Institute, not only coast charts and 
plans of bays and harbors, but also river and canal charts, results of special 
surveys. 

Austria. — The Hydrograj^hic Institute at Pola sent charts of the 
Adriatic, and especially noticeable were the liquid compass, by Anton 
Gareis (hydrographer), and the Universal Compensator, or central compass, 
by Joseph Peichl, lieutenant of the navy, also the duplex reflection 
goniograpli, by Constantin Pott, lieutenant of the navy. 

England —The Admiralty displayed qnite a complete collection of 
charts of its home and colonial coasts, as well as of its foreign series, all of 
which are too well known and appreciated to need comment. 

India. — The marine survey exhibited a series of charts relating to the 
Indian coast and a number of its later publications. 

Russia. — The Hydrographic Department offered a multiplicity of charts 
of the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and White Seas; of the coast of Nova Zembla, 
and the Pacific Ocean, with many later publications. The Hydrographic 
Section of the Ministry of Means of Communication displayed explanatory 
map manuscript of work being executed upon the rivers of Russia in Europe 
and Siberia, and various atlases and diagrams, showing the present energy 
and completeness in state works for interior improvements 

Sweden. — Various sea charts were exhibited by the Hydrographic 
Bureau, the works of Professor Eckmann in the North Atlantic Ocean in 
1877, and the instruments for deep-sea temperature and for measuring ocean 
currents. 

Class III. — Physical Geography, Meteorology, Geology, Zoology, and 

Botany. 

Holland. — The Meteorological 1 nstitute of Utrecht presented its pub- 
lications, also the central committee for Holland's Expedition to the Arctic 
Sea, while the East Indian Government offered many meteorological and 
physical geography contributions. 



EXHIBITION BY GLASSES. 69 

Hungary. — The Meteorological Institute, by its publications, indicated 
great activity, as well as tlie Philosophical Society of Buda-Pest, both 
appearing with a number of articles. 

Spain. — Worthy of close attention was the geologic map of the Pen- 
insula, by Botella, and also his hypsometric map of Spain and palaDOgraphic 
studies; also a geological study of Saragossa, by Donayre. 

Germany. — Many new geological maps from the Institute at Berlin, 
articles from the Mining Society of Westphalia, the Bavarian Office of 
Mines, and from the Central Bavarian Meteorological Office attracted atten- 
tion. 

Switzerland. — In this section was noticed the geologic map of Switz- 
erland (scale 1:100,000), based on the general topographic map of Duf'oui-, 
sixteen sheets of which had been issued by the Geological Commission, 
partly at private expense; also the labors of the Meteorological Institute, 
and the studies of the glaciers by the Alpine Club. 

Italy. — The several meteorological offices, and especially the central 
one at Rome, presented published evidence of their activity, and many new 
meteorological instruments were noticed. 

Belgium. — New geological charts were to be remarked by Andrew 
Dumont, chief of service of the Geological Map of Belgium. 

Japan. — An interesting collection of minerals, with works on zoology, 
botany, and archaeology were noted, as well as the later publications of the 
Imperial Meteorological Institute. 

Egypf. — There may be mentioned Mitchell's geological chart of the 
district between the Nile and Red Sea, with table of the yearly risings of 
the Nile, and meteorological observations for three years. 

Greece. — Alone the mineralogical works of Cordelia, in relation to 
the mines at Saurium and Oropos, appeared here. 

Argentine Republic. — A physical description of, by Dr. Burmeister, 
and botanical works, by Dr. Berg. 

Canada. — There appeared much interesting material from the Geolog- 
ical Commission under Selwyn, with reports from 1863 to 1879, and a num- 
ber of charts. 



70 INTEENATIONAL GEOGEAPHICAL C0:N^GRESS AT VENICE. 

France. — Nothing appeared from the service of the geological chart 
of France, but two meteorological observatories tendered their publications, 
as well as a like number of geographical societies. 

Austria. — The Geological Institute exhibited new geologic charts 
(scale 1 :75,00(', based on the military topographical map) and a number 
of other publications, while the Central Meteorological Bureau at Vienna 
presented its later published results. 

Russia. — Independent of contributions ft-om the Physical Observatory 
at St. Petersburg, there appeared maps illustrating the different soils of the 
empire and geological and allied memoirs on special regions. 

Sweden. — There was displayed evidence of the activity of the Geo- 
logical Bureau as well as the Meteorological Institute at Stockholm in 
numerous maps and reports, and photographic representation of cloud- 
forms by Hildebrand. 

Class IV. — Ethnology, Philology, and Anthropology. 

This group embraced anthropological and ethnological objects of in- 
terest, notable among which were collections from the Anthropological 
Museum at Paris, and maps, books, and sketches from the Museum of 
Gallic and Roman Antiquities at St. Germain; the etlmograpliic collection 
of the Egyptian expeditions in Dar For and the Njamnjam and Monbuttu 
countries; others from the Dutch Sumatra expeditions; from Sweden, col- 
lections by Nordenskjold and photographic albums of the ethnographic 
expeditions of 1878, 1879; from Italy, collections of DAlbertis in New 
Guinea; from Germany thei"e came an album of the Goddefroy Museum 
and the Field of the Dead at Ancon, in Peru, by Reiss and Stubel, and the 
prehistoric map of Bavaria; from Greece, the ethnographic chart and de- 
scription, bylveipert; and the Argentine Republic, the archaeological works 
of Ramon Lista and General Mitre on Tiahnanaco, with many other works 
from several countries. 

Class V. — Historical Geography. 

Holland. — There were shown two globes of Hendrick de Hond of 
1640, and atlases of Nicholas Visser, de Wit, and Blaene. 



EXHIBITION BY CLASSES. 71 

HuNGAUY. — Not less than two hundred and fifty articles were ex- 
hibited, two-fifths of which were taken from the library of the National 
Museum, the remainder almost entirely from the private collection of 
Giova Mircse. 

Spain. — Notable were the finely executed atlas made for Philip II, 
the collection of mathematical instruments of Charles II, the plans of 
Goleta and Mazagniver, the reproduction of the celebrated chart of Juan 
de la Cosa, old charts of tlie Indies, and an ancient plan of the city of 
Madrid, and copy of the letter of Columbus, written from the Canary Isl- 
ands February 15, 1493, announcing the discoveries of his first voyage. 

Germany. — Here were Curtius & Kiepert's Atlas of Athens and At- 
tica; Kunstmaini's Atlas relating to the discovery of America; two maps 
by a son of Columbus; also a curious collection of ancient astronomical 
and other instruments, by Mr. Heilbroner, of Munich. 

Switzerland. — This country presented a very complete collection of 
works, maps, and manuscripts relating to the ancient geography of Switz- 
erland, classed chronologically, with a brief historical sketch given in the 
special Swiss catalogue. 

Italy. — Earlier geographical works were arranged chronologically, be- 
ginning with the thirteenth century. There was an old astrolabe of the 
year 1216, instruments and diplomas from the relics of Marco Polo. The 
famous map of the world by Fra Mauro (1459) was exposed under glass, 
photographs of Avliich ajjpeared in the seventh class. There were also not less 
than from sixty to seventy portulanos, each finely and beautifully executed, 
the oldest with a date at Venice, 1318, and the most recent of 1615, showing 
the length of time (three centuries) that this method of representation was 
presumably in vogue. 

Egypt. — A few Arabic works and instruments were noticed, and a map 
of the world by Hadji Ahmed, 1559. 

Argentine Republic. — There may be mentioned the work of Quesada 
on the history of Patagonia. 

France presented a valuable selection from the National Museum and 
Library. 



72 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

Russia. — Works and maps on Asiatic Russia and Siberia were noticed 
in this section. 

Sweden. — There was noticed an album of one hundred and fifty-two 
charts, representing Ostrogothia in the years 1635-37. 

Class VI. — Commeecial and Statistical. 

This class was bountifully^ represented. Most of the principal countries 
with well organized statistical bureaus, a fully developed postal, telegraph, 
and railroad system, exhibited, with the exception of Germany, the Bava- 
rian statistical office alone being present. The ministries of commerce, 
agriculture, interior and public works, posts and telegraphs of France made 
an extensive and interesting exhibit of wall maps, atlases, geographico-stalis- 
tica.1 maps, charts, and reports. The Panama Canal Company, under De 
Lesseps, presented reports, maps, and models of this Isthmus route. The 
first sheets of a jDhysico-statistical atlas of Chavanne of Austria, maps, plans, 
and reports relating to the St. Gothard Railroad from Switzerland, and the 
projected Simplon Raih'oad, and of the works of improvement of the Rhine, 
Rhone, and Jura Rivers. Russia sent many works on agriculture, forestry, 
commerce, industry, the railroad, post, and telegraph systems, and population 
statistics. Hungary appeared with reports and plans of improvements at 
Szegedin and Buda-Pesth; also sketches and illustrations of the projected 
Corinth Canal. From Germany private publishers sent railway, agricult- 
ural, and statistical charts. 

Class VII. — Educational. 

The number and variety of articles in this group was probably the 
greatest of all. France, Germany, Russia, Italy, Austria, and Switzerland 
furnished valuable contributions of school atlases, wall maps, hypsometric 
maps in curves, denoting heights in vai'ious colors, maps in relief and in 
plastic representation, globes, text-books, and other matter relating to phys- 
ical, historical, and political geography. Russia represented a remarkable 
exhibition from the Pedagogic Museum of the War Department, of ethno- 
graphic and zoological models, race types in plastic, albums of ethnographic 
illustrations, and landscape topographic outfits for students. From Italy 



EXHIBITION BY CLASSES. 73 

appeared many plastograpbic illustrations of Vesuvius, Etna, and parts 
of the Alps. France was well represented in school maps of the entire 
country, plans of cities and towns, maps in curves, wall maps, atlases, the 
works of Reclus, Desjardin, Cortambert, and others. 

Austria exhibited fine heliograph and photolithograph reproductions of 
military maps in colors for school uses, also hypsometric works, globes, 
illustrations of the advancement of geography. Switzerland had a system- 
atic and choice exhibit, specially in relation to the dissemination of knowl- 
edge, with fine relief models of Alpine mountain groups. Germany ex- 
hibited atlases and maps, &c., from the establishments of Perthes, Reimer, 
and others, as well as the works of Petermann, Keipert, Berghaus, and 
others. Holland offered a very interesting expose of the various methods 
for the reproduction of maps, practiced at the Military Topographic Bureau 
at the Hague. 

Class VIII. — Explorations, &c. 

Holland was here represented by results of the Sumatra Expeditions 
(1877-1879), the Arctic Expedition of the Pandora (1875, 1876), and the 
recent explorations in Borneo by Bock. 

Italy contributed D'Albertis' works in New Guinea, Beltrame's White 
Nile, and that of Giglioli on the voyage of the Magenta. 

Austria exhibited results by Holub in South Africa, and those of Klut- 
schak, the companion of Schwatka, in the Arctic regions. 

France presented results of scientific explorations in Madagascar, by 
Grandidier, of Charnay in Mexico and Central America, Crevoux in South 
America, and those of Revoil in tlie Somali country. 

In the German division were found the works on China by Richthofen, 
Finsch's travels in Siberia, Schweinfurth's map of the Nile Valley and of 
the Arabian desert, with drawing and sketches of plants, of race types, 
African and Asiatic. 

The Argentine Republic exhibited results of explorations by Zeballos 
in Arancania, by Moyano, Moreno, and Lista in Patagonia, and those of 
Olascoaga in the Rio Negro. 



74 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS AT VENICE. 

From Belgium there was exhibited a map showing graphically the 
routes of African scientific exploration, a map compiled under the auspices 
of the International African Committee under the presidency of the King. 

The above are but a few of the many new, rare, and interesting things 
shown in this last but not altogether least important class. 

There were a number of objects, that especially attracted attention, as 
for instance in the Indian Section the self-registering tide-gauge. 

This instrument consists of a cylinder five feet long, to which are at- 
tached various wheels so arranged as to enable tides to be registered graph- 
ically on the largest possible convenient scales. Tides of amplitudes as great 
as 5 feet are represented on the natural scale, up to 10 feet on the scale of 
one-half, and up to 40 feet on the scale of one-eighth. The apparatus is 
constructed by Mr. P. Adie, of London (price about S450), after the modi- 
fications of Capt. A. W. Baird, Royal Engineers. 

Similar instruments, each supplemented with a self -registering barom- 
eter and anemometer, the latter also constructed by Mr. Adie, are in oper- 
ation at fifteen ports on the Indian coast. The instruments are worthy a 
trial in the United States. There were exhibited in this section diagrams 
and description, of Roberts' tide-predicting machine (reprinted from the 
Engineer, December 19, 1879), which machine is constantly employed by 
Mr. Roberts at the Nautical Almanac Office at London, in the prediction of 
tides for Indian and other ports, thus saving a large outlay for numerical 
calculations. In this section was also shown a Y level, with reversible eye- 
piece, designed by Mr. T. Gushing, inspector of scientific instruments, India 
Office, London, to facilitate the adjustments for collimation, and constructed 
by Cooke & Sons, instrument-makers, York, England, which instrument 
has lately been introduced in the Indian survey on trial. The base is made 
on the "Tribrach" principle, having three arms or branches, radiating from 
a central boss, the latter forming also the socket, or fitting in which the 
vertical axis revolves, which it is believed permits of greater delicacy in 
leveling than any mounting on four screws. For the spider lines of the 
telescope are substituted fine lines, ruled on plane and parallel glass, drawn 
with special care and accurac}'. The eye end is so constructed as to admit 
of reversion for testing the collimation adjustment and the object-glass 



EXHIBITION BY CLASSES. 75 

and eye glass ends are interchangeable for either testing or adjusting- the 
horizontality of the line of coUimation, wherein lies the greater part of 
the improvement claimed. 

The object-glass has a large aperture compared with its focal length, 
admitting thereby an increased amount of light ; the base is wide and stable, 
and the level is sensitive to small angular displacements, while harmony of 
proportion has been maintained. One thing particularly noticeable in all 
the new triangulation instruments of precision was the substitution of small 
circles with micrometers for larger circles with verniers. Of the new in- 
struments from the prominent makers none had circles of a greater diame- 
ter than 12 inches. It is claimed that the adoption of smaller circles with 
higher reading power is admissible and without detriment to accuracy, be- 
cause of the greater perfection now attained in graduation. 

There were noticed in the Austrian section various specimens of gutta- 
percha cloth, linen and paper matei'ials (the latter hemp) upon which to 
print maps for field and campaign purposes. The gutta-percha affords the 
greatest clearness for printing, and samples of exceeding supleness were 
among those displayed. This material is far more expensive than either 
linen or cotton, but does not present the durability of either, having, how- 
ever, the advantage of impermeability. The hemp paper manufactured 
in Vienna by the Neusiedler Paper Company is well calculated for maps 
for field use in ordinary campaigns, and is much used in European armies. 
Linen has the advantage of great durability with fine surface for printing, 
but is expensive. 

The Indian section displayed maps printed on fine, bleached, Man- 
chester cotton for field use, and it was claimed that they gave great satis- 
faction in the field and in campaigning, while the cost of the material is 
little, especially as compared with linen of like texture and fineness. 

The following publication, repeatedly receiving additions (French sec- 
tion), is mentioned as a valuable aid to the general student of geography : 
"Provisional list of special Geographical Bibliographies" (Liste provisoire 
de Bibliographies G^ograplilques Sp^ciales), by James Jackson, archivist 
and librarian of the French Geographical Society, 184 Boulevard St. Ger- 
main, 1881 (pamphlet 8°, pp. 340). 



III.-GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

(origin, organization, administration, functions, history, and progress.) 

LAND SURVEYS. 
INTEODUCTOEY. 

The present century has witnessed the gradual but steady develop- 
ment in perfection and accuracy of detail of the several general topographic 
(mathematically based) surveys of the old world. Not content with infor- 
mation gained upon the subject from publications examined at the Inter- 
national Geographical Congress at Venice, a personal visit was made to 
the main Government topographic offices at Florence, Vienna, Berlin, Mu- 
nich, Paris, Brussels, The Hague, and Southampton, and data were also 
obtained from other countries through correspondence. It has thus been pos- 
sible to gather a somewhat practical view of the origin, organization, ad- 
ministration, functions, and progress of these great topographic works, 
together with glimpses at their history, parts of which are deemed of inter- 
est. Incidentally information was obtained in regard to the allied features 
of the hydrographic surveys and geologic examinations of the various civ- 
ilized countries. 

The principal surveys of the several civilized Govei'nments that, i: ' con- 
sequence of the magnitude and variety of the interests involved, ass^ame 
an extent, and demand a minuteness and accuracy seldom required by 
communities or individuals, are divisible into three classes : 

(1) Topographic. 

(2) Hydrographic or marine. 

(3) Cadastral or revenue. 

The first become Geographical surveys when sufficiently extended and 
fundamentally based upon initial astronomic points with a trigonometric 
extension and when accompanied also by examinations in the physical geo- 
graphy branches of mineralogy, geology, and natural history. 

76 



INTKODUCTOEY. 77 

The name defines the second 

Tlie third, applicable to revenae purposes in older and thickly settled 
countries, and to land sub-divisions for settlement in newer countries, are 
simply planinietric. The surveys, necessary for groat engineering opera- 
tions, are naturally the outgrowth of the constructions demanded, being a 
proper function alone of the engineer in charge. 

There are derived, especially from the first two, maps of given areas, 

which possess when produced by Governments, as compared with those 

made by private means, a truthfulness and accuracy, which either are or 

ought to be above suspicion, resulting from a general and not a special 
survey. 

A more extended memoir on the subject of surveys in general, hereafter 
to appear in Vol. I, Geographical Report, quarto, will embrace (1) the 
measure (being the grade or class, with administration for and regulations 
of, also plans and estimates, annual projects, field and office methods, 
things touched upon only under " Functions " herewith), (2) the men (re- 
ferred to in " Organization,") and (3) the results (limited by time, cost, 
and practical wants, shown herein under " Progress.") 

All of these works in Europe are based upon and held subsidiaiy to large 
and permanent Governmental wants, or as an aid to specified industries. 

The statements here presented, however, refer only to the general and 
cei'tain technical features of these works, while it is hoped at some not very 
distant day that a brief paper can be prepared on the professional methods 
and processes of all trigonometric and topographic surveys of the higher order 
upon land, selecting the types found most satisfactory in practice. The gen- 
eral Governments (monarchical in form) have had, and have usually exer- 
cised, the authority to impose a direct tax upon land. For the convenience 
of this levy the Government has found the necessity of making measure- 
ments of all tracts in accordance with the mode of occupation, so as to show 
every manner of ground property, thus aiding in the actual and equable 
assessment and distribution of taxation. The outgrowth of such a require- 
ment has been the cadastral or revenue surveys, which in most cases have 
been simply planimetric and in advance of a more general survey based on 
topographic considerations, although in the instance of Great Britain the 
full and complete cadastral survey has been established last. 



78 GOVEENMBNT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

It is found that MM. Delambre and La Place, membei-s of a French 
commission, recommended a cadastral survey of France in the year 1804, 
upon the scale of 1 : 2,500, which was adopted and ordered by Napoleon I, 
but this work proceeded without a trigonometric basis, as has been the case 
with most of the cadastral surveys except that of England. The meaning 
of the term "cadastre," as defined in the "Recueil des lois et instructions 
sur les contributions directes," is "a plan from which the area of land may 
be computed and from which its revenue may be valued." 

The necessity for general topographic maps showing reliefs, although 
recognized at an earlier day, seems first to have been prominently developed 
in Europe, following the wars of Napoleon, and partly, too, through his per- 
sonal influence, who, himself a student of maps, fully comprehended their 
practical utility, having been also for eleven months of his career (from De- 
cember, 1794, to October, 1795), a member of the topographic service of the 
War Department of France; while the military map of South Germany was 
actually begun during the French occupation of 1801. General topographic 
maps (an indispensable auxiliary to the operations of an army) have increased 
in their accuracy, detail, and uniformity step by step with the science of 
modern warfare until now all the European states, except Greece, Turkey, 
and the little principalities and kingdoms bordering therefrom in the direction 
of Austria and Russia, are rapidly pushing to completion topographic sur- 
veys of great detail as to field operations, and are publishing maps therefrom 
(both general and special) highly elaborate, and most useful to all branches 
of the Government and the public, expending large sums of money, and 
looking forward to almost constant revision, after the systematic detailed 
surveys shall have been completed, and thus the several great Govern- 
ments contribute the basis of the complete geography of that part of the 
globe occupied and controlled by civilization. 

The grand general topographic survey, upon which these maps de- 
pend, is principally made up of three parts, viz: the triangulation, the 
topography, and the cartography. The main or primary triangulation 
rests on bases measured with the highest attainable accuracy, the origin of 
the geographical co-ordinates of which depend on initial astronomical de- 
terminations of the first or highest order of value ; from these datum points 



INTKODUCTOKY. 79 

as loci, a network of triangles is developed, with sides varying from 10 to 
lOU miles in length. The latitude and longitude, at least of one vertex, 
and the azimuth of one side of each tiiangle is then determined with the 
greatest care and precision. 

The primary triangulation forms the frame-work of a lesser or second- 
ary triangulation, from which tlic area is always subdivided by a tertiary 
triangulation. In extreme cases a further triangulation of the fourth and 
fifth order has been made. 

The points thus determined become the initial stations of the topogra- 
pher. 

Except in England and France the toj)ographi(' lield-notes have, as 
a rule, been laid down on the plane table. This method, by far the most 
effective for the delineation of all natural features, must be supplemented 
by theodolite and stadia work, and direct lineal measurements and offsets, 
when multiple detail is required. The combination of the two (plane-table 
sketching and direct measurements) with a thorough s5'Stem of ordinary 
or trigonometric leveling, leaves but little, if anything, to be desired in the 
mechanism by which the position and relief of all necessary points shall be 
determined and graphically recorded. The leveling (both by ordinary or 
trigonometric process) of all the above-mentioned points and as many 
others as has proved necessary has proceeded from independent datum 
planes at a number of sea-level stations. 

It has been stated that one experienced topographer, with two or more 
soldiers, in Austria, during the summer season (approximating 5J months), 
can survey 300 to 600 square kilometers (about 1 square mile per day) on 
the scale 1:25,000 and 150 to 230 square kilometers (approximating one- 
half square mile per day) at scale 1:12,500, delineating the same in ink or 
colors during the winter. In Germany one topographer is said to complete 
in the same interval about 145 square kilometers (approximating one-third 
squai-e mile per day) on scale 1:25,000. Schiavoni states, in his "Principii 
de Geodesica," that one topographer can complete about 80 square kilo- 
meters (approximating one-fifth square mile per day) in six months, on the 
scale of 1:20,000. 



80 GOVEENMENT LAND AND ItlARINE SURVEYS. 

This latter difference may possibly be explained partly by difference 
in scale, but principally from the character of the ground and facility of 
communication over it. 

The number of computed triangulation points of the second, third, 
fourth, and fifth order varies greatly. 

In Germany, including the fourth order, there are 22 to 34 such 
points for each plane table-sheet (approximating 55 square miles). 

The original field-notes or plane-table sheets of the topographer, super- 
vised and inspected by competent ofiicers in the field, go to the hands of 
the cartographer, by whom under rigorous official supervision and inspec- 
tion, they are reproduced on the same or a reduced scale for publication. 

These mathematically based topographic surveys extended, as they are 
to embrace large areas, where surface curvature is taken into account, become 
geographical surveys of the highest order of perfection yet reached, forming 
when properly done the mathematical frame-work for all geography. The 
cadastral survey usually, depending on a planimetric base and lineal meas- 
urements while extended also to embrace large areas, employs only a simple 
net-work of lines bounding properties. 

-It is at present the fashion among a certain class of scientific officials 
(specialists) in the United States to apply the name " geodetic survey" to 
a simple net of measured triangles with allied astronomic determinations, 
embracing also, accurately determined altitudes, while another class is 
attempting to appropriate all remaining scientific functions of Government 
Land Surveys, to the single and comparatively narrow use of the geologist. 

The application of the word "geodetic" as denominating a species of 
survey is a mis-use and Avithout due significance, since it imparts no fit 
definition of the object intended, while the use of the word " survey" to 
distinguish the examinations made in geology and allied scientific branches 
is inappropriate, in that it confounds the results of theoretical investiga- 
tions, with the mathematically determined facts and measurements usually 
and properly comprehended as a survey. 

It will be seen that the first and most useful function of geodesy is as 
the triangulation factor of a topographic survey, then when a requisite pre- 
liminary knowledge is thus had, to extend its purpose as an adjunct to the 



INTRODUCTORY. Ql 

classes of observations necessary for the most accurate possible measure- 
ments of the figure of the earth, while it has finally to be admitted that the 
work of detailed geologic examinations cannot properly begin until the 
topographic map is prepared for use as an index or graphic field note-book. 
The topographic survey lies at the foundation of all that constitutes 
finally an exact knowledge of physical geography, and no such survey is 
complete until all the natural and artificial features are mathematically 
measured, recorded, and delineated, the configuration being shown by 
equidistant rigidly accurate contours at intervals suited to all requirements. 
These requirements are properly dictated by the results demanded, as well 
as by time and cost, since the latter, were the contours carried for instance to 
the greatest precision demanded by military engineers m the studies for 
construction of permanent fortifications, and made applicable to the entire 
area of any given country, might readily be made to cost more than the 
value of all the land and other wealth found therein. 

Reproduction is by hand or mechanical engraving on stone, zinc, or 
copper. Hand engraving, especially on copper, is a long and costly process 
(reaching as high as $45 per square inch for hill work), and has been re- 
placed by photographic transfer— ^. e., photolithography when the receiv- 
ing and printing surface is stone, photo-zincography when zinc is used, and 
heliogravure for copper. The latter has been brought to a high state of 
perfection in Austria, and is used also for reproducing military topographic 
maps in Italy and Russia. Various means, chemical and otherwise, are 
now being attempted, with more or less success, for obtaining, with the 
greatest directness and clearness, transfers of specially skillfully delineated 
originals, to surfaces of zinc and copper. Chromo-lithographed maps are 
much employed in Continental Europe, as, for example, the new military 
map of France, 1 : 50,000, also French war department maps of scales 
1 : 800,000, 1 : 500,000, 1 : 400,000, 1 : 200,000, and 1 : 100,000 ; mihtary 
maps of Holland, 1:50,000 and 1:26,000 (Eckstein process); map of 
Italy, 1 : 100,000 ; the new map of Spain, 1 : 50,000, &c. 

The great advantage of colors in reading maps is fully recognized in 
Europe, especially by the military profession, but the technical difficulties 
1366 WH 6 



go GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

SO far surrounding the reproduction still render it impracticable for general 
use on account of expense 

These are gradually being obviated, and the process Eckstein, herein 
described, overcomes more than any other the difficulties. The methods of 
photogravure on stone, zinc, or by gelatine film, are largely availed of by 
Governments when assuming oflfensive military operations. 

The orography (topographic relief) has been delineated in many ways, 
notably by hachures, after the Lehman method (full straight line hachures 
normal to the adjacent contour of least level and of thickness corresponding 
to the slope) or the modification by General Miififing (broken and sometimes 
waving in place of straight lines) ; also by contours at fixed intervals, or by 
a combination of hachures and contours. Unlike the engineer s contour, 
brought to the perfection of a minute and exact survey, required alone for 
sites for fortifications, &c., those employed for map purposes are more or 
less conjectural, dependent upon the degree of accuracy of the leveling 
and the frequency of the established points on each contour. Particularly 
conjectural are those that have been employed in mountain topography, 
where details have necessarily been obtained by sketching. Hypsometric 
maps in colors (Hanslab's method) have also been used to some extent, and 
for strategic purposes are exceedingly clear and valuable. 

Contours are employed to the exclusion of all other conventional meth- 
ods of hill or mountain representation, alone, in the topographic maps of 
Spain, Belgium, and Denmark; hachures alone are still adhered to entirely 
in Russia, Holland, Sweden, Portugal, India, and Dutch East Indies; for 
Germany, scale 1 : 100,000; Austria, scale 1 : 75,000; France, scale 1 : 80,0o0; 
Switzerland, scale 1 : 100,000; and a combination of hachures and contours, 
France, scale 1 : 50,000 ; Italy, 1 : 100,000, 1 : 50,000, and 1 : 25,000 ; Bava- 
ria, 1:25,000; Switzerland, 1:50,000 and 1:25,000, contours, with oro- 
graphy in tinted shading, for Norway, 1 : 100,000, and Saxony, 1 : 25,000 ; 
while editions both in contours and hachures are issued of the English maps, 
scales 1 : G3,3f)0, 1 : 10,560, and Prussia, 1 : 25,000. 

Without exception, in all Europe, and wherever topographic surveys 
have been systematically developed, the geologist avails himself of the 
topographic map as a base work, and preliminary to his investigations in 



INTRODUCTORY. 83 

the Held, and upon which to delineate and publish in colors his theoretical 
abstractions as to the several geological formations and their lines of 
demarcation, according to the classification and nomenclature in vogue in 
the several countries, but in no case, known to me, has the geologist had or 
exercised jurisdiction or control over the more important and fundamental 
operations upon which the trigonometric and topographic survey and its 
results are based. Nor does the geologist exercise any control even in con- 
nection with the mathematical construction of the detailed map, the func- 
tions of which, as will be seen, are dominated by broad and general 
requirements pertaining to one of the highest duties of government, the 
country's defense. When once the natural features, with all means of com- 
munication, are determined, this map can be developed in economic suc- 
cession to meet all industrial wants, national, state, municipal, and indi- 
vidual, and it cannot be confined to the comparatively narrow requirements 
of special branches of science. 

These topographic maps are found indispensable, not alone to the war 
departments of the several Governments for all general as well as special mili- 
tary operations (strategic and otherwise), but of primal importance to other 
departments as well, especially those organized to promote the industries of 
agriculture, commerce, and mining; to those engaged in public works of inte- 
rior improvement relating to means of communication, flow of waters, estab- 
lishment and perpetuation of harbors (in their conception and study), thereby, 
as in other like cases, saving long and expensive researches; in the decision of 
claims; in selecting areas for cultivation; also in works of irrigation; arte- 
rial drainage of marsh and swamp lands, as well as in prevention of inun- 
dation, and also as aids to artesian boring and in the management of forests; 
thev are useful also in illustrating the economic classification of the soil; 
for the recording of general geological investigations, including the several 
formations and the distribution of extinct as well as living fauna and flora; 
as an aid in the study of meteorological phenomena and in scientific re- 
searches generally; as preliminaries to the projection of railways, canals, 
and other lines of communication; to the hydrographic surveyor in his 
field of operations ; in the establishment and marking of post routes, com- 
pleted railroads, canals, and telegraph lines, as well as reservations, admin- 
istrative and other boundaries; ako for the enhghtenment of justice; the 



84 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

elucidation of questions of history, ancient geography, ethnology, or archae- 
ology; in international treaties, cessions of territory, and rectifications of 
frontiers. In Europe, especially, the map, prepared in advance, or pari2}assu, 
as a preliminary to any of the above undertakings, is considered almost a 
sine qua non. In addition to governmental uses, those for municipal and 
educational purposes, and by the people generally, are too numerous for 
mention here. 

The principal Grovernment maps now in use can be classified under the 
heads of (1) topographic, (2) economic, (3) cadastral. 

Since the vertical element of the topographic survey has reached a 
greater degree of refinement, the map has frequently been designated as 
orographic, chorographic, or hypsometric. The economic maps are severally 
known as those for land classification, agricultural, statistics, post routes, 
drainage, forestry, sanitary purposes, railways, telegraphs, interior communi- 
cations and navigation, river and harbor improvements, national roads, ports, 
for recording geologic, mineralogic, and meteorologic results, &c. 

The above (except engineering maps) are all based upon the original 
or mother topographic map, with or without the orography, and varying in 
amount of detail. 

There are also special engineering, magnetic, natural history, ethno- 
graphic, archseologic, historic, boundary and outline or planimetric maps 
(generalized), the latter usually on a small scale. 

By far the most important or paramount use to which the topographic 
map has been applied is naturally that for military purposes (in fact in this 
connection the terms military and topographic are synonymous), since a 
military establishment, with its varied functions, is necessary to every Gov- 
ernment for the full and final protection of its citizens, and the defense of its 
soil with the structures and improvements thereon, and the first necessity of 
the strategist is a thorough knowledge of the physical conformation, the ob- 
stacles and resources of a country in which operations are to be conducted, 
and no military commander has ever in advance, thoroughly and success- 
fully planned a campaign, or properly carried on the operations thereupon 
"consequent, or conducted armies in advance or retreat, protected lines of 
communication and the forwarding of supplies, or has grasped the situation 



INTRODUCTORY. 85 

as a whole in the nuniei'ous details required by the advanced state of mili ■ 
tary science and art, except by a thorough and free use of a full supply of 
accurate topographic maps, upon which are delineated all the natural and 
economic or artificial features, and of the means of transit over the territory to 
be protected or the region embraced within the scope of the military ope- 
rations. 

Other' than the topographic maps of every scale, used by the war serv- 
ice of Governments, are special maps for military uses, as of passes and 
positions, camps, garrisons or posts, manoeuver grounds, for tactics, war, and 
fortification studies, of fortified, halting and camping places, and itineraries, 
prepared and pubhshed generally on scales from 1:500 to 1:12,500. Most 
of the above are held alone for confidential Government uses. 

On examination of the detailed topographic maps that have been pub- 
lished in Europe alone (both general, special, and miscellaneous), it is found 
that there has been used, either by names, abbreviations, or conventional 
signs, a distinction between 1,148 delineated objects (natural or artificial) ; of 
these 140 refer to natural features, 331 to commerce and means of commu- 
nication (natural or improved), 71 to agriculture, 65 to manufacturing, 18 
to mining, 53 to purely technical, and 65 to special military purposes, as 
commands, stations, depots, fortifications, working defenses, &c., and 142 
are miscellaneous. 

All of these without exception, upon scales (large and small) depend- 
ent upon either a study of actual theaters of war, or approaches thereto or 
intercommunication, are a true requii'ement of the strategist and commander, 
and thus very properly through the centuries, topography has grown up 
a permanent unvarying essential of the military profession, than whom none 
other is ever to have the same need for the knowledge thus recorded, while 
unremitting vigilance is necessary to its protection from spoliation at the hand 
of such filibusters, as may, under the flag of the sister sciences, march forth 
to the subjugation of this, in common with all other scientific knowledge, in 
order that it may be finally prostituted to their sole ambitious aims. 

As an aid in strategical movements, the forward manoeuvers of the 
Prussians dming their entrance into France, and in their methodical march 
on Paris, in the late Franco-Prussian war, was an apt illustration of the 



86 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

precision and dispatch (counting to the hour) with which large bodies of 
troops may be disposed and handled over a "terrain," known in advance in 
minute detail and faithfully shown upon the map. Much of this very detail 
(of later or current date) had been secured by German topographers prior 
to commencement of hostilities, and it may be safely asserted that the Ger- 
mans were to some extent able to organize their aggressive movements with 
more certainty of success because of their intimate knowledge of French 
territory, and since also this information had been placed graphically in the 
possession of field and other officers, and in the hands of non-commissioned 
officers even, in forms suited to all requirements. 

The above are but some of the most apparent uses to which Govern- 
ments put the record found on the topographic map; there are others con- 
nected with statistics and special subjects of constant occurrence, while the 
public at large find these maps valuable when sufficiently detailed (as they 
are in Europe) in many of the daily avocations of life. Thus maps show- 
ing the detailed configuration of all the natural features of the ground, and 
the constructions and improvements made thereupon by man, are alike useful 
to peace in its manifold functions, and as a conservative prerequisite to war 
in its operations, offensive and defensive. As long ago as 1768, when the 
representatives of the provinces of Hungary protested to Emperor Joseph 
II against a survey of their country, they were met by the reply, "To govern 
a country well, it is necessary to know it well." 

In Europe the possession of good maps has now become of recognized 
importance to the citizen, be he a professional, manufacturer, agriculturist, 
or merchant, as well as to the soldier or Government, while their use to all 
classes of the public increases with each decade. 

If the detail is carried to that required for revenue purposes (as for 
instance to the scale of 1 : 2,500 employed in England), the whole based 
on the trigonometric points needed for the topographic survey, the added 
uses of the map are for purposes of registration, valuation, and transfer of 
land. 

In addition to the general topographic and cadastral survey, special 
surveys are required for the sites of fortifications and vicinities, defensive 
field-works, and other Government constructions, upon which to base all 



ORiGm, 87 

works for drainage and improvements in cities and large towns (the latter 
cared for by the general governments in Europe); and especially in the 
United States, and the colonies of Great Britain, the land-parcelling surveys, 
as an aid in securing and perfecting title. 

The scope of this report will not extend beyond the (1) topographic, 
(2) hydrographic, (3) geologic works of a general character with a reference 
simply to the cadastral and incidentally the more special surveys executed 
by the Governments. 

ORIGIN. 

The land operations herein enumerated are the great general topo- 
graphic or mother surveys of the country from whence maps for military 
and industrial purposes have directly been constructed or compiled, or for 
scientific uses, as those upon which colors have been superposed, to show 
formations as in geology and the distribution of various other subjects in 
natural history, &c. By long use or custom in the above connection the 
words "topographic" and "mihtary" have become practically synonymous. 

The terms "geodetic survey," lately coined by specialists in the United 
States, do not appear in any of the European works, nor would they be 
appropriate, since if each kind of mechanism, method or system, invented 
or employed to determine the relative position of various classes of inor- 
ganic forms were to be designated a "survey," there would finally be as 
many surveys of a given area as there were kinds of examinations, inves- 
tigations, or reseaches (of which the number is becoming legion), and we 
should then have independent of the topographic survey (the only one 
fully defining the relief of the land and the hydrographic, of like functions 
for the ocean bed and that of navigable waters), at least the following sep- 
arate kinds of surveys, i. e., geodetic, trigonometric, hypsometric, meteoro- 
logic, magnetic, gravimetric, geognostic, geologic, mineralogic, zoologic, 
botanic, ethnologic, archseologic, &c. 

The measurements of arcs and chains of primary triangulation with 
determinations of latitudes, longitudes, and azimuths, and initial astronomi- 
cally established points, Avith also hypsometric work, made with the great- 
est attainable accuracy, for older and more thickly settled regions, are a 
prerequisite to a topographic survey of the first order of value, and such 



B8 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

further observations as refer to gravity, atmospheric refraction, magnetic 
intensity, new star determinations, plumb-line deflections (constituting 
special features of geodesy), while manifestly of the highest scientific inter- 
est, are not in Europe allowed such jurisdiction as to interfere in the 
slightest with the uniform and vigorous prosecution of the measure in hand 
(the topographic survey); no more than the deep-sea soundings, tidal or 
other physical observations prevent the early completion of the detailed 
systematic hydrograpliic survey. 

The above definition is made to prevent any ambiguity as to what is com- 
prehended by the " land and marine surveys" of the principal Governments. 

In England the great general or topographic survey may be said to 
have commenced with the measurement of the Hounslow Heath base, under 
General Roy, Royal Military Engineers, in 1784, the triangulation for the 
(military) topographic map dating from 1791. 

Prior to the organization of the several German states into the present 
Empire the general land or topographic surveys were prosecuted independ- 
ently. In Prussia, prior to 1816, there existed only the desultory works of 
a few administrative departments of the Government and individuals, at 
which date these map works were transferred from the Statistical Bureau 
of the Finance Department to the General Staff of the army, where they 
have since remained. In 1864 the more systematic topographic survey 
of the six Eastern provinces of Prussia was established, and in 1870, the 
new general map, scale 1:100,000 — 674 sheets — was projected. 

Triangulation was begun in 1781, followed by detailed topography in 
1785. 

The oldest MS. map found mentioned of Saxony dates from 1531. 
The survey of the country was first encouraged by August, the Elector, 
and conducted by members of the Oder family, from 1550-1600, publica- 
tions therefrom being prevented. The first map seems to have been printed 
in 1568, and to have been used with revisions for over 200 years. 

The Aventine map of Upper and Lower Bavaria, 1523, that by Apian, 
1536, are the first known, and were used for over 200 years. The first 
Bavarian atlas was projected by Bonne (in 1801), an officer of the French 
General Staff (Etat-Major), detached for this purpose. The General Staff of 



ORIGIN. 89 

the liavarian army has systematized and prosecuted this work without inter- 
mission since 1817. 

The first known map of Wurtemberg is, one by Stoffler (1452, unpub- 
lished), which was accidentally burned in 1534. The oldestknown published 
map was issued at Tubingen in 1559. The first trigonometric observations 
began in 1793. Systematic triangulation dates from 1818. 

Trigonometric and topographic works in Baden began in 1812-14, 
under Colonel Tulla, chief of the corps of military engineers. 

The earliest known atlas of the Austrian domain consists of eleven 
wood cuts, dated 1561. The oldest geometric maps of Austria date from 
the seventeenth century. Triangulation began in 1762. 

The military Topographic Bureau of France dates from 1688, and has 
been in continuous existence ever since. 

The Dufour military survey of Switzerland commenced in 1830. 

Astronomic and trigonometric observations for a general topographic 
map of Holland were begun in 1802 by General Krayenhoff, inspector- 
general of fortifications and of the corps of engineers. 

Triangulation seems to have begun in Spain in 1855. 

In Italy, prior to the consolidation in 1861, the Italian state Govern- 
ments prosecuted separate surveys dating from about 1815. Austria con- 
trolled in the northern part of Ital} till 1866. 

The first map of Sweden appears to have been executed in 1539, and 
the first engraved map in 1626. Surveys of different grades have beeu 
going on for over 20U years. The first complete map was issued about the 
year 1 800. The oldest known triangulation began in 1 758. 

A map of the Inlet of Ide, in Norway (scale approximately 1 : 50,000), 
appeared in 1661. A description of parishes was begun in 1706, and a 
general map of Norway appeared in 1761. The military topographic survey 
was ordered in 1773. 

The oldest geographical knowledge of Russia, consisting of descriptions 
of real estate by the fiscal agents of the Mongolian occupation, dates from 
the middle of the thirteenth century. 

The first general map of Russian territory, now lost, was made about 
the middle of the sixteenth century and called "The Great Drawing." A 



90 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

printed map of Russia, published 1614 at Amsterdam, with Latin inscription, 
is found in the scientific military archives of the General Staff Bureau at 
St. Petersburg. Peter the Great was the first to fully realize the necessity 
of an accurate geographical knowledge of the Empire. He ordered the exe- 
cution of surveys, preparation of maps, description of territory by districts 
in 1720, and made it part of the duties of the office of the quartermaster- 
general to collect all needful information in regard to military topography 
and roads over which to move armies. Triangulation scientifically con- 
ducted began in 1816 in Russia. 

The trigonometric operations for a topographic survey of Belgium date 
from 1844. 

The oldest noted map of Denmark bears date of 1550 ; another one 
was issued between 1638 and 1652. Triangulation commenced in 1762. 
The organized military survey dates from 1809. 

Geographic works have long been fostered by the Government of 
Portugal, and topographic works resting on a trigonometric basis were 
begun at the close of the eighteenth century. 

Surveys on the coast of what is now called British India began about 
1600. The first map mentioned is the one by D'Anville in 1754 Route 
surveys began in 1763. Triangulation was introduced about 1800 

Instrumental topography may be said first to have been undertaken 
for the Government of the United States shortly after the Louisiana pur- 
chase by the expedition of the army officers, Lewis and Clarke, from the 
Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, set on foot by President Jefferson 
(the importance of the exploration of this territory having been appreciated 
by him, was brought forward as early as 1796 in the Philosophical Soci- 
ety of Philadelphia, of which he was a member), and in pursuance of a 
specific confidential grant of money by Congress, the significance of which 
act is not likely to be overestimated in its influence toward the extension 
and acquisition of the broad continental belt now belonging to the United 
States. 

ORGANIZATION 

Personal examination at Venice, inquiry at the survey offices of the vari- 
ous Governments and the different geographical societies visited in Europe, 



UEGANIZATION. 91 

niucli correspondence and search at many important libraries, sufficed to 
find only twenty distinct topographic survey organizations, distributed as 
follows: (1) United Kingdom, at Southhampton, England (under a major- 
general until 1883, the present director- general being Col. R. H. Stotherd, 
Royal Military Engineers); (2) Prussia, at Berlin (in charge of Major 
General Regely, of the General Staff); (3) Saxony, at Dresden (in charge 
of Colonel von der Planitz, chief of the General Staff); (4) Bavaria, at 
Munich (in charge of Colonel von Orff, of the General Staff) ; (5) Wurtem- 
berg, at Stuttgart (under the Statistical Topographic Bureau, with Colonel 
H. Bach, Corps of Engineers, as chief of the topographic branch); (6) 
Baden, at Carlsruhe (in charge of Lieut.-Colonel Schneider, of the 
Prnssian General Staff); (7) Austria, at Vienna (Major General Joseph 
Baron Wanka von Lenzenheim, director); (8) France, at Paris (in charge 
of Colonel Perrier, of the General Staff); (9) Switzerland, at Berne (in 
charge of Col. J. J. Lochman, Corps of Engineers); (10) Holland, at The 
Hague (office, only, in charge of C. A. Eckstein, director, under the chief 
of the General Staff, a major general); (11) Dutch East Indies, at Ba- 
tavia (in charge of Major Meyer); (12) Spain, at Madrid (in charge of 
Field Marshal Charles Ibanez de Ibero, Corps of Engineers) ; ;^13) Italy, at 
Florence (in charge of General Charles Gend); (14) Sweden, at Stockholm 
(in charge of Col. Victor von Vegesack, of the General Siaff); (15) Nor- 
way, at Christiania (in charge of Col C. G. With, chief of the General Staff); 
(16) Russia, at St. Petersburg (in charge of Major-General de Forsch, Gen- 
eral Staff); (17) Belgium, at Brussels (temporarily in charge of Maj. E. 
Hennequin, of the General Staff); (18) Denmark, at Copenhagen (in charge 
of Maj. Gen. L. E. Fog, chief of the General Staff); (19) Portugal, at Lis- 
bon (in charge of Brig. Gen. Carlos Ernesto de Arbuds Moreira) ; and (20) 
India, at Calcutta (in charge of Lieut. Gen. J. T. Walker, Royal Military 
Engineers, as surveyor-general). 

With the exception of the Topographic Institute at The Hague (the 
functions of which are confined to tlie office, and are more or less technical 
and connected with reproduction of maps, the field-work being performed 
by and under officers of the General Staff), the field and office topo- 
graphic operations are in charge of and controlled and directed by offi- 



92 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

cers of Military Engineers, or of the General Staff of the army of the sev- 
eral ranks of major, colonel, brigadier, major and lieutenant-general, and 
field-marshal* 

In England the organization has from the first been known as the 
"Ordnance Survey," with an officer of the Royal Military Engineers as 
director-general, with the rank of lieutenant-general or major-general, until 
1883, when a colonel was placed in charge It now consists (1885) of 
30 officers, 128 non-commissioned officers, and 229 soldiers of the Royal 
Engineers, 1,962 civilian assistants of various grades, and 934 laborers, 
numbering 3,'>83 in all. 

The main office at Southampton, in charge of the director-general, has 
the following divisions: 

(1) Administration, correspondence, and accounts. 

(2) Examination of manuscript plans, reduction and drawing of maps for engrav- 
ing, photozincography, letter-press printing, and electrotyping. 

(3) Trigonometric branch. 

(4) Engraving general topographic maps on copper, plate-printing, and coloring 
maps. 

A special boundary office is found at London and ten sub-offices 
throughout England; also one at Edinburgh for Scotland; another at 
Dublin for Ireland; the latter for publication, engraving, and revision. 

In Prussia the state land survey (Landes-Aufnahme) is in the charge 
of a special chief (a major-general), under the chief of the Great General Staff" 
(^tat-major gdndral) of the army at Berlin. It consisted July, 1885, of 93 
officers of the General Staff", Engineers, and of the Army, 408 technical 
officials and 39 clerks, messengers, &c., or 540 persons in all. 

There is a central (deliberative and consultative) commission of sur- 
veys in Prussia, presided over by the chief of the Great General Staff", now 
Field Marshal Count von Moltke. 

This commission is composed of representatives from the following 
Bureaus of the several ministries : 

Treasury : Public domain, forests, and forestry ; direct taxes. 

* There have existed for the prosecution of topographic works, at least, the following specially 
selected corps of officers, known iu France as "Engineer Geographers" and " Military Geographical 
Engineers" (11596 to 1831), as "Military Engineer Geographers" in Austria (1851 to 1861), and "Mil- 
itary Topographical Engineers" in Russia (182-2 to date), and the corps of Topographical Engineers in 
the United States from March 3, 1813, to March 3, 1863. 



OEGANIZATION. 93 

Commerce: Admiuistratiou of railways, land and water improvements, and com- 
munications. 

AfiHcultnre: Comnmual division and amelioration of land. 

Public instruction : Geodetic institute. 

War und general sta^f: State survey and geographic-statistical division of the 
General Staff. 

Marine. — Hydrograjjhic ofQco and survey of the coast. 

The Minister of the Interior, in addition to the above, is entitled to a 
representative on this commission.* 

The general state land survey, with its main office at Berlin, has tour 
principal divisions, as follows : 

The general office (semi-administrative and executive in its control), 
consists of 47 officers of the army, 208 technical officials, 30 clerks, mes- 
sengers, &c., and is subdivided as follows : 

(1) Trigonometric division. — Section I : Office of the chief, repair and 
supervision of instruments and means of transportation, correspondence, 
purchase of ground for monuments. Section II : Principal triangulation. 
Section III : Triangulation of second class. Section IV: Detailed triangu- 
lation. Section V: Leveling and altitudes. Section VI : Publication, ar- 
chives and library. 

(2) Topographic division. — Section I : Office of chief. Section II: Prep- 
aration for field operations, care and repair of instruments, archives and 
library. Section III: Reconnaissances. Section IV: Field survey sections. 

(3) Cartographic division. — Section I : Office of chief, archives and 
library. Section II : Drawing of map 1 : 100,000. Section III : Publi- 
cation of map 1:25,000. Section IV: Revision of original maps. Sec- 
tion V: Revision on stone. Section VI : Copper engraving. Section VII : 
Printing. Section VIII : Photographic institute. Section IX : For general 
and staff purposes. 

The triangulation work required by this most systematic of surveys, 
is the first duty of the organization, and proceeds independently, although 
adopting, when convenient, any of the lately verified triangulation, con- 
ducted by the Prussian members of the international commission for " Eu- 

"The bureaus of mines and mining, and of the geological examination of Prussia, are not 
represented on this commission. 



94 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

ropean degrees measvirements," under Greneral Bayer, a retired officer ot 
the Genera] Staff, and formerly chief of the " Landes-Aufnahme."* 

In Saxony the topographic work is carried on by the General Staff of 
ihe army, with a colonel of the General Staff (Etat- Major) in charge. 

In Bavaria the topographic survey has been conducted continuously by 
the Army General Staff since 1817. The present director has the rank of 
colonel. 

The Statistical Topographic Bureau of Wurtemberg, with a small topo- 
graphic office at Stuttgart, consists of 1 director, 1 honorary, 9 ordinary, and 
2 extraordinary members, with 17 assistants, with a civil head, only a small 
number of whom, under the direction of an army officer, are engaged on 
topography. A consultative commission, with delegates fi'om the Ministries 
of Justice, the Interior, Education, and War, are superior functionaries of 
this bureau. The trigonometric and topographic works of Baden (with main 
office at Carlsruhe) are conducted by a lieutenant-colonel of the Prussian 
General Staff. 

In Austria-Hungary the present organization of the Military-Geograph- 
ical Institute, a branch of the General Staff of the army, at Vienna, consisted 
in 1881 of 296 officers, 190 technical officials, and 300 non-commissioned 
officers, soldiers, and day workmen, 786 in all, with a major-general at its 
head. The military surveys in Austria during the last half of the eighteenth 
century were conducted under the quartermaster-general, and the land sur- 
vey has been exclusively executed by officers of the army, who had also 
hitherto beea detailed for geodetic operations. 

* The Gre.at General Staff of the Prussian army, traces of which date back as far as the Branden- 
burg army under the great Elector, consisted, in 1875, of 147 officers of all grades, with 40 other officers 
attached for one year's duty. This body has had since 1821 an independent position, subject alone to 
the control of the commander-in-chief (now the Emperor of Germany). General Field Marshal Count 
von Moltke has held the position of chief since October 29, 1857. 

Its duties are: the management of all questions concerning its personnel and arrangement of 
duties therefor, the continual development of military knowledge concerning both Germany and other 
countries, the use of railways, the compilation of military history, the promotion of military science, 
maps, the great topographic survey of the country, &e. 

For strategic jiurposes there are three sections, to each of which arc allotted a given number of 
countrieis, the duties of each of which are to attentively follow all military innovations at home and abroad, 
keeping informed of all matters concerning military organizations, reserves, the armament and equip- 
ment of armies, the militarj' geography of countries, the construction or removal of perniaueni fortili- 
cations, the development of railways, roads, canals, &c. 

The fourth section is that for railroads. Its special duty is to keep informed of everything that 
affects the subject of military trausport, and to possess and maintain an accurate knowledge of all 



ORGANIZATION. 95 

The following, taken from the year book of 1881, shows the divisions 
of the organization:* 

Group 1. — Direction of the institute. 

Group 2. — Astronomic geodetic division. 

Group 3. — Mapping: (a) military land surveys; (b) mihtary drawing 
division f 

Group 4. — Topography: (a) chief; (b) topography ; (c) special map 
drawing division; (d) lithography; (e) copper engraving; (f) correction 
nnd revision of maps. 

Group 5. — Technical: (a) chief; (b) photography and chemigraphy; 
(c) heliogravure; (d) photolithography: (e) presses, bookbinding. 

Group 6. — Administration: (a) chief ; (b) archives ; (c) accounts ; (d) 
uon-commissioned officers. 

Group 7. — Cadastral division, f 

The Military Topographic Bureau of the War Department of France 
was established in Paris 1688, where it has since continuously existed. A 
corps known as "Engineers of Camps and Armies" was established in 1696, 
which was changed to the designation of " Engineer Geographers of Camps 
and Armies" in 1726, and to which a more stable status was given in 1744. 
In 1760 the engineer geographers were separated from the bureau of forti- 
cations, and in 1761 consolidated with the "d^pot des cartes et plans" By 
ordinance of 1776 the above body was associated in service with the Mili- 

railway systems both at home aud abroad, together with their capacity for trafiSc, and to plan large 
military transport arrangements, &c 

The military history section has charge of the records and the library. A geographic-statistical 
section is charged with the preparation of foreign military maps, and a special and independent branch 
has charge of everything connected with the great general survey. There is no army of Continental 
Europe without its general staff, engaged in specific duties and with a selected personnel drawn from 
the most able and meritorious olHcers of the army at large. (Sec " The Duties of the General Staff', by 
Maj. Gen. Vou Schelleiidorf," translated by W. A. H. Hare, Lieutenant of Eoyal Engineers, London, 
1877.) 

* The total personnel of this Institute in 1876 was 1,258. (See Comstock, "Notes on European 
Surveys," p. 48.) There existed in Austria from 1851 to 18H1, a specially selected corps of " Military 
Engineer Geographers" disbanded, however, upon the reorganization of the General Stall' in 1861. 
tThis includes a military drawing school for selected officers and non commisioned officers. ' 
{The above establishment is a direct outgrowth of the " Deposit o della Guerra" of the Cisalpine 
Republic, created at Milan about the year ISOO, when a military topographic corps, called "Engineer 
Geographers," was formed, to which were attached ofSceis of the enginec r corps (Corps du G^nie) of 
the Franco-Italian army. After the Austrian occupation of 1814 the above was continued under tLe 
n.ime of "Istitnto Geographico Militare." This office was transferred in 1839 to Vienna and perpet- 
uated substantially nuder its present form. 



96 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

tary Engineers, and in 1777 the title of "Military Geographical Engineers" 
was conferred. In 1791 the functions of the latter were merged with those 
of the Military Engineers. A final reorganization was effected in 1799, with 
a special bureau directly under the First Consul. Topographic surveys 
were carried on by the "Engineer Greographers" until their disbandraent in 
1831, when they were taken up and carried to completeness by the "Etat- 
Major." The name of the central office in Paris has been "D^pdt de la 
Guerre," and for which the title "Service Geographique" has been given to 
the new surveys and revisions of the mother topographic map. The pres- 
ent head of this branch of the service has the rank of colonel. 

The organization having charge of the topographic work in Switzer- 
land is located at Berne, and is known as the "Federal Topographic Bureau 
of the General Staff," with a colonel of Military Engineers in charge. It 
consisted in 1875 of engineers, engineer topographers, draughtsman, en- 
gravers, lithographers, and printers, the number varying according to the 
means annually at disposal. 

In Holland a number of officers of the General Staff of the army, under 
the head of that bureau, conduct the topographic work in the field and pre- 
pare the results for publication, while the Topographic Institute, with Mr 
Eckstein as director, under the same authority, has charge of the reproduc- 
tion of all maps for the war and other ministries of the Government. 

The topographic office of the Dutch East Indies at Batavia is under 
the charge of a major of the army.* At this writing the personnel is 
unknown. 

The Geographic Statistical Institute at Madrid is under the charge of 
an officer of the Corps of Engineers (Field Marshal Ibanez,) who is assisted 
permanently and by detail by officers of Engineers, Artiller)^, and the General 
Staff, engineers of " Fonts et Chaussdse," of Mines and of Waters and For- 
ests, of Astronomers, a Corps of Topographical Engineers (officers and topo- 
graphers), and geodetic aids. All military officers and civil engineers while 
employed on this duty receive extra compensation therefor. 

"Colonel Versteeg, Eoyal Dutch Engineers (noiy retired), a delegate at Venice, was formerly in 
charge of this office. 



ORGANIZATION. 97 

At the same time the General Staff of the War Department of Spain is 
engaged in the preparation of maps, making reconnaissances, &c. 

The topographic works in Italy are carried on by the Military Geo- 
graphic Institute at Florence, a branch of the General Staff of the army, but 
with power of independent action and self-control. It is composed of officers 
of the General Staff, Military Engineers, officers of Artillery, Cavalry, and 
Infantry, technical and clerical assistants, and a number of selected enlisted 
men. 

The topographic section of the array General Staff has charge of the 
land surveys in Sweden. In 1806 the Swedish field surveying corps was 
established, embracing duties hitherto done by the Royal Fortification Corps 
and arm}^ at large, with a definite organization. In 1811 this branch was 
merged with the Fortification Corps under the name " The Royal Engineer 
Corps," divided into the fortification and field survey brigade. The topo- 
graphic part was separated and organized independently in 1831. Since 
January 1, 1874, the topographic corps has been dissolved and united with 
the reorganized General Staff with constitution as above. 

The summer field force of 1875 consisted of 28 persons. More detailed 
information will be found as this country is reached in the main text. 

The military geographical survey of Norway is conducted under the 
Geographical Institute at Christiania, which resulted from merging the geo- 
graphical survey of the interior department with the topographic section 
of the General Staff (fitat- Major). 

In 1828 the survey was named the "Combined Topographic and 
Hydrographic Survey" which became, in 1833, the "Royal Norwegian 
Geographical Survey," which was again changed to that of "Norwegian 
Geographical Institute " (Norges geografiske Opmaaling), which was con- 
solidated as above with the topographic section of the General Staff (Etat 
Major). Independent of members from the Staff officers of the army and 
navy are specially detailed for a period of service in the field and office.* 

The personnel is divided in the following sections, independent of an 
accounting branch: 

(1) TrigoDometric-topograpbic section (its chief beiug a captain of the General 
Staff). 

* There has been lately established iu Norway a commission, princii)ally consultative, entitled 
the Geographical Commission of Norway, with the chief of the General Staff of the army as president, 
consisting of six members, military and civil. 
13G6 WH 7 



98 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

(.:) Detailed surveys and map ])ublications (chief, a captain of the General Staff)„ 
(.)) 11 diofiraidiii; sociiou (cliief, a specially assifrncd naval officer). 

(4) Eiigravinu- and piintiii*;' (cliief, the lithogniipber of the General Stafi). 

(5) Pbotoyrapliic y;alvuii()plastic section (chief, the photographer of the General- 
Staff). 

The General Staff in Kussia was organized in 1763, and route maps- 
were prepared by its oflicers during the hitter part of the eighteenth century.- 
The imperial office of draughtsmen was created in 1796, and in 1 797 converted 
into the imperial depot of charts. The collection of maps, hitherto in the- 
engineer and quarterinaster-general's departments, were transferred to this- 
depot, which was officered by detail of superior and subaltern officers of" 
Engineers and from the array, in charge of a major of the P^ngineer Corps. In 
18 i 2 the depot of charts became the military topographic depot, directly 
under the Minister of War, and was afterwards (in 1816) placed under tlie- 
chief of the General Staff, the topographic section of which it still remains. 
In 1822 a corp of Topographical Engineers, unlimited as to numbers, to cany 
on systematic works, was established as a branch of the Imperial General- 
Staff, and a body of selected soldiers with a school for topographic instruc- 
tion. This bod}^ was limited to 70 officers and 456 topographers in 1832,. 
and the school received an entirely military organization. This corps- 
was again re-organized in 1866, the personnel being fixed at 6 generals,- 
33 superior officers, 156 subalterns, 170 topographers with civil rank, 236- 
topographers with lank of corporal, and 42 apprentices, making 643 in all. 

The Military Cartographic Institute of Belgium, at Brussels, a branch - 
of the General Staff, was, in 1882, temporarily in charge of a major of the 
General Staff, its former head with the rank of colonel having lately deceased 
The topographical engineers are taken from the older pupils (subaltern offi- 
cers) of the military school, 12 or 15 of these officers forming a brigade of 
the Etat-Major. The reproduction branch consists of draughtsmen, lithog- 
raphers, engravers, photographers, and printers. 

The topographic section of the General Staff at Copenhagen has charge 
of the '' military geographic map" of Denmark. 

The General Staff was established in 1808, and took charge of the above 
work in 18 JO, and to which all the map work hitherto in the hands of the 
Royal Scientific Society of Denmark, was transferred in 1843, where it has- 



ORGANIZATION. 99 

since remained. The work is performed partly by officers of the General 
Staff and parth' by other officers of the army detailed therefor. This office 
was reorganized and largely increased in 1867. 

In Portugal (unlike any other country) the trigonometric, topographic, 
hj'drographic, and geological works are united under one direction, which 
was created in 1856. The bureau for this branch of service, at Lisbon, is 
divided into five classes of duties, as follows : 

(1) Geodetic (main triaugulation, &c.) works. 

(2) Topographic works. 

(3) Hydrographic works. 

(4) Geologic works. 

(5) Artistic works and administration. 

The present great survey of India has resulted from the amalgamation 
(January 1, 1878) of the former organizations styled respectively trigono- 
metric, topographic and revenue surveys under a single administrative and 
executive head, the surveyor-general, with a personnel in 1882 (accord- 
ing to the "India List") of 44 military officers and 160 civil assistants. 

No organization for the prosecution of systematic general topographic 
surveys exists in the United States. The Geological Survey, organized by 
statute in 1879, for purely geological purposes, with the following words of 
an appropriation act as authority "to continue the preparation of a Geolog- 
ical Map of the United States," is carrying on topographic field operations 
at ^-idely divergent localities in the older as well as the newer States, from 
a geologic standpoint, i. e., based on triaugulation " sufficiently correct " 
only for the scale of the map employed, and with undue weight attached to 
the topographic relief of the natural features as compared with the details 
of communication and artificial and economic features of the ground. A 
partnership also exists between this work and certain States, wherein the 
topographic functions of this office of the General Government are, in a 
manner unknown, merged with like functions of the State. The Coast Sur- 
vey has executed a narrow strip of topography along the Atlantic, Gulf, and 
Pacific coast lines, where its surveys are complete, usually to the first crest 
line within view of the nearest navigable channel of approach, and the 
same may be said, in a general way, of the Lake Survey of the great north- 
ern lakes, as regards their lines of coast. By a special grant the Coast 



100 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

Survey is carrying on triangulation near and along the thirty-ninth parallel 
to connect its trigonometric belts along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. 

The Mississippi River Commission adds a strip of topography, includ- 
ins: the stream and its banks. 

Prior to the establishment of the Geological Survey various temporary 
organizations under the Interior Department had been operating at different 
times since the war of the rebellion in the i-egions west of the Mississippi 
River, known as the "Geological and Geographical Survey of the Terri- 
tories" and of the " Rocky Mountain Region," and the "Geological Explor- 
ation of the Black Hills," all controlled by the theoretical considerations of 
the geologist. The "Geological Exploration of the 40th Parallel," under 
the Engineer Depai'tment, conducted its labors on a similar basis, while 
the "Geographical Survey of the territory west of the 100th meridian," 
under the same Department, proceeded from almost a diametrically oppo- 
site standpoint, giving due weight to the astronomic, geodetic, and topo- 
graphic observations, with map delineations of all natural objects, means of 
communication, artificial and economic features, the geologic and natural 
history branches being treated as incidental to the main purpose. The 
above may be considered as the only organized, systematic, topographic 
work with a practical basis ever begun in the United States. 

Just as its organization (consisting of officers of Engineers, and of the 
Army, selected general-service and other enlisted men, civilian assistants, 
clerks, messengers, &c.) was brought to a high state of efficiency (through 
training and experience) by means, let us say, imperfectly comprehended, the 
appropriations were suspended. Geology in organic form was established in 
the Interior Department, the vastly more important work of topography was 
disregarded, and left unprovided for, and the services of practical and expe- 
rienced Government Engineer officers thus lost for this latter duty, resulting 
in a direct and positive step backward, without precedent throughout the civ- 
ilized world. 

It should be stated that commencing with the organization of the Corps 
of Topographical Engineers, March 3, 1813, organized more completely 
by act of July 5, 1838, and, until it was transferred to and consolidated 
with the present Corps of Engineers by act of March 3, 1863, that this 



ADMINISTRATION. 101 

body was cliai ged with, among other duties, that of military topograpliical 
reconnaissance, exploration, and survey. Its functions in this particular at 
date of transfer consisted (independently of such duties as were germane 
to their service with armies in the field or at the several headquarters in 
times of peace) of the surveys for the planning and construction of works 
for the improvements of rivers and harbors ; the trigonometric, hydrographic, 
and topographic survey of the northern lakes ; the astronomical determina- 
tion of boundaries and initial points ; the topographic surveys and recon- 
naissances of the Interior, and of the Western Territory, &c., and these func- 
tions still legally vest with the Engineer Department, excepting in so far as by 
acts of appropriation the expenditures of moneys for allied duties have been 
placed under other administration than the War Department. 

The subject of Government surveys is again before a Joint Commission 
of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, who have 
already taken 458 printed pages of testimony, most of which, however, 
refers only to the present Coast and Geologic Surveys. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

Out of the 20 systematic duly organized topographic works in exist- 
ence, 14 (Prussia (Germany), Saxony, Bavaria, Austria-Hungary, France, 
Switzerland, Holland, Dutch East Indies, Italy, Sweden, Norway, Russia, 
Belgium, and Denmark) are now and always have been administered through 
the War Department. Six (the United Kingdom, Spain, India, Wurtem- 
berg, Baden, and Portugal) are now found assigned to other departments ; 
but in every case, without exception, the work is executed under the direc- 
tion of an army officer, selected from the Military Engineers or General 
Staff. In Spain and Portugal the administration has greatly varied, but in 
the principal European nations, it has had, since being under military admin- 
istration, and early in the present century more particularly, a fixed and per- 
manent tenure. 

In Great Britain the Ordnance Survey was administered by the War 
Department from its inception and origin until 1870, when the scientific 
trigonometric and topographic survey was completed and the cadastral 
survey well in hand. Tiie work was then transferred to the Office of Works, 
with organization and personnel unchanged, for reasons inherent to the 



102 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

policy of tlie budget, while its functions are semi-independent with powers 
of self-control. 

In Prussia, which has now the central direction of all the land surveys 
of Germany, the administration has been since 1816 under the War Ministr3\ 
In Saxony the "War administration has always been charged with these works, 
and likewise for Bavaria since 1817. 

In Wurtemberg is found the Statistical Topographic Institute, under 
the Finance Department, the duties of which, other than statistical, consist 
principally of map revision and furnishing a quota for the general topo- 
graphic map of Germany. 

In Baden these duties are found under the Commerce branch, with an 
officer of the Prussian general staff in charge. 

Austria-Hungary has devolved these works continuously upon the War 
Ministry. 

In France the name topography is synonymous with War administra- 
tion, which branch of Government has been specially held responsible for 
its conduct since 1688. 

Switzerland has also conducted all its topographic works under the 
War Department. 

The administration in Holland, as well as the topographic surveys in 
the Dutch East Indies, has been that of the War Department. 

In Spain, since 1870, tlie topographic works, largely carried on by 
army officers, are under the Geographical Statistical Institute, a branch of 
the Department of Public Works. Data regarding such works prior to 1870 
are not at hand. At the same time special military surveys are carried on 
under the War Department by the General Staff of the army. 

Topographic works have always been under War administration in 
Italy. 

Ever since systematic topography has existed in Sweden, the opera- 
tions have been confided to the War Department. In Norway, topographic 
work, formed by merging the geographical survey of the Interior De- 
partment with the topographic section of tlie General Staff, rests with the 
War Department. 



FU NOTIONS. 103 

Since topographic operations have assiune<l an organic form in Russia 
their charge has been a part of the War administration. 

Topographic surveys in Belgium have always been in the War Depart- 
ment. 

The general survey of Denmark, since its systematic organization in 
1830, to which all such works by the Royal Scientific Society were trans- 
ferred in 1843, has been under the War Department. 

The administration of topographic works in Portugal has undergone 
various changes in administration between the War and other departments, 
the topographic, hydrographic, and geologic branches now being under one 
executive head, and devolved upon the ]\Iinistry of Public Works. 

The great general survey of India, presided over by an officer of Mili- 
tarv Engineers, is now under the Department of Revenue and Agriculture. 

The administration of topographic surveys in the United States was 
imposed upon the War Department exclusively from the organization of the 
■Government until 1869, when geological exploration parties of the Interior 
Department commenced a class of topographic operations, with resulting 
maps upon which to show the geology. Work in the War and Interior De- 
partments continued to the year 1879, when the purely geological survey 
Avas formed and general topography as an integral quantity stricken from 
'the list of things appropriated for by the Government. 

FUNCTIONS. 

Since general relief surveys of the land were instituted in England 
the ordnance survey has had sole and undisputed charge of the astronomic, 
base measui'ing, trigonometric, topographic, hypsometric, and cartographic 
■operations therefor. 

The following are the principal works at present in progress : 

(1) The final preparation and publication of the new topographic map 
series for the whole United Kingdom, scale 1 inch to 1 mile, in 696 sheets. 

(2) Surveys for and the final preparation and publication of the 6-inch 
scale or county maps for the United Kingdom in, approximately, 13,391 
sheets. 



104: GOVEENMENT LAN^D AND MAKINE SURVEYS. 

(3) Surveys for and the preparation and publication of the cadastral or 
parish maps for the entire United Kingdom (25 inch), scale 1:2,500. Six- 
teen of these sheets make one of the 6-inch engraved maps. The approx- 
imate number is 51,488 sheets for England when complete, and for Scotland 
12,316 sheets. 

(4) Survey for and the preparation and publication of (scale 1 : 500) 
plans of cities and all towns over 4,000 inhabitants, except London and 
environs, which latter is at the scale of 60 inches to the mile. 

The duties imposed upon the office for the great general survey of 
Prussia (Germany) comprise the field and office operations necessary to 
the successful prosecution of the astronomic, base measuring, trigonometric, 
topographic, hypsometric, and cartographic works required by the war 
and all other departments of the Government, except for the cadastre. 

The principal works now in progress are the following: 

(1) The plane table and station work necessary for the topographic 
sheets, with their final preparation and publication on scale 1:25,000 (3,698 
sheets) for all of Germany, except Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Baden, 
the yearly area to be surveyed being fixed at 200 German square miles 
(approximately 4,400 square English statute miles), the trigonometric, topo- 
graphic, and cartographic results following each other in quick succession. 
The special scale of 1:12,500 is used for the vicinity of garrisons and 
manoeuver districts. 

(2) The preparation and publication of 554 of the 674 sheets of the 
new topographic map of Germany, scale 1:100,000. 

(3) The keeping "aucourant" with older surveys, with field observa- 
tions therefor, construction of special maps, and revision of various Govern- 
ment maps, such as are now being issued. (See lists of maps.) 

(4) To develop, pursuant to the demands of modern scientific warfare, 
the cartographic works necessary for military purposes, as well as to supply 
the economic maps required for industrial purposes. 

The topographic survey of Saxony (with its trigonometric, topo- 
graphic, leveling, and cartographic divisions) is at present specially charged 
with the surveys for the preparation and publication of a map (from plane 
table sheets) of Saxon territory, scale 1:25,000, in 156 sheets. 



FUNCTIONS. 105 

Likewise Bavaria and Wurtemberg make similar maps of same scale, 
after a plan for all Germany somewhat uniform with 990 and 192 sheets, 
respectively. 

The above countries contribute to the general map of Germany scale 
1 : 100,000, Saxony 30, Bavaria 80, and Wurtemberg 20 sheets, and issue 
various topographic maps, generally on minor scales. 

In Baden there is a special topographic survey for a map 1:25,000 in 
170 sheets in progress, which contributes to form a part of the general 
map 1:100,000 of Baden's territory constructed at Berlin. 

The Military Geographical Institute at Vienna has had full and unin- 
terrupted control of all the topographic works of Austria-Hungary resting 
on a trigonometric basis with precise leveling operations, of which the prin- 
cipal ones now are: 

(1) Field work for plane table sheets of the whole territory, scale 
1:25,000, which so far remain unpublished. 

(2) The construction, preparation, and publication of a new topographic 
map, scale 1:75,000, in 720 sheets. 

(3) The cadastral survey (based upon a number of trigonometric points) 
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

(4) Continuation and enlarging the map (1:750,000) to embrace Ger- 
many, Belgium, Holland, Eastern France, Western Italy, revision of map 
of Central Europe (scale 1:300,000), preparation of recruiting maps (scale 
1:1,000,000), correction and revision of all special maps. 

In France the "Depot de la Guerre" (Geographical Service) of the War 
Department has exclusive jurisdiction and control of the fundamental opera- 
tions demanded for the principal or mother topographic map of the country, 
its main works being as follows: 

(1) Revision, once in each five years, of the topographic map of France, 
.scale 1:80,000, 273 sheets. 

(2) Field and office operations necessary for the preparation and pub- 
lication of the new topographic map of France, scale 1:50,000, 1,092 sheets 
(original field minutes, scale 1:40,000). 

(3) The new surveys required for the construction and publication of 
the topographic map of Algeria, scale 1:50,000, approximately 327 sheets. 



106 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

(4) Reduction of the map of 1 :50,C00 to the scale of 1 : 200,000 for the 
topographic map of France, scale 1 : 200,000, 81 sheets. 

(5) Corrections and revision of the great variety of planimetric and 
topographic maps of France issued by this branch of the war department. 

The fortification branch issues its separate map (scale 1 : 500,000), and 
also maps on scales 1 : 1,000 and 1 : 2,000 for more exact studies, making,iiow- 
ever, nothing further than local surveys, while the Ministry of Public Works 
issues a compiled map for specific purposes, scale 1:200,000, and the Ministry 
of the Interior also another compilation on scale 1:10(),00l) (each taking 
advantage of local surveys under its own direction). 

The Federal Topographic Bureau of Switzerland is charged with all 
the field and office operations (astronomic, trigonometric, leveling, topo- 
graphic, and cartographic) necessary and incident to the full measure of 
the topographic survey; its main duties at present being: 

(1) The constant revision and reissue, as required of the Dufour topo- 
graphic map of Switzerland, scale 1:100,000, 25 sheets. 

(2) The field surveys and office reductions necessary for the new 
detailed topographic map of Switzerland, scales 1:50,000 and 1:25,000, of 
119 and 442 sheets, respectively, (16 sheets, scale 1 : 50,000, and 64 sheets, 
scale 1:25,000, each, make one sheet of Dufour map, scale 1:100,000). 

(3) Preparation and publication of a general map of Switzerland in 4 
sheets, scale 1:250,000, as well as corrections and revision for a number of 
standard Government maps. 

The Topographic Institute of Holland, under a director subordinate 
to the chief of the General Staff, has charge of the reproduction of all the 
general topographic maps of the country, the latter having direct charge of 
the field surveys, including the usual main and minor operations therefor. 

The present duties of the General Staff include: 

(1) The correction and revision incident to the new editions of the 
topographic map of Holland, scale 1:50,000, 62 sheets. 

(2) Revision of tlie chromo-lithographic map of the"PontetChaussees,' 
scale 1:50,000. 

(3) New chromo-lithographic map of Holland, scale 1:25,000, in 776 
sheeets (confidential publication). 



FUNCTIONS. . 107 

(4) Map of the principal rivers of Holland, scale 1 : 10,000. 

(5) Chromo-llthog-raphic atlas of the residences of Java, scale 1 : 100,000. 

(6) Atlas of the Dutch East Indies, in 14 sheets. 

The field work of the survey and office reductions, including construc- 
tion of maps for the Dutch East Indies, take place under the officer in 
charge of the Batavia office, while the field observations for the new topo- 
graphic map of Holland are made entirely by selected officers of the 
army. 

The Geographical Statistical Institute of Spain comprehends all tlie 
fundamental operations, which are of a high order, of the several classes 
requisite for the final detailed topographic map of the Kingdom. 

Its principal duties at present are: 

(1) The field observations (scale 1:25,000) necessary and incident to 
the construction and publication of the topographic map of Spain, scale 
1:50,000, in 1,080 sheets. 

A general itinerary map of Spain is issued by the general staff of the 
army. 

Italy conducts all its topographic operations through its Militar)' 
Geographic Institute, which has jurisdiction over all the operations (astro- 
nomic, ti'igonometric, topographic, and cartogra])hic) necessary to such an 
object. 

The principal works now being carried forward are: 

(1) Field and office labo"s necessary and incident to the construction 
and publication of the new general topographic map of the kingdom, scale 
1:100,000, in 277 sheets, which absorbs all others. 

(2) Preparation and publication of the field minute plots at scales of 
1:50,GOO and 1:25,000 in 963 and 817 sheets, respectively. 

(3) Special maps for war studies, scales 1:5,000 and 1:10,000, and of 
vicinities of Rome, Florence, &c., scales i : 10,000 and I : 25,000. 

(4) General maps of the kingdom on various scales, and the constant 
and necessary revision of all maps issued l)y this bureau, other than the 
regular series, scales 1: 00,0'.jO, 1:60,000, and !:2.),000. (See lists of 
maps.) 

In Sweden the topographic bureau is charged with all the surveys 
required for military and economic purposes, with the fundamental initial 



108 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

base-measuring, trigonometric, topographic, leveling and cartographic oper- 
ations therefor. 

At present the works carried on are: 

( 1 ) The field and office work necessary tor and incident to the con- 
struction and publication of" the main topographic map, scale 1:100,000, in 
232 sheets (field-notes on scale 1:20,000 for southern and 1:50,000 for 
northern parts). 

(2) The survey for construction and publication of the economic map 
of Sweden, scale 1:20,000. 

(3) The topographic "Lan" or county map for Sweden, scale 
1:200,000. 

(4) Topographic map of passes and positions, scales 1:10,000 and 
1:20,000, and of Stockholm, scale 1:20,000. 

(5) A general map of the kingdom, small scale, with revisions and 
changes required for all maps. 

(6) Maps specially for war studies, in scales of 1:1,000 and 1:5,000. 

The geographical service of Norway has charge of all the usual funda- 
mental operations which such offices have been called upon to perform in 
Europe. 

Its principal works at present are: 

(1) All field and office work necessary for the principal topographic 
map of Norway, 1:100,000, in 54 sheets. 

(2) The "Amt" map of Norway, scale 1 : 200,000, with large cities 
shown thereon at scales of 1 : 20,000. 

(3) General map of Norway, 1:400,000, and the necessary revisions 
and changes for all maps. 

Russia confides all its topographic work to the topographical section of 
the General Staff, which includes all the preliminary main linear and angular 
measurements for fixing the initial geographic co-ordinates upon which the 
detailed topography is based. 

The principal works now being prosecuted are: 

(1) The field and office work necessary to the construction and pub- 
lication of the great map of Russia in Europe, scale 1 : 126, < fOO, in 792 sheets, 
which includes the topographic map of Poland, 59 sheets, same scale. 



FUNCTIONS. 109 

(Original field minutes of the above are taken at the scales of 1 : 21,000 
and 1 : 42,000, and it is believed are published in specified instances, but 
not yet as a whole.) 

(2) Topographic map of the Caucasus, scale 1:210,000, 77 sheets; 
topographic map of European Russia, scale 1:420,000, 154 sheets; topo- 
graphic map of Asiatic Turkey, scale 1 : 840,000; topographic map of mili- 
tary districts in Turkestan, scale 1 : 1,680,000; topographic map of Western 
Siberia, scale 1:210,000; map of Central Asia, scale 1:4,200,000; and 
various others, with all the changes and revisions currently required. 

Belgium carries on the astronomic, trigonometric, topographic, and 
cartographic works necessary for the resultant topographic map through its 
Military Cartographic Institute. 

Its principal works at present are : 

(1) Field and office operations necessarj^ for construction of the topo- 
graphic map of Belgium, scale 1 : 40,000, in 72 sheets. (Original field- 
minutes at scales 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 20,000.) 

(2) The topographic map of Belgium, scale 1 : 20,000, in 430 sheets, 
now complete. (The publication of special plane-table sheets, scale 
1 : 10,000, has also been begun.) 

(3) Various older maps. (See lists of maj)s.) 

(4) Current changes and revisions receive constant attention. 

In Denmark all the topographic duties devolve upon the single military 
organization constituted for that purpose. 
The main works at present are: 

(1) The topographic map of Jutland, scale 1:40,000, in 131 sheets. 

(2) The same for the Islands, scale 1 : 80,000, in 29 sheets. 

(3) The field-minute sheets (construction and publication), scale 
1 : 20,000 — G46 sheets for Jutland and 409 sheets for the islands. 

(4) Topographic map of Zealand, scale 1 : 160,000. 

(5) The constant correction and revision of maps. 

Portugal carries on under one direction the following pi'incipal works 
on a trigonometric basis : 

(1) The principal topographic map of Portugal, scale 1 : 100,000, in 37 
sheets. 



110 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

(2) Chorographic maps of Portugal, scales 1 : 500,000 and 1 : 1,000,000-, 
also maps of Lisbon, scales 1 : 8,000 and 1 : 10,000, with all needed revision 
work. 

The survey of India (topographic and revenue) is carried on under 
one dii-ection, with principal work in progress as follows: 

(1) Field and office work necessary to the completion of the main 
topographic atlas of India, scale 1:255,561, in 177 sheets. 

(2) Plans of towns, military stations, forts, &c., scales 1:500, 
1:2,640, &c. 

(3) Surveys of estates, military districts, presidencies, provinces, 
frontiers, &c., scale 1:3,168 to 1:2,027,520. 

(4) Revenue surveys at scale of 1 : 15,840. 

(5) Various general charts on inconsiderable scales, together with all 
correction and revision work. 

There never having been defined by law a general topographic survey 
of the United States, all such works have but followed the specific mone}^ 
grants therefor. As has been stated, appropriations for the Geographical 
Surveys of the War Department have been dropped from the annual acts, 
and that Department for the time being but compiles and issues the best 
maps it is practicable to prepare with scanty funds. The Coast Survey 
continues as heretofore its narrow shore strip of topography of the land 
that first meets the eye of the navigator, while the survey of the Mississippi 
River Commission adds also its qaota of topography. The Geological Sur- 
vey is also producing such restricted topography upon which to base its 
general geologic map as the geologist may dictate, its kind having been here- 
inbefore described. 

HISTORY. 

No history of the great undertakings that have led to the detailed topo- 
graphic surveys and their results herein set forth can properly be written, 
except at the Government offices, where the original records have been kept 
since the earliest days. The list of works mentioned later on gives 
a number of such publications for Russia, Sweden, Prussia, &c., like 
undertakings to which might usefully be followed by other countries. Cer- 
tain meager historic facts will be found as the text of the several countries- 
is reached. 



PROGRESS AND COST. 1 1 1 



PROGRFSS. 



The summary tables and the lists of maps in the main afford a resume 
of the proo-ress in the several countries conducting systematic topographic 
works. 

It has been extremely difficult to obtain complete and reliable data of 
the cost of the topographic surveys. 

This naturally varies greatly in accordance with the character of the 
country, whether plain or mountainous, or wooded, and the scale of the 
field data as well as the resultant map. The actual total cost of the Ord- 
nance Survey of England from its first organization to December 31, 1881, 
as given by the officer in charge of accounts, was £4,544,050 (estimating 
only for the years 1871 and 1872), or $22,725,250. The average cost per 
square mile to that date would have then been S18G. 

On the assumption that the cadastral survey can be completed in 1890, 
and allowing the present annual cost up to that date, the then cost per 
square mile would be 8244. 

The result will then be a map on the scale of 1:2,500 for all England, 
the same for the cultivated parts of Scotland and the 6-inch scale for the 
uncultivated portions and the latter scale for Ireland entire. 

The above cost is independent of the regimental pay of officers and 
enlisted men, which has been estimated would cause an increase of about 
one-eighth. The average cost of the present plane-table survey of the 
German Empire (scale 1 : 25,000), as given at the Berlin office (by an officer 
deputed for that purpose), assuming two hundred German square miles as 
the annual amount, at a cost of 1,200,000 marks for field and office work, 
gives (approximately) $79 per square English statute mile. This sum is in 
addition to the cost of the earlier surveys, mostly on the 1:50,000 scale, for 
separate German states. The estimated cost of field and office work by the 
the Geographical Institute of Vienna (field plot 1:25,000) has been esti- 
mated at about 1,000 florins, or, approximately, $400 per square geo- 
graphical mile. The extremely detailed survey of the city of Bombay 
for municipal purposes of an area of twenty-two square miles and one 
hundred and forty-nine acres on the scale of one inch to one hundred feet 
for the city proper and one inch to forty feet for the suburbs was found to- 



112 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



cost at an average approximate rate of $7,040 per square mile. A reference 
to cost, more in detail, will be found, as each country is reached. 

The following list shows the number of countries now engaged, as far 
as can be learned, in the prosecution of complete and connected topographic 
surveys of their territory, with data concerning scales, names of works, &c. 
The following lists, taken from all available authoritative sources, show 
the principal Government maps and the actual number of general, special, and 
miscellaneous topographic maps and others, including cadastral and geologic, 
issued at the dates respective!}' stated: 



GENERAL TOPOGHAPIIIC ^lAPS. 

(Regular ai-riea.) 
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND (UNITED KIN'GDOM). 

[Lonsitiiiles from Greenwicli.J 



Description or name of 
map. 



General topographic map 
of the United King- 
dom: 

(") Old series, 54 whole 

and 138 quarter sheets. 



(*•) New series . 



England and Wales. 
Scotland 

Ireland 



Total . 



Scale. 



B35b5 



No. of I 
sbeets 

when 
com- 
plete. 



issued. 



■ To date of— 



By whom is- 
sued. 



192 


no 


696 


412 


360 


113 


131 


94 


205 


205 


696 


412 



Ordnance Sur- 
vey, in charge 
of Royal Mil- 
itary Engi- 
neers. 

. . . do 



Administra- 
tion. 



Remarks. 



"War Depart- 
ment, 1784 
to 1870, now 
Office of 
"Works. 

...do 



Published with hills, ver- 
tical hachurt-s. 



Published in outline with 
contours, and with hills 
(vertical hachures) 
without contours. 



GERMANY. 

[Longitudes from Ferro Island.] 



Topographic map of the 
German Empire. 



Prussia 

Bavaria 

Saxony 

Wurtcmberg 



TioWn 



Total 



674 


417 


664 


395 


80 


6 


30 


16 


20 


" 



July 1, 1885 



July 1, 1885 



General Staff 
of the Army. 



War Depart- 
ment. 



Copper, engraved. Esti- 
mated time to complete, 
22 years from 1870- The 
published number for 
Prussia includes 161 
sheets, lithographed 
only. 



Summary tahle of data concerning the general Oovernmcnt Topngrapliic surveys in Europe and of India. 



Name of country. 



Great Britain and Ireland 
(United Kiugdnni). 



Germany. 



Anstria-Hnngary 



France, including Algeria. 



Switzerland . 



Spain 

Italy 

Sweden 

linKsia, including Poland 



Belgium , 

Denmark (Jntlanrl. iuclud 

ing Bornbohn i«land). 
Deiinmrk (Islauda) , 

Norway 

Portugal 

India .. 



Area 

in stjuare 

miles. 



123, 1.% 



■iOS, 3U8 



241,553 



< 2(15, 976 
i Kit), 023 



15, 1)73 



193,286 

111,405 

173,967 
2, 129, 201 

11,375 

I 

> 14,788 
) 

125, 646 

34,418 
1,457,244 



Total popula- 
tion. 



35, 246, 562 



45, 194, 172 



37, 869, 954 



37, 672, 048 
3,310,412 



2, 846, 102 
4,323,647 

16, 902, 621 

28,459,451 

4,603,595 
63,909,945 

5,655,197 

1,969,039 
1,806,900 

4, 708, 178 
252,541,210 



p. s 

n a 
■2o 



al- 



ls? 



183 

20 



315 



255 

20 
39 



133 



136 
173 



In year. 



1881 



1880 



1880 



1881 
18sl 



1880 
1880-'81 

1883 

1881 

1883 

1882 

1882 

IRfiO 
1875 

1881 
1881 



Scales. 



1: 63360 



1: 75000 



1: 50000 
1 : 500UO 



1: 5O00O 



1 : 100000 

1 : lOOCOO 
1 : 126000 

1: 40000 



( 1: 40000 
I 1: 80000 

1 : 100000 



1 : looono 

1 ; C53440 



720 



1,092 
327 



1,080 

277 

232 
$972 



37 

177 



J.3 
to ■— 

.a a 



S a 
<" 



216 



391 



246 



1,291 



404.5 



201 

625 

1,008 
1,094 

243 

106 
394.5 

630 

1,550 
4,504 



When begun. 



1870. 



1872. 



1880. 



1830. 



Prior to 1850. 



1870 

1SC2, 

1812, 
1857 



V1830... 
1828.... 

1852.... 
1800.... 



When to bo 
ended. 



About 1890 . 



1900 



1886. 



In progress. 



18G4. 



18G4. 



In progress. 



1892. 



In prf\^ress. 
In 1 : ;^ress. 

Complete... 

In progress. 
In progress. 

In progress. 
In progress. 



Present 
annual cost. 



51,433, 040 tiOt 

$342, 358 OOt 
S319,200 00 

$136,960 00 
$25,000 00 

?27,500 00 

$474,570 00 

$73,604 00 
$25,000 00 

$38,200 00 



$33,900 00 



$573,715 GO 



Administration. 



WarDep'tuntil 
IsTO.rjowOHice 
oi" Works (or- 
ganization un- 
changed). 



War 



War .... 



War 



War , 



Public Works. - 



War , 



War 



Wai 



War 



War . 



Title of survev. 



Public Works . 

Revenue a n d 
Agriculture. 



Ordnance Survey (Soutli- 
amptou, England). 



'Landes Aufuahme," Gene- 
ral Staft' Topographic Bu- 
reau (Berlin), 



"K. K. Militar Geograftscbes 
lustitut." Military Geo- 
graphical Institute (Vien- 
na). 

"D4p6t de la Guerre." "Ser- 
vice Gdograpbique de I'Ar- 
ni^e." Military Cieograph- 
ical Service (Paris). 

'* Bureau Topographiqne Fed- 
eral." Federal Topographic 
Bureau (Berne). 



"Institut Topograpbi q n e." 
Topographical Insti t u t e 
(The Hague), 



"Institute Geogrrtfico y Es- 
tadistico." (ieograpbi cal 
and StatisticaT Institute 
(Madrid). 

"Istituto Geografico Mili- 
tare." Military Geographic 
Institute (Florence). 

General Staif Topographic 
Bureau (Stockliohu). 

"Section Topograpbitine de 
I'Etat-Major." Topograph- 
ical Section of the General 
Stati (St. Petersburg). 

"Insti tut Cartograpbique Mil- 
itaire." Military Carto- 
graphic Institute (Brussels). 

"Generalstabens Topograf- 1 
iske Al'deling." General] 
Stall", Topographic Bureau^ 
(Copenhagen). [ 

"Norges Geografiske Opnuial- 
ing." Norwegian Geograph- 
ical Institute (Christiauia). 

"Trabalhos Geodesicos." Geo- 
graphical Institute (Lisbon), 

Survey of India (Calcutta)... 



Remarks, 



First ba.sB line nu'asnred 1784. Published with hills 
in hacbures without con tours, also in outline with 
contours(allin black); "newseries" 2l6square 
miles reiiresentsthe area of a sheet for England. 
113 sheets (Englaml and Wales), 94 (Scotland), 
and205(Irelaud)i.'!snedtoDecember31, 1884. 90 
sheets issued of old series (110 in all) for England. 

395 sheets issued by Prussia, 6 by Bavaria, and 16 
by Sasony ; 417 in all to July 1, 1885. Of the 674 
sheets, Prussia furnishes 554, Saxony 30, Bavaria 
80, and Wurtemberg 20; copper engraved in 
hacbures. 

.578 sheets issued in 188,5. Publi.shed by Heliograv- 
ure in hacbures. The aunual cost of Cadastral 
Survey of Bosnia aud Herzegovina is, approxi- 
mately, $170,879. 



[ 20 sheets issued for France in 1885; zincographed in 
f six colors. 23 sheets for Algeria in lH8o. 



Publication complete ; copper engraved ; hacbures ; 
heights in meters. (Dufonr Map.) This sum 
($25,000) covers all cost of this bureau (field and 
ofiHce). 

Publication complete (I he expense is for office work 
and held work necessary for new detailed map). 
Lithographed; hacbures. (General topographic 
map of Java and Madura; iu hacbures and col- 
ors; scale, 1 : 100,000; printed at Military Topo- 
graphic Dep.artment at the Hague, as also other 
"Eesideuces" as fast as surveyed.) 

The amount includes statistical work. 29 sheets 
issued iu 1885; stone engraved; iu 5 colors, with 
20-m. contours. 



109 sheets issued iu 1885; heliographed. This map 
absorbs all others: in hacbures and contours. 



64 sheets issued in 1882; copper engraved in hacb- 
ures. Populous districts issued on scale 1 : 50000. 

505 sheets issued in 1885, showing railways. Hacb- 
ures. A copper engraved military topographic 
map of Poland, now complete, was coramencedin 
1875; scale 1:126,000. 

72 sheets issued to 1885; engraved on stone; con- 
tours 5-m. interval ; reduced by [ihotography from 
sciile 1 : 20000; priuted in black. 

69 sheets issued at 1 : 40000 in 1885, and 29 sheets is- 
sued at 1 : 80000, 1K82; contours 10 Danish " fod" 
apart. Eeduced by photography fioui original 
plats, scale 1 : 20000; copper engraved. 

This sum is for 1875-76. 43 quarter sheets issued 
to January 1, 18i-5; printed in colors; contours 
at interval's i>f 100 " fod " (31.38 meters). 

22 sheets published in 1885; printed in black; 
hacbures. 

1)7 sheets finished in 1885, also 152 quarter sheets. 
Hacbures. The great atlas of India. Royal Mil- 
itary Engineers, other army oHieers and civilians. 
EeduceU from surveys of difl'erent scales. 



NoTK.— The following are the authoHlies for the areas adopted : "Saperflcieade rKuropc." for Austria. Fraace, Switzerland, Holland, Portuffal, Norway, Bfiljiium. Russia, Spain, Italy, and Sweden; the "OrJnanooSttrvey' for Great Britain; the Landes A uta 
pey at Berlin, for Germany, and its subdivisions, and tlie Gotha Almanac for 1883 for Algeria, Denmark, and India. The popalatons aro taken I'lom the Gotha Almanac for 1883. 
' England and Wales, a6u ; Scotland, i:il ; and Ireland, 205 aheetf. 

I Total estimates for year ending JJarcli 31, 1886, Appropriated for the year previous $1,357,539,25, expended prmcipally for Cadastral Survey. £1 taken at $4,86. 
' For v,ai 1885. 



^Approximate 



Face page 112 1 



Summary table relating to special Government Topographic surveys in Europe. 



Naiue of country. 



Great Britain . 



Pruflsin , 



Saxony . 



Wurtemberf^ 



Baden , 



Switzerland . 



Holland 

Italy 

Belgium 

Denmark, (1) Jutland 
(2) Islands . 



Area in 
square miles. 



I'i.i, 1«S 



l.W, 347 



5,787 



29, 283 



7,528 



15,978 

13,740 

111,405 

11,375 



] 14,7 



Total 
lat 



popu- 
:iou. 



35, 24r), 562 

33,412,115 
2, 970, 220 

5,271,516 

1, 970, 132 

1,570,189 
2, 846, 102 

4,323,647 

28, 459, 451 

5, 655, 197 

1,909,039 



■r © 

as- 



286 



209 



17U 



269 



178 



315 



255 



497 



In year. 



1881 



1880 



1880 



1880 



1880 



1880-'81 



1881 



1880 



1880 



Scales. 



1 : 10560 



1 : 25000 



1 : 25000 



1 : 2500(1 



1 : 25000 



1 : 50000 
1 : 25000 



1 : 25000 



< 1:5 
\ 1:2 



50000 
25000 



1 : 20000 



\v^ 



2O00O 
20000 



J3 

a 



13,391' 



3.698 



990 



192 



119 



963 

817t 



430 



646 
409 



a) ^ 

•=''5 



-M 



50 



1-22 

28 



156 

39 



30.38 



When 
begun. 



1841 



1872 



1820 



1875 



1868 



When to bt 
ended. 



Abmit 1890 . 



1900 



1886 



In ]nngres8. 



In progress. 



In progreHs. 



In progress. 



1862-'fi:; 1892-'93 



1892 



1844 



Complete. 



In progress - 



Administriition. 



WarDep'tnntil 
1870,nov\Otlice 
of Works (or- 
ganization un- 
changed). 

War 



War . 



War 



Fiuaucu 



Commtsrce . 



War 



War 



War 



Title of survey. 



Ordnance Survey (Ronthaniii- 
ton, England). 



General Staff Topographic 
Bureau ' ' Landes A n f- 
nahmo" (Berlin). 

"Generalstabs Topograph- 
isches Bureau." General 
Staff Topographical Bu- 
reau (Dresden). 

"Generalst.abs Topograph- 
isches Bureau." General 
Staff Topographic Bureau 
(Municb). 

"Statistisch-topo^aphische 8 
Bureau." Statistical To- 
pographic Bureau (Stutt- 
gart). 

"Topographisches Bureau." 
Topographical Bureau 
(Carlsruhe). 

"Bureau Topographique F^d- 
6ral." Federal Military To- 
pographic Bureau (Berne). 



"Institut Topographique." 
Military Topographic In- 
stitute (The Hague). 

"Istituto Geografico Mili- 
tare." Military Geograph- 
ical Institute (Florence). 

"lustitut Cartograp h i q u e 
Militaire." Military Cart- 
ographic Institute (Brus- 
eels). 

" Gcneralstabeus Topograf- 
isko Afdeling." Genera! 
Staff Topographic Bureau 
(Copenhagen). 



Remarks. 



Called County Maps. Published with contours; 
fortifications, &c., added for coufidfulial uses of 
War Department. There were 1,552 full and 1,861 
quarter sheets (England and Wales), 2,036 (Scot- 
land), and 1,907 (Ireland) issued to April 30, 1885. 

931 published iu 18-5. To be reduced and included 
in map of German Empire ; scale 1 : 100000. 



126 sheets published to 1885. Contours 10 ni. inter- 
val ; forming part of map of German Empire ; 
dcale 1 : 100000. 



Publication commenced iu 1875. Photolitho- 
graphed. 200 sheets published iu 1885. Con- 
tours 10 m. interval. Forms part of German 
Empire map ; scale 1 : 100000. 

Estimated and appropriated, $128,559. No sheets 
yet issued. ChromoUthographed. Contours 5 m. 
interval. Contributes to German Empire map ; 
scale 1 : 100000. 

137 sheets issued iu 1885; printed in colors. Con- 
tributes towards new general map of Germany ; 
scale 1 : lOOOOO in 674 sheets. Contours. 

95 sheets issued, 1 : 50000 ; 355 sheets issued, 1 : 25000, 
iu 1885. ChromoUthographed in 3 colors; culti- 
vated iu bister; water, blue; balance, black ; scale 
1 : 50000 for Alps and foot-hills, with contours at 
30 meters and hachuresnearsuramits; elsewhere, 
1 : 25000 (copper engraved), with contours 10 m., 
and hacbures about summits. 



Engraved on stone and printed in colors, 
fidential military map. Not for sale. 



Con- 



There were 456 sheets, scale 1 : 50,000,and 427 at scale 
1 : 25,000,i8sued in 1885. In hacbures and contours. 



Publication complete in black, ended 1880. Pho- 
tolithograpbod ; one meter contours. Pub- 
lished in black, also in black and three colore. 
Principal roads and localities, red; forest and 
meadows, greon; cultivation, yellow. 

(1.) 500 sheets issued to 1883 ; (2. ) 80 sheets issued to 
1883. Direct reproduction by photolithography 
from plane table sheets. 



Face page 112- 



*Approximnte. 



t Only flo far aa yet ehowu on inilex (incomplete). 



LIST OP GOVEKNMKNT MAPS. 



11^ 



OTIIKlt GENERAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. 
GERMANY. 

[Lougituiles from Ferro Islauil (Canary group).] 







No. of 












Doscriptiou or ikiiuo oi' 
map. 


Scale. 


slu'fta 
whoii 

COlll- 

pk-to. 


Tot^il 
iasued. 


To date of— 


By whoru is- 
sued. 


Adiiiiniatra- 
tion. 


Kemarks. 


AIsace-Lorrniue (pvovis- 

iouiil map). 


BoioO 




33 


188Z 


Topograp li i c 
Bureau at 




Comnieucod 1878. Helio- 








iiient. 


graphed. Ke via ion 












Berlin. 




based on French Gen- 
eral Staff map. 


Hanover and Biuuswick, 


TTToVoO 


CO 


«« 


1832 to 1847 


Topographic 


....do 


Copper engraved, at Pa- 


&c. 










Bureau at 
Hanover. 




pen's engineer ofi^ce. 


Rhiuo anil "Westphalia 
and parts of OUleubur;;. 


, 






1840 to 1854 


Topof;rapbic 
Bureau at 


. do 


Lithographed. 






















Berlin. 






HobcuzoUein 

Hi'886-Cassel 


1 




9 




...do 


...do 




5710(10 




r'9 


1859 to 1861 


Topograpliie. 
Bureau at 


do 


Chroino-lithogra ph ed. 








Contours red, 22,506 nie- 












Cassel. 




tera .ipart. 


Hcsse-Cassel 

Vicinity of Berlin and 




40 


40 


1840 to 1858 
1840 to 1860 


do 


do 




1)11 


CO 


Topograp li i c 


do 








Potsdam. 










Bureau at 
Berlin. 






Vicinity of Berlin aud 
Potsdam. 


1 


iiC 


36 


1872 to 1878 


do 


do 


Central aheota of above 












reviaed. 


Hesse-Darmstiidt 


EODOO 


15 


15 


1831 to 1853 


Topograp h i u 
Bureau at 
Darmstadt. 


.. do 


Lithographed. 


Saxony, topograpbicmap. 


ifiTJocn 


28 


S8 


...do 


Topograp li i c 
Bureau at 


...do 


Copper engraved, in out 
line, and with hiUa. Out- 












Dresden. 




line discontinued. Hill 
map revised ia basis of 
quota for new German 
map. 


Saxony, topoirrapliirinap 


STiiOO 


24 


21 


1821 to 1K60 


do 


... do 










Bavaria, twpograpbic at- 




•no 


110 


1812 to 1808 


Topograp h i c 


... do ....... 


Copper engraved. Revi- 


las. 










Bureau at 
Munich. 




sion of 47 <il<ler sileetsto 
bo completed 1886. 


Wurtemberj:, topogiapli- 


SDuao 


55 


55 


1821 to 1851 


.Statistiu-Topo- 


Fiuauce 


Kevised edition 1877. U. 


ic atlas. 










gr.aphic Bu- 
r e a u at 

Stuttgai-t. 




R. additions 1883. 


Baden, topograpbic atlas. 


vjihrn 


55 


55 


1838 to 1840 


General Staff. . 


War Dipart- 
nient. 


Copper engraved. 


Oldenburji, topographic 
map. 


BffffffO 


14 


14 


185fi t« 18fi3 






Lithographed. Uaed for 










ruviaionary purposes by 






' 










the General Staff. 


Schleewig, maj) of 


ITOtfOO 


6 


G 


1857 to 1858 


Topographic 
Bureau at 
Copenhagen. 


War Depart- 
meut. 


Copper engraved. 


Holstein, and Lauenburg, 
map of. 


TSaOGO 


g 


^ 


1831 


do 


...do 


Do. 















' Of the 110 sheets 55 arc is.sued aa half aheets. 



1366 WH S 



114 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVEYS. 



OTHEE GENEEAL TOPOGEAPHIC MAPS— Oontiuued. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

fLongitudea from Ferro Island.] 



New topographic map. 
(Staff map.) 



Topographic map of Bo- 
hemia. 

Topographic map of Mo- 
ravia and Silesia. 

Topographic map of the 
Archduchy of Austria. 

Topographic map of 
Styria, Carinthia, Sec. 

Topographic map of Salz- 
burg. 

Topographic map of 
Dalmatia. 

Topographic map of 
Tyrol, Lichtenstein.&c. 

Topograpliic map of Hun- 
gary, Trausylvania, 
and Croatia- 
Topographic map of 
Croatia, Slavonia, &c. 

Topographic map of Illy- 
ria and Styria. 





rshns 


720 


578 




1 


39 


39 






19 


19 






31 


31 






37 


37 






18 
21 


13 

21 










24 


24 






198 


133 






37 


37 






36 


36 



1885- 



1847 to 1860 

1844. 

1812 to 1823 

1834 

1810 

1861 to 1863 



Military Geo- 
graphic In- 
stitute at 
Vienna. 

...do 



.do . 

do. 
.do . 

do. 

do . 



1825 to 1838 ...do . 



At end of do . 

1879. 



1834 to 1841 ...do . 
1834 to 1842 ...do . 



"War Depart- 
ment. 



do . 

do . 
.do . 

do. 
.do 

do. 

do. 
.do . 

do. 
do 



Commenced 1875. Helio- 
graphed. 



Copper engraved. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Copper engraved. Com- 
menced 1869. 

Copper engraved. 

Do. 



FRANCE, INCLUDING ALGERIA. 
[Longitades from Paris.] 



New topographic map of 


BoJinr 


1,092 


20 


1885 


Geographical 


"WarDe part- 


Zincographed. Sixoolora. 


France. 










service of the 
General Staff. 


meut. 


With contours. Bach 
sheet is one-quarter of a 
sheet, scale jjiro- 


New topographic map 
of Algeria. 


Eo5oo 


327 


23 


1885 


....do ' 


...do 














ors, with contours. 


Topographic map of 
France. (Staff map. ) 


I 


273 


273 


1833 to 1881 


...do 


...do 


Copper engraved. Hill 
features in hachures; 




























altitudes. Zincograph- 
















ed in quarter sheets. 
















Eevisedevery flveyears. 
















The mother map of 
















France. 



Note.— The "Depot des Fortifications" print for confidential uses maps (scales y^y^ and 5^^) of the vicinity of 
fortifications, &c., and of frontier belts strategically selected. This bureau, and, also the "Depot de la Guerre," have con- 
tributed many types for topographic studies, alao modela of ground about Paris, Cherbourg, rifle ranges at Nimes, Dijon, &c. 



LIST OP GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



115 



OTHER GENERAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS— Continued. 

SWITZERLAND. 
[LoDgitades from Paris.] 



Description or name of 
map. 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 

issued. 


To date of— 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Eemarks. 


Dofonr topographic map. 


TO(A)00 


25 


25 


1842 to 1865.. 


Topographic 
Bareau at 
Beme. 


War Depart- 
ment. 


Copper engraved. 
Heights in meters. 



HOLLAND. 
[Longitudes from Amsterdam.] 



Topographic map 



BOWO 



t;2 



62 



1850 to 1864.. 



Topographic 
Bureau at 
The Hague. 



War Depart- 
ment. 



Lithographed. Hachnres, 
with altitudes in meters. 



Note. — The Military Topugrapliic Institute at The Ha^ae prints in colors (process Eckstein) the general topograpliic 
map ol'the Dutch East luilit'S prepired at the Military Topographic Othce at Batavia. (Java and Madura and certain other 
"residencL's" have appeared, scale mnVan) Roads and railways, criniaon ; walur, blue; hacburcs, brown; cultivation, in 
appropriate colors. There will appoar Ibis year, published at The Hague, an atlaa of the Dutcu East Indian colonies in 14 
sheets. 

SPAIN. 

[Longitudes from Madrid.] 



New topographic map . . 


EOSuO 


1,080 


29 


Sept., 1885.. 


Geographical 
and Statisti- 
cal Institute 
at Madrid. 


Public Works. 


Begnn in 1875. Stone en 
graved. In five colore 
with contours at twen 
ty meters. 



ITALY. 

[Longitudes from Kome (Monte Mario).] 



New topographic map . . . 


, 


277 


109 


1885 


*Military To- 
pographical 
Institute at 


War Depart- 
ment. 


Heliographed. This maj 
absorbs all others. Ha. 
chnres and contours. 














Florence. 






Topographic map of Pa- 
pal States and T uscany. 


waiinT 


52 


52 


1851 to 1856.. 


Military Geo. 
graphical 
Institute at 


do 


Engraved on stone. 














Vienna. 






Topographic map of Lom- 
bardy and Venice 


gaigo 


42 


42 


1833 to 1838.. 


MiUtary Geo- 
graphical 
Institute at 
Milan. 


...do 


Lombardy alone in 24 
sheets. Engraved on 
stone. 


Topographic map of Sar- 
dinia 


rvhns 


91 


91 


J852tol87I- 




....do 


Lithographed. 













•Designation has been changed to Military Geographical Institute. 



116 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 



OTHER GENERAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS— Coutinued. 

SWEDEN. 
[Longitudes front Stockholm.] 







No. of 












Descriptiou or uaiuo of 
map. 


Scale. 


sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


To date of— 


By whom ia- 
sued. 


Admiuiatra- 
tion. 


Hemarka. 


Topographic map of 


TOo'tJOff 


232 


U 


1882 


Topographic 


War Depart- 


Copper engraved. Popu- 


Swedeu. 










Bureau, 
at Stock- 
hohu. 


ment 


lous districts on scale 
of Tirana reduced from 
surveys on scales of 
TiTihns for southern and 
jtfJtnj foi" northern 
parts. 



NORWAY. 

[Longitudes from Christiauia.] 



Topograpbic map of Nor- 


TffiJffOC 


54 


M3 


1885 


Topographic 


War Dep.irt- 


Printed in colore. Con- 


way. 










Bureau, 
Chris tiania. 


ment. 


tours at d istances of lOO 
"fod" (31.38 meters). 
Copper eugraved. 
Hereafter to be helio- 
giaphed from originals 
at Tu^mi* 



KUSSU. 

[Longitudes from Isle of Ferro, Pulkowa, Paris and Warsaw.] 



Topographic map of Rus- 


TJnjffini 


792 


505 


1885 


sia. 


3 versts 








Topographic map of Po- 


ibbWo 


59 


59 


1883 


land. 


Sverata 









Topographic 
Bureau of 
the General 
Staff. 

...do 



War Depart- 
ment. 



do . 



Begun 1857. Based on 
plaue-tahle sheets, scale 
-xJdo- Engraved. 

Commenced 1875. Cop- 
per engraved. Included 
in the above. 



BELGIUM. 

[Longitudes from Brussels.] 



Topographic map of Bel- 
gium. 


iTJOffO 


72 


72 


1885 


Military Car- 
tographic 
Institute. 


War Depart- 
ment. 






graved on stone. Con- 
tours at 5 meters. 
















Printed in black. Re- 
















duced by photography 
from scale of stshns- 



"Quarter sheets. 



LIST OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



117 



OTHER GENERAL TOPOGRAPniC MAPS— Gontimied. 

DENMARK. 
[Longitudes from Copenhagen.] 







No. Of 












Description or name of 
map. 


Scale. 


sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issiu'd. 


To date of— 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Eemarks. 


Topographic m;»p of Jut- 
land. 


zvTinr 


131 


69 


1885 


Topographic 
Bureau of 


War Depart- 
ment. 


Copper engraved. Com- 
menced 1870. Ccmtonrs 


















the General 




10 Danish "fod" apart. 












Staff. 




Colored by liaud wlioro 
required. 


Topographic map of the 
Islands. 


BTF^ 


29 


29 


1883 


....do 


do 


Copper engraved. Com- 
menced )84,'i. Ki'dueed 


























hy photography frmii 
















origiiuil surveys, jjjinj. 
















Contours 10 Danish 
















"fod" apart. 



PORTUGAL. 
[Longitudes from Lisbon. J 



Topographic map of Por- 


loifeoo 


37 


22 


July, 1885 .. 


General Direc- ] Puhlio Works. 


Commenced 


1856. 


In 


tugal. 










tiou of Geo- 


hlack. 
















detic and 




















Topograph - 




















ic Works. 











INDIA. 
[Longitudes from Greenwich.} 



Topographic map (great 
atla.s of India). 



fiscal 



177 



67 



April 1,1885 



Office of Sur- 
veyor-Gen- 
eral. 



Kevenne and 
Agriculture. 



See Index to the Indian 

Atlas, Plate III. 
Also 152 quarter sheets. 



SPECIAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. 

(Regular series. ) 
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND (UNITED KINGDOM). 



County map (.six-inch 










^ 






series) : 
















England and Wales. . 


ToiiTO 


'9,448 


t 3, 413 


Apr. 30, 1885 


Ordnance Sur- 
vey in charge 
of Eoyal Mil- 
itary Engi- 
neers. 


War Depart- 
mint 1784 to 
1870. Now 
OfQce of 
Works. 


Pnhlished with contours. 
Special editions of this 
and all other ordnance 
survey maps ahoiit foi-ti- 
fied places are published 
for confidential War De- 
partment uses. 




IVSOU 


2,036 


2,036 


Apr. 30, 1885 
Apr. 30, 1885 


. . do 


... do . - 


do 




1,907 


1,907 


.. do 


...do 


do 









* 1,700 full sheets ; 7,748 quarter sheets. 



1 1,552 full sheets; 1,861 quarter sheets. 



118 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



SPECIAL, TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS— Continued. 
PRUSSIA. 

[Longitudes from Ferro Island.] 



Deacription or name of 
map. 



Plane-table sheets . 



Scale. 



Ko.of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 



Total 
issued. 



931 



To date of— 



By "whom is- 
sued. 



General Staff 
Topographic 
Bureau (Ber- 
lin). 



A.drainistra- 
tion. 



War Depart- 
ment. 



Kemarks. 



SAXONY. 

[Longitudes from Ferro Island.] 





,.i.™ 


156 


126 


1885 


General Staff 


War Depart- 
ment. 


Contonrs, 10 m. intervaL 












Topographic 














B u r e a u 
















(Dresden). 







BAVARIA. 

[Longitudes from Ferro Island.] 





s^oini 


990 


200 


1885-.. 


General Staff 
Topographic 
Bureau (Mu- 
nich). 


War Departs 
ment. 


Photo-Uthographedj con- 
tours, 10 m. interval. 







WURTEMBERG. 
[Longitudes from Ferro Island.] 



Topographic map 


1 


192 





1885 . ... 


Statistical To- 


Finance De- 


Chromclith ogra p h e d ; 
contours, 5 m. interval. 










pographic 


partment. 












Bureau 
















(Stuttgart). 







BADEN. 

[Longitudes from Ferro Island. I 



Topograpliio map. 



7To(r 



137 



1885. 



Topographic 
Bureau 

(Carlfirnlie). 



Department of 
Commerce. 



Printed in colors; 
tours. 



LISTS OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



119 



SPECIAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS— Continued. 
SWITZERLAND. 







No. of 












Description or name of 
map. 


Scale. 


sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
iasned. 


To date of— 


By ■whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Kemarks. 
















Commenced 1870; chro. 
















mo-lithographed in 3 
















colors; cultivated 
















lands in bister; water, 




Kwmi 


119 


95 


Jnlyl5,1885 


Feder.al Mili- 
tary Topogr.1- 


War Depart- 
ment. 


hlac ; bal.ance, hlaclc. 
Scale of ijJon fo'' Alps 


Topographic atlna • 










1 phic Bureau 
(Berne). 




foot-hills ; contours at 
30 m., and hachurea 




3S000 


442 


355 


Jnlyl5,1885j 






near summits; else- 
where, uTjofTc: engraved 
on copper. Contours 
(10 m.) and hachures- 



HOLLAND. 



Ifl'fw special military to- 
pographic map. 




Military To- 
pograph ic In- 
stitute (The 
Hague). 



War Depart- 
ment. 



Engraved on stone and 
printed in colors ; not 
for sale. Confidential 
pahlication. 



ITALY. 



Field-minute sheets — ■ 



50O03 



817 



456 



427 



1885. 



1885. 



Military Geo- 
graphic In- 
stitute (Flor- 
ence). 



War Depart- 
ment. 



Incomplete — number of 
sheets taken from index 
map. 



BELGIUM. 



Military topographic 


SOoOO 


430 


*430 


1880 


MUitary Car- 


War Depart- 


Begun 1866 ; photo-litho- 


map (plane-table 










tographic In- 


ment. 


graphed ; contours at 


sheets).* 










stitute (Brus- 
sels). 




one motor; road.s and 
localities in red ; forest 
and mea<lows, green ; 
cultivation, yellow. 



• NOTK -This map is completely published in black, and 427 sheets arc already issued in colors. There are 99 sheeK 
scale3i^ iiisued at vi.i ions dates, Wd on plane table-sheets ,r,*n, enl.arged, wbore field minutes have not been taken 
a^^W These sheets are photo-zincographeA in black, and for special studies of the ground. Those hand-printed are 
used for tactics and (kriegspiel) war game. 



120 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



SPECIAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS— Continued. 

DENMARK. 



Description or namo of 
map 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


To date of— 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Remarks. 


Field-minute sheets (Jut- 
land). 

Field-minute slieets (Isl- 
ands). 




081 
433 


500 
80 


1883 -- 

1883 


General Staff 
Topograph- 
ic Bureau 
(Copenha- 
gen). 
. do 


W.ir Depart- 
ment. 

...do , 


Photo-lithography and 
photo-zincography com- 
menced in 1870. 

Do. 











Note.— The authoritios consulted for inforraation concorning number of slieets issued to certain datea are: 

(') " Reffislrande, ' ' 1 .SHO-'Sl-'SI'-'SS. 

('4 Catalogues of Ordnance Survey. Catalo<;uo of maps, plans, &c.. at tlie General War Depot, Paris {Service Gfiooirapliiqne 
(ie UArni^e). Special catalogue of maps, &c., at Military (reograpliical Institute at Tloreuce. Catalogue of maps issued by 
tbe Royal Institute of Engineers of Holland (Huiii6nie Livraison), and "Catalogue of maps, plans, and cbarta of the 
survey of India." 

(3; Notes on Government surveys: Intelligeneo Branch, War Office, London, 1882. 

(■*) Various memoirs and manuscript lists furnished by the several Government survey offices. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND (UNITED KINGDOM). 







No. Of 












Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Tot-al 
issued. 


By whom 
issued. 




Administr.a- 
tion. 


Remarks. 




ran 
TTtVa 








, 


War Depart- 


Levels only are shown; speciirl 


Topographic plans of cities 




5 


Ordn.anceSnr 
vey. 


ment, 1784 
to 1870, now 
Office of 


confidenti.al editions of all oni 
nance survey maps in vicinity 


and large towns. 




< 


of fortifications are held alone 


I- 








Works. 


for War Department uses. 








273 


do 




do . ... 


April 30, 1885. 
Do. 








60 


..do 


...do 








80 


. . do 




.. do 


Do. 


Cadastral or parish maps : 










3^ 


51,488 




do 




do 


At present there are no pl.ana 
(nrVs) foi" Tork and Lancaster 


























Counties, nor for the moorland 
















and uncultivated districts in 
















England and Scotland. Pub- 
















lished for 10 counties, parts of 5 
















others, and the Isle of Man. 




5^0 


12, 316 




..do 




....d( 














cept those sheets for War De- 
















partment purposes, which have 
















contours and fortifications. 
















Tublished for 28 counties. 



LIST OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



121 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND (UNITED KINGDOM)— Conliimod. 



Description nr name of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 

when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


lly whom is- 
sued. 


Admiuistr.a- 
tiou. 


Remarks. 


Cadastral or parish maps — Con- 
tinued : 
















iVbo 
aaVa 

stSfit 


665 


06.5 


Ordnance Sin- 
vey. 

....do 


War Depart- 
ment, 17S4 
to 1870, uow 
Office of 
Works. 

Wa.T Depart- 
ment. 


Ajjiil 23, 1883. For Dublin 


Special toprtsrapliic maps. - . . ■ 


County only. 


Surrey Hill snn 


. 


3TB'aC5 

IBOOBOO 
TUBini 


, 


52 


■ 
.. do 


do 


Combination of contours and ver- 






tical hachures in brown. 


Topographic map of vicinity 
of Plymoutl). 

Topographic map of viciuity 

of AWershot. 
Topographic map of vicinity 

of Cork. 


T0J35 

ToJao 

irTEtUJ 




e 

13 
10 


....do 

...do 

...do 


....do .. 

...do 

....do 


Combination of contours and vi^r- 
tioal hacliurcs in brown, spec 
iaily prepared for War Game. 

Combination of contours and hori- 
zontal liachures in bl.ick. 

Horizontal hachures in black; no 
contours. Photo-zincographed 
from field sketches. 


Topographic map of Ciirragh 
of Kildare. 

Topographic map of Alder- 
shot and environs. 

Topographic map of Alder- 
sliot. 
Do 


TTSTB 




1 
2 


...do 

..do 


.. do 

do 


Horizontal hachures. 

In outline with contours only. 

Horizontal hachures in black. 




1 

1 
9 


...do 


do ... 


...do 

..do 


...do 

...do 


Do. 


Topographic map of Lake 
district of Cnmherlaud and 


Sh.aded contours, like plan of 




card-board model. 


■Westmoreland. 
Topographic map of England 
and Wales. 


Tzihia 

TT872 
IT 1 20 

nsaeoff 

' 1O60O 

1 


1 


8 


. do 


do . . . . 


Reduction from l.in<"li Mcale, old 


do 


do 


series; incomplete .and on. 
finished. 




I 

1— England... 


I 

3,413 
360 


218 
248 


? Geological Bn- 
) reau, London. 


Council on Ed. 
nc.ation. 


f Colors superposed directly on lo- 
j pographicmapof samescale fni-* 
] nished by,engraved and pi iiited 
I at Ordnance Siirvcv Ofiice. 


Geologic maps ■ 


2-Scotland..| "^ 

f 333BC 


2,030 
131 


130 
33 


I., do 


...do 


Do. 






1,907 
205 


10 
180 


X do 


....do 


Do. 






1 

j B33OT 


P 




X 



122 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

GERMANY. 



Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


1^0. of 
sheets 
whea 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By -whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Bemarks. 




BBOOO 
36^0 

EoOuu 

Eoooa 

1«6000 
30UUU0 






Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, Berlin. 

...do 


War Depart- 
ment. 

...do 




Do 














...do 


do 




Topographic map of Stuttgart 
and vicinity. 

Togographic map of Stuttgart 

and vicinity. 
Topographic mjip of Heillironn 

and vicinity. 
Topographic map of Tiihingen 

and vicinity. 
Topographic atlaa of Wiirtem- 

berg. 

Topographic map of Wiirtem- 
herg and adjacent Statea. 

Archseologio map of Wiirtem- 
berg. 

Hisiorio map of "Wiirtemherg. . 

Topographic map of Wiirtem- 
herg and HohenzoUern. 

Hydrographic " Uehersichts " 
map of Wiirtemherg. 

Topographic map of Rheniah 
Bavaria. 


1 

1 

1 

1 

68 

4 

4 

4 
1 

1 

462 


1 

1 

1 

1 

56 

4 

4 

4 
1 

1 

4 

2 
*320 

2 

6 


Statistic-Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, Stutt- 
gart. 
do 


Finance 

...do 


1856; chromo.lithographed. New 
edition 1880. 

1862. More extended than above. 


do 


do 


New edition 1878. 
1866. New edition 1883. 


do 


....do 


1868. New edition 1878. 


do 


...do 


Photographic reproduction of 


do . 


do 


sheets raoTis in 1866; same repro- 
duced at scale xroVini in 1870. 
1842-'53. Eevi8ededitionl868-'74. 


Statistical To- 
pographic Bu- 
reau at Stutt- 
gart 

do 


Finance 

. . do 


E. E. added 1883. New edition 
in preparation. 
Compiled. 

Compiled. 

1841. Corrected 1869. 




... do 


. do 


do 


. . do .... 


1883. With text. 


Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, Munich. 

...do 


do 




...do 




Topographic map of Central 
Europe. 

Topographic map of Hesse 
Cassel. 

Topographic map of Baden — 
Do 


Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, Berlin. 

Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, CasseL 

MiUtary Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, Carla- 
Tuho. 
...do 


....do 


Eeyman's special map. In hand. 
1857-1859. 


do 


...do 

. . ilo 


1855-1864. 

1868 ; chromo-lithographed. 













* At end of 1879. 



LIST OF GOVEENMENT MAPS. 



123 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Contined. 

GERMANY— Continued. 







No. of 










Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


shocta 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tration. 


Remarks. 


Topopn^pUic map of Sohles- 
wig. 


^, 




1 


Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 


do 


1860; copper engraved. 


















reau, Copen- 














hagen. 






Topographic map of Hesse 






2 


Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 


....do 


1867. 


Damistadt. 


^ O U 1/ vv 


















reau, Darm- 














stadt. 






Topographic map of Hanover 


aWmro 




4 


Military Topo- 


.'..do 


1865. 










graphic Bu. 














rean, Han- 














over. 






Topographic mjvp of South- 
"west Germany. 




25 


25 


Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 


(Iq 


1868. 


KAUUUU 


















reau, Munich. 






Do 


2E0OOO 




12 




do . — 


1865. 


Topographic map of Bavaria. . . 


15 


15 


Military Topo- 


"War Depart- 


1849-1853 ; no hille. 










graphic Bu- 


ment. 












reau, Munich. 






Hypsometric map of Bavaria. . . 


asoTiofl 


16 


3 


...do 


do 


1849-18.53 : with curves at 50" in- 








terval ; chromo-lithographed. 


Hydrographic map of Bavaria. . 


1 


1 


1 


....do 


do 


1853 ; hachnres. 


Topographic map of Hesse 


6O000O 




1 


Military Topo- 


...do 


1861. 


Cassel. 








graphic Bu- 
reau, Cassel. 






Topographic map of Saxony. . 


vwA™ 






Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 


do 


1781-1806; based on triangnlation. 


ISOOttO 
















reau, Dres- 














den. 






Geologic map of Prassia 


3CnOO 


3698 


76 


Geologic Insti- 


Commerce, In- 


Colors superposed directly on to. 








(1880) 


stute and Min- 
ing Academy, 
Berlin. 


dustry, and 
Public Works 
of Prussia. 


pographic map of same scale 
furnished by Military Topo. 
graphic Bureau. 


Geologio map of Saxony 


S£oOo 


156 


54 


Geologio Bu. 
rean, Dresden. 


Finance De- 
partment of 
S.axony. 


Do. 

1882. 


Geognostic map of "Wiirtem. 


Tohm 


55 


46 


Statistical- 


Finance 


Resulting from colors superposed 


berg. 








Topographic 
Bureau at 

Stuttgart. 




directly on topogriiphic map of 
snmescale. 26 sheets since 1872. 
Commenced 1858, with text. 


Geologic map of Bavaria 


KTBOTJ 


110 


12 


Geologic Bu- 
reau at Mn- 
nich. 


(Council of Mi- 
ning) Public 
WoriB. 


Colors superposed directly ou 
General Staff map of same scale. 


Geologic map of Hesse-Darm- 


TtoOT 


30 


17 


Geologic office 




Colors superposed directl.v on 
General Staff map of same scale. 


stadt. 








at Darm- 












stadt. 







124 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

AUSTEIA-HUNGAEY. 



Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
iasned. 


By whom is. 
sned. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Eemarke. 


Topographic map of vicinity 
of Vienna and Brucli. 

Special topograpbic maps for 
etlucational purposes. 

Topographic map of vicinity of 
Vienna. 

Topos*aphic map of Vienna 
and environs. 

Topojrraphic map of BrUnn 
and environs. 

Topofirapbic map of Lembcrg 
and environs. 

Maneuver maps of the Mincio . . 

Topographic map of Buda- 
pest and vicinity. 

Topographic map of Vienna 
and vicinity. 

Boundary map {Herzegovina 
and Montenegro). 

Topographic map of Central 
Italy. 

Special map of Hungary 

Topographic map of recruiting 
districts. 

" Ueborsichts " map of army 
recruiting and reserve dis- 
tricts. 


558inT 

ttJoo 
T53lnJ3 

16'AttO 
•juttuuii 

ssbVctj 


60 

48 

124 

U 

10 

28 
4 

10 

6 

52 

139 
4 

4 

4 
12 


60 

135 
48 

124 

11 

10 

28 
4 

10 

6 

62 

139 
4 

4 

4 
12 

2 

4 
4 

11 

7 

4 

4 

1 

4 


Military Goo- 
graphicalln. 
stitute, Vi- 
enna. 

....do 

...do 

do 


War Depart- 
ment. 

. . do 


Heliogravure, black ; Vienna, 40 
sheets; Bruck, 20 sheets. 

Lithographed in 4 colors, from 
original piano-table sheets. 

Hachnres and contours, 10 me- 
ters apart; iu 10 colors; 1878. 

Lithographed; also a second edi- 
tion In 14 sheets. 
Do. 


....do 

do . 


..do 


...do 


do 


do 


Do 


....do 


...do 


Do. 


do 


.do 


Do 


do 


do 




...do 


...do 




do 


....do 




do 


... do 




do 


....do 




...do 

...do 


....do 

....do 




General map of Southwestern 

Germany. 
Topographic map of Austria, 

above and below the Enns. 
Topographic map of Bohemia.. 
Do 


....do 

do 


...do 

....do 


1843. Copper engraved. 


do 


....do 


1865. Copperengraved.withhille. 


...do 


....do 


1865, Copper engraved. Road 


Topographic map of Boakovina 

and Galicia. 
Topographic map of Croatia, 

Slavonia, &c. 

Topographic map of lUyria 

Topographic map of Moravia 

and Silesia. 
Topographic map of Salzburg. . 
Topogrophic map of Styria .. 


do 


....do 


map without hills. 
1868. Copper engraved. 


do 


...do 


1869. Copper engraved. Road 


do 


...do 


map without hills. 
1843. Copper engraved. 


do 


....do 


1846. Copper engraved. 


....do 

do . . . . 


....do 

....do 


1810. Copper engraved. 
1842. Copper engraved. 









LIST OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



125 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Coutiuued. 

AUSTRI A-HUNGAK Y— Con ti u uod. 







No. of 










Description or name oi' luiip. 


Scale. 


wbeu 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
i-ssuetl. 


By wboin is- 
sued. 


Adujiiiiatm- 
tion. 


Kemarks. 


Topographic map of Aii.slria- 


zooQua 




56 


Militiiry Geo- 


War Dipart. 


Ivoad map without bills. One 


Uiinpiiy. 








sriipbical In- 
stitute, Vi- 
enna. 


m<'Ut. 


sheet gives eiiviroua of Vienna 
iiriAnio — 1877. 


Topographic map of Central 
Europe. 


300000 


207 


207 
(1861) 


...do 


..do 


1H81. Scheila'H map zr^ma amp- 
lified to the whole of Central 
Europe. Hcliogravureandstouo 
transfer. 


General map of Grceio 

Map of the lights on the Aus- 
tria-Hungary coast. 


asoVon 


11 


11 


..do 


.. do 




3 


3 


..do 


do . . . 










Administrative map of Hun- 
gary. 


SGlHlOO 


12 


12 


Cartographic- 
section of 




Compiled from existing official 
sources. 












State print- 














ing office. 






Koad map of Croatia, Slavouia, 


432005 


2 


2 


Military Geo- 


War De{ ait- 




and the military frontier. 








graphical 
Institate at 
Vienna. 


ment. 




General map of Bosnia 

Oro-hydrographic map of the 
monarchy. 


HJOOUO 


4 


4 


do 


do 




do 


....do 














"Uebei'sichts £arte" of Aus- 


75dWo 


30 


30 


do 


..do 


Printed in 4 colors. Completed 
1682. To be extended to em 


tria-Hungary. 






















brace Bosnia, Herzegovimi, and 














Central Europe. 


Telegiaph map of Central 

Eniope. 
Map of Central Asia 


SBTSOOfl 
3O2ifOO0 


4 
12 


4 
12 


do . 


--do . . . 




...lu 

.. do 


do . 




Skeleton map of China 


.. do 


In German, English, and Hunga- 














rian. 


K;iilway map 

Cadast ml survey 


, 




6 




Commerce - - 


1881. 






Not publisheil. 


Geologic map by provinces 


720 


270 


Geological 


Depai-tment of 


Formations shown by colors 










State Insti. 


Agriculture 


superposed directly on topo. 










tute. 


and Mining. 


graphic map of same scale fur- 
nished by Milit;iry Geographical 
Institate. 



126 



GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SUEVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGEAPHIO, AND OTHEE GOVEENMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTEAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 



FEANCE, INCLUDING ALGERIA. 







No. of 










Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Bemarks. 


Topographic plan of Toul and 
itB environs. 


luouo 




49 


D£p6t des 

Fortifications. 


"War Depart- 
ment. 


Photo-zincographed ; also on a 
scale of 13J33. Plans of other 
towns, as Paris, Dijon, Belfort, 
and Verdun for fortification 
studies.puhlished on same scales. 
Scales -nftro and i3'j3 used for 
more exact studies. 


Map of Athena and vicinity . .. 
Topographic map of Depart- 
ment of the Seine. 




1 

36 


1 
36 


do 


do 


From map of Greece. 
Planimetric; 4 colors. 


do 


do 










nroffu 

40000 


9 

i 

9 

1 


9 

50 

9 

1 


...do 

D6p6t do la 
Guerre. 


. . do 


Photo-zincographed. 

Copper engraved; in progress. 

Copper engraved ; photo-zinco- 
graphed, 1875. 


Topographic plans of cities and 
large towns. 

Topographic map of Depart- 
ment of the Seine. 


...do 


....do 


"War Depart, 
ment. 






colors. 


Topographic map of the Al- 
pine frontiers. 


smjmj 


72 


72 


D6p5t de la 
Guerre. 


...do 


1877. Stone engraved; 3 colors; 
contours 20 meters interval. 




Topographic map of the De- 
partment of the Vosges. 
Slap of Department of the Seine. 
Geometric map of rr.ince, also 


uuuou 
57(033 

Uti4UU 






D6p6t des 
Fortifications. 

...do 

...do 


....do 


Chromo-lithographed in 5 colors. 


1 


1 
entire 


....do 


Planimetric ; 4 colors. 


.-..do 


Cassioi's map ; 16 whole and 24 


called "Academy Map." 












half sheets. 




1007100 
100000 


47 
590 


23 
90 


. . do 


....do 


Typography. 
Commenced In 1879. Chromo- 


Hoad and hydrographio map of 


Direction f 


Interior De- 


France (carte vidnale). 






May, 
1882. 


" Carte Tici- 
nale." 


partment. 


lithographed ; planimetric. 
Boads in red; woods, green; 
water, blue; population by com- 
munes. 


Chorographic map of Prance .. 


aoolnns 


81 


20 


D6p6t de la 
Guerre. 


War Depart- 
ment. 


Ziucographedin6colors; reduced 
from map eoSoo Curves. Each 
sheet comprises 4 at 53J53 and 


Map of interior communications 
and public works of France. 


jToinni 


141 


25 


Office of Public 
Works Map. 


Department of 
Public Works. 


1882. Copper engraved. Three 
colors. Commenced, 1879. 




inns 500 

iiOOOOO 

'iOOOOO 
BSO^OOg 


20 

1 
21 


20 
1 
6 


...do 


....do 




Map of Constantinople 


...do 

. . do 


...do 


1829. Lithographed. 
Zincographed in 3 colors; also 
photo.zincographed in 2 colors. 
Zincographed, 1881. 
Engraved on copper; same scale 


do 


Etape map of France 

Cantonal map of France 


2 
2 


2 
2 


. . do 


...do 


D6p6t de la 


War Depart- 


Topographic staff map of 
France. 


323033 


33 


33 


Guerre. 
....do 


ment. 
...do 


for 5onvenience. 
1852 to 1883. Copper engraved. 






Topographic map of the Alps. . 
Topographic map of Central 
Em ope. 


35A03 
523033 


10 

6a 


10 
38 


...do 

...do 


..do 




do 


Copper engraved in 3 colors. 











LISTS OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



127 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Coutiuued. 

PRANCE, INCLUDING ALGERIA— Continued. 



Description or namo of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 

shoots 

when 

com- 

ploto. 


Total 

issuoLl. 

2 

3 

15 

Jan., 

1882. 

6 
2 

1 

1 

1 
4 


By wbora is- 
sued. 


Administra. 
tion. 


Remarks. 


Hypsometrio map of Franc©.. . 
Map of Tunis 




2 
3 
15 

6 

1 

1 
4 


D6pdt dea 

Fortifications. 

.. do 


War Depart. 

mcnt. 

do 


The zones below 500 motors in 
height are colored yellow ; from 
nOO to 1,000 meters, in green r 
above this browu. Tlio depths 
of color in each zone increases 
with the altitude. 

1881. Zincographed. 

1885. Li colors. 

Published in three types : (1) com- 
plete; (2) roadmup.withuontours 
100 meters apart; (3) orographic, 
glvinggronnd,water,andnomes. 
For general nse of engineers. 

Completed. 

Copper engraved. 

1878. Each net has a separate 
color, including lines completed 
or in constrnction. 

Lithographed in colors. 

Zincographed, 1876. 
1882. 


400000 

300^000 
BOoffOO 


Map of Delta of Tonquin 

Topographic map of l-Yance 


...do 

....do 


...do 

....do 


Map of interior communica- 
tion s. 
Chorographic map of France . . 




Department of 
Public Works. 
War Depart 

inent. 
Department of 
Public Works. 

War Depart- 
ment, 
do 


eooooo 

eoAoB 
eoo^ooo 

BOOOOO 

BffoWff 


D6p6t do la 
Guerre. 


Administrative map of France . 
Cantonal maps of France ..'.... 


D6p6t do la 

Guerre. 
... do 


General map of Algeria 


...do 


...do 




do 


do 


Engraved on stone ; in colors. 


Contour map of France 


6 
9 


6 

9 

1 


...do 

...do 


...do 


Railway map of France 


do 


tours 100 meters interval. 
Photo-zincographed ; 7 colors ; no 

hills. 
1878. In 8 colors. 


Map of interior navigation of 

France. 
Xational road map of France.. 




Public Works 
do 


Kailway map of France 


lUUUOUQ 






D6p6t do la 

Gnerre. 
...-do 

....do 


War Depart- 
ment. 
do 


Zincographed. 

Photo-zincographed, with and 
without hills. 

Copper engraved; alao six supple- 
ments. 

Typography. 

In 8 colors. Departments shown 
in flat tints. 1878. 


Map of Africa 


60 
2 


22 
4 

2 

1 

19 


Military map of principal 


... do ... . 


European states. 
Map of Mexico 


...do 


do 


Local railway map of France.. 






Department of 

Public Woik.s. 

Department of 

Agriculture 

and Com 


sjtatistical atlas of the com- 








merce of France. 








AtLis of the ports of France . . . 
Cadastral stirvey 


and 
otliere 




78 




merce. 
Marine 


Only fathom lines (meters) ; no 
soundings. 1872. In progress. 

Not published. 

Colors superposed on WarDepart- 

ment military topographic map 

of same scale. 


Geologic map of France 


273 


75 
(1885) 


Geological Bu. 
reau at Paris. 


PuWi : Works- 



128 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SUEVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
IN'CLUDING CADASTEAL AND GEOLOGIC— Coutiuued. 

SWITZERLAND. 



Descriptiuu or uauie of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


£emarks. 


Topographic map of Switzer- 
land. 


SOoDOO 
luouuuu 


4 
4 


4 

4 


MiUtary Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reauatBorne. 

.. do 


War Depart- 
ment. 

....do 


1866-1874. 
1880. 


Topographic map of Switzer- 
land. 
"TTfiherairlitsKarte" of Switz- 


... do 


..do 


Stone engraved} in colors. 

Stone engraved; in colors. 

Auspices of Department of In- 
terior. 






...do 


.. do 


erland. 
Geologic map of Switzerland. . . 


25 


18 


Helvetic Soci- 
ety. 







moTE.— Cadastral surveys have been mado by the following cantons: 1. Geneva in 1711, 1778, 1841. 2. Waadt in 1804, 
1812,1841,1863,1883. 3. Basel, 1823, 1857, 1864 (scale ^5 and sjj). 4. Berne, 1845, 1864, 1874. 5. Frcyburg, 1841. 6. Solothui'n. 
1863. 7. Sohaffhausan, 1S40. 8. Nenfchatel, 1864. 

HOLLAND. 



Wargamemapof Prlncenhague 
and Tilburg. 



War game map of Geldern . - - 

Eiver maps of Holland 

Topographic map of Utrecht 

and vicinity. 
•' Waterstaats " map of Holland 



Chorotopographic map of 
Northern provinces of Hol- 
land. 

Etape map of Eullaud 

Itinerary map of Holland . - . 

Topographic atlas of the Neth- 
erlands. 

Do 

Do 

Telegraph map 

Postal map 

Map of navigable rivers of Hol- 
land. 

Geologic map ■ 



iitbo 



1 

10000 

eoooo 



aofsocB 
1 

SUOiJOO 
ildOOOO 

I 

tiooooa 

ii5(H)00 
12B000O 
liOO^OO 

S001)00 



100 
(1881) 



28 



Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau at The 
Hague. 

...do 



28 



do . 
do 



do 



do. 



do. 
do . 
do . 

do . 
.do 
do . 
do. 



War Depart- 
ment. 



...do . 



.do. 
.do. 
.do 

.do. 



.do 



do. 
do . 
do 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



do. 



51 since 1865. Survey n^. 
Lithographed. 

Chro mo-lithographed. Shows 
heights of eleviitions, depths of 
valleys, river courses, drainage, 
and inundation systems. 

1822. Copper engraved. 



1848. Lithographed; out of print. 

1863. Lithographed. 

1869. 



Colors suporpost'd directly on map 
reduced from the topographic 
map of scale 55^05 furnished by 
War Department. Completed 
1865. 



LIST OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



129 



MISGELLANKOUS, TOPOGRAPniO, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Coutinued. 

XOTK — The following 13 the list of tUo athis of tho Dutch East Indian possessions to bo printed at Tho Haguo and 
issued in 1SS6: (I) General map, 1 : 6,000.000 ; (2) telejn'apli, road, military division and population of Java and Madura, 
1:2,000,000; (31 West Java, 1:500,000; (4) Centraljava, 1:500,000; (.i) EastJava, 1:500,000; (0) North Sumatra, 1:900,000; 
(7) Ccntr.1l Sumatra, 1:900,000; (8) South Sumatra, 1 : 900,000; (9) Bankn, 1:500,000; liilliton, 1:400,000, &o. ; (10) North 
Borneo, 1 : 1,500,000; (11) Southern Borneo, 1 : 1,500,000 ; (12) Celebes, 1 : 2,000,000, and Southwestern Celebes, 1 ; 500,000 ; (13) 
small Sanda Islands, 1 : 1,000,000 ; (14) residency of Amboina and part of Bauda, 1 : 1,000,000 ; Moluccas, 1 : 1,000,000. 

DUTCH EAST INDIAN COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.* 



DeacriptioD or name of map. 



Scale. 



No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 



Total 
issued. 



By whom is- 
sued. 



Administra- 
tion. 



Remarks. 



Topographic map of Kraton 
(Acheen). 



Topographic map of Acheen .. . 
Toposraphic map of theater of 
war in Acheen. 

Topographic mapofchief towns 

Topographic map of Acheen - . . 

Topographic map of residences 
and districts in Java, Madura^ 
Sumatra, &c. 

Topographic map of Kingdom 
of Deli. 

New ordnance topographic 
map of Java and Madura. 

General geologic map of the 
Dutch East Indian Archipel- 
ago. 



io60 






55000 
KoOOO 

luiAtoo 



TtnAnra 

330DT)000 



Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau at The 
Hague. 
...do 

... do 



War Depart- 
ment. 



-do. 
.do. 



16 



IS 



.do -- 

-do 

do 



-do. 
-do 



-do. 
.do . 
....do 



.do. 
do. 



Also pablished on scale of loooo- 



1876. 

Printed in colors. From military 

surveys by Topographic Bureau 

at Batavia. 

1880. 
Chromo-lithographed. 1870. 



1876. East coast of Sumatra. 
Chromo lithographed. 
Sketch map only. 



* From a list just received from Mr. C. A. Eckstein, director of the Topographic Bureau at The Hague, it appears 
that the Topographic Bureau at The Hague has also issued independently both topographic and planimetric maps of resi- 
dences, islands, principal places, &c., of the following number and scales : 1 at 1 : 5,000 ; 6 at 1 : 10,000 ; 1 at 1 : 40,000 ; 4 at 
1:50,000; 11 at 1:100,000; 3 at 1 : 200,000; 1 at 1:250,000; 1 at 1:300,000; 1 at 1:400,000; 1 at 1:1,000,000 ; 1 at 1 : 1,500,000, also 
an £tape map, 1: 717,000, and 1 war game map, 1 : 2,000. The Dutch Government has published up to July, 1885, the follow- 
ing geological maps : Sumatra, 30 sheets, at scales mSmi, nhm, joimii iiritni. loAnnji nJvm, and jj^^; Banca, 23 sheets, at 
scales j,^, csVii. miira. Boimi. and jWinra ; Java, 5 sheets, at scales ujJtoi tnhnsy nniW. aiil urAoo ; Borneo, toiirei nhm, 
uIot. tiotj. unjW. and coian ; BUliton, 1, at scale unftrao; and Timor, 2, at scales ^Im and lonWs- 

SPAIN. 



Topographic atlas of Spain . 


[ 

ID. 


T^nfeira 1 60 


30 


Geographical 
Institute, 
do 


Public Works, 
do 


Chromo-lithographed. 


Military and road map of Spa 
Geologic map of Spain 


5UOUUU --..--. 

*oAoj W 


20 

1 


General Staff 
of the Army. 

Commission of 
the Geologic 
Map of Board 
of Mines. 


War Depart- 
ment. 

Public Works, 
Agriculture, 
Indu8lry,and 
Commerce. 


Chromo-lithographed; printed in 
colors, without hills, accompa- 
nied by 8 books of itineraries. 






posraphic map of same scale. 
Map for field notes at scale of 



1366 WH- 



130 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 



ITALY. 



Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Bemaxkg. 


Topographic plans of the city 
of Palermo. 


^ ^^ 

C 50^10 

Tuinnj 

ISOOO 
3SS00 

S60U0 

aefioo 
soouu 

50000 

EOOOO 


i 

1 

12 
\ 


12 


Neapolitan 
ToDographic 
Bureau. 

..do 


War Depart- 
ment. 

... do 


1818. Copper engraved. 
Lithographed 1861. 




Military Top- 
ographic In- 
stitute at 
Florence. 

...do 

Neapolitan 
Topographic 
Bureau. 
...do 

Sardinian Top. 
ographio Bu. 
reau. 


... do 




Special maps for war studies . . 


do 




Topographic map of Venice . - . 
Topographic plan of the city 
and port of Trapani. 

Topographic plan of the city of 
Naples and vicinity. 

T«pographic map of the Mar- 
itime Alps. 

Topographic map of the ter- 
ritory between Casale, Ales- 
sandria, and Stradella. 

Topographic map of Mount 
Vesuvius. 

Topographic map of the ter- 
ritory of San Mauritio. 

Map of Turin and vicinity 

Map of Florence and vicinity.. 

Map of Eome and vicinity 

Map of Naples and vicinity 

Topographic plan of city and 
strait of Messina. 

Topographic map of Southern 
Italy and Sicily. 

Topographic map of Central 
Italy. 


1 

1 


1 
1 

1 


Copper engraved. 

1839. Engraved on copper. 

1828. Engraved on copper. 


do 


... do 

... do 








zontal curves. County of Nice 
completed. Discontinued in 
1851. 
Not completed. 

Photo-lithographed. 
Copper eugiaved. 1864. 
Copper engraved. 


6 



4 

9 

9 

15 


6 

1 
i 

a 

9 
15 

1 

177 


Topographic 
Bureau at 
Florence. 

Sardinian Top- 
ographic Bu- 
reau. 

Military Top- 
ographic Bu- 
reau at Flor- 
ence. 

....do 


do 


do 


...do 


do 


Copper engraved in colors. 
Lithographed in 4 colors. 
Copper engraved. 
3832. Copper engraved. 


...do 

....do 


. do 


. do 


Neapolitan 
Topographic 
Bureau. 

Military Top- 
ographic In- 
stitute at 
Florence. 

....do 


do . --- 


do 




. do 




88 


1 
88 


Sardinian Top- 
ographic Bu- 
reau. 

... do 


.. do 


Copper engraved. 


Topographic map of Sardinia. . 


....do 


1852-1871. Lithographed. 



LIST OF GOVERNMENT MA.PS. 



131 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

ITALY— Continued. 



Description or name of map. 


No. of 

sheets 
Scale, when 
com- 
plete. 

1 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Eemurks. 


Topographic map of Milan and 
vicinity. 

Map of Province of Naples — 


BOoOO 


3 


4 

3 


Military Geo- 
graphical 
Institnte at 
Milan. 

Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, Flor- 


■War Depart- 
ment. 

....do .... 


Engraved on copper. 
Copper engraved. 




Topographic map of the Nea- 
politan provinces. 

Topographic map of the Papal 
States (southeast portion). 


BOOOO 

3shns 






ence. 








i 

9 

9 
52 


B^pdt de la 
Guerre (Mil- 
itary Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau, Paris). 

...do 


War Bepart- 
ment. 

. . do 


1856. 

1828. Engraved on copper. 

1849. Engraved on copper. 
1851. Engraved on stone En- 


Piaceuza, and Guastala. 
Topographic map of Modena . . 


... do 

Military Geo- 
graphical In. 
etltute, Vi- 


...do . ... 


TopOiH^phic map of Lomhardy, 


.. do . 


Venice, and Central Italy. 




hirged at Florence to Tii„ la 
sheets. 


Topogi-aphic map of Sicily 

Topographic map of the shore 




6 
25 

1 


51 

13 

4 

6 

25 
4 

1 


enna. 
Military Topo. 

graphic In. 

stitute at 

Florence. 
Neapolitan 

Topographic 

Bureau. 


do 


Heliographed. 1871. 

In atlas form. Engraved on cop- 
per. Published in 1834. 

Engraved on copper. Published 
1830. Based on cadastral map 
by Padre Inghirami ; 1819-1827. 

Engraved on copper 1842-1862, 
based partly on Gtuaeppe Mo- 
mo's map ^^^^ ; 1819. 

1871-1874 Photoinoislon. 

1838. 


1 


....do 


of the river Tronto to the 

Cape Santa Maria di Lenca. 

Chorographic map of Tuscany. 






Sardinian Top. 
ographic In- 
stitute. 

...do 

Military Geo- 
graphical In- 
stitute at 
MUan. 

Sardinian Top- 
ographic Bn. 
reau. 


..do 


Chorographic map of the Nea- 
politan Provinces. 


....do 

...do 


USUDUU 

XtJBUUU 


bardo-Venitia. 


...do 


Engraved on copper. 1844. 
Heliographed. 


Chorographic map of Italy 


...do 




1 graphic In- 
atitnte, Flor- 










1 


ence. 







132 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLJGIC— Continued. 



ITALY— Continued. 



Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administrar 
tion. 


Semarks. 


Chorogi-apliic map of Sicily and 
Calabrian Islands. 

Chorographic map of Sicily 

Chorographic map of Upper 

and Central Italy. 
Chorograpliic map of Italy 




4 

1 
6 

6 

6 

2 
2 


4 

1 
6 

6 

6 

4 
6 
2 
2 
1 


Military Topo- 
graphic In- 
stitute, Flor- 
ence, 
do ... . 


War Depart- 
ment. 

....do 


Lithographed. 
Photo.incision. 


800*000 


do 


do 


Copper engraved. 1865-1876. 


do 


do 


Photo-zincographed. Amplifica* 
tion of map mooooo ; 3 editions; 
planimetric, in 2 colors; plani- 
metric, and 4 colors. 


TTnsSoflo 

TOflOCOO 

aoooffoo 

ISBOffOTJ 
SBDBlTffff 


....do 


....do 


Map f military districta 

Chorographic map of Italy 

Conscription map of Italy 

Railway and navigation map . . 


do 


..do . 


ographed. 
1874. Chromo-lithographed. 


do 


do . 


Corrected 1885. Photo-incision. 


do 


....do 


Chromo-lithographed. 


do 


....do 


Photo-lithographed. 


. do 


. do 


1869. In 3 colors. 








1819-1837. Triangulation by Prof. 


Tax map of the Papal States. . . 


2 00 










Padre Inghirami. 
1821. 


277 


14 


Geologic sec- 
tion of Eoyal 
Coq)Sof Min- 
ing Engi- 
neers. 


Agriculture, 
Industry, and 
Commerce. 


Formation shown by colors super- 






posed directly on topographic 
map of same scale furnished by 
Military Geograpliic Institute. 
Two sheets (Island of Elba) is- 
sued at scale of rshm- 



SWEDEN. 











MUitary Topo- 


"War Depart- 


Also maps of cities, forts, en- 


Topographic map of passes C 
and positions. ' 


BflSoO 


\ 




graphic Bu- 
reau, Stock- 
holm. 


ment. 


trenchments, &c., at scales 
iViro andj^ for special military 
studies and purposes. 


i 




Topographic map of Stockholm . 
Topographic " Lan, " or county 
map. 


20000 

200 0OO 




9 


...do 


....do 


1861. 




28 


....do 


....do 


Engraved on copper. 










■General topographic map of 

Sweden. 


1 


3 


3 


do 


do 


1865-1876 Printed in colors — 












hachures. 


Economic map of Sweden 


iioSoo 






...do 


....do 












eral Land Survey Office to 1873, 














then under War Department. 


■"Harad" or parish map 5 


BOoDS 

loo^mo 


I 




.do 


....do i 


Colored lithographs. Planimetric 
for cadastral purposes. 


) 






I 


r 


E«A«,. 




83 


Geologic office 
at Stockholm. 




Colors superposed on topographic 
maps of same scale. 


Oeologio map of Sweden 












200'SoO 




10 


...do 




Do. 











LIST OF GOVERNMENT MAPS- 



133 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

NORWAY. 



Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 

sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is. 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Remarks. 


"Amts" mapofXorway 

Map of Southern Norway 

Topographic map of the vicin- 
ity of Christiania. 


looiooo 






Topographic 
Bureau at 
Christiania. 

....do 


War Depart- 
ment. 

....do 


Commenced 1826. Plans of large 

cities shown on margins on scale 

oi nhnn; black. 
Commenced 1875. Lithographed; 

water blue, roads and towns 

red, boundaries and contours 

black. 
From former surveys, 10-meter 

curves, heliogravure, reduced 

from scale of ,ji„. 


6 


18 
(1878) 

2 


....do 


. do 


.. do 


do 


Geologic map of Norway 

Geologic map of Southern Nor- 
way. 


54 


1 


Geological In- 
stitute. 
...do 


Interior De- 
partment, 
.--.do 


Based on topographic map of same 

scale. 
1877. 



RUSSIA. 



Topographic map of the Can- 
casiu. 


XIUUUU 

5 versts. 


77 


66 


Military Topo- 
graphic Bu- 
reau at St. 
Petersburg 
(Turkestan 
section). 


■War Depart- 
ment. 




Topographic map of Kussia in 
Europe. 


10 versts. 


154 


141 


Military Topo- 
graphic Bu 
reau at St. 
Petersburg. 


...do 


Commenced 1868. In band. In 
3 colors. 


Topographic map of Asiatic 
Turkey. 


H4U60U 

20 versts. 




11 


Topographic 
Bureau of the 
General Staff 
(Caucasus 
section). 


....do 


Commenced 1878. Lithographed 
for current use of troops. 
Printed in colors; vertical 
hachures. 


Military road map of Enssia 
in Europe. 


25 versts. 


15 


15 


Topographic 
Bureau of 

General Staff. 


...do 


1880. Revised, issued annually, 
planimetric, with Russian text. 


Topographic map of military 
districts in Turkestan. 


zrshms 
40 versts. 




16 


Topographic 
Bureau of 
General Staff 
(Turkestan 
division). 


....do 


1877. Corrected 188( 


Kussia in Europe 


TffBootro 
40 versts. 


12 


5 


... do 


....do 












lOB&OOO 




8 
1 


...do 


-..-do 


1874. 


Topographic map of North 
Turkestan. 


...do 


....do 










Topographic map of Orenburg 


50 versts. 




2 


....do 


..do 


1880. 



134 



GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

EUSSIA— Continued. 



Description or name of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Kemarks. 


Topographic map of Western 
Siberia. 

Post map of Eussia in Eorope . . 
Commnnications, European 

Russia and Cancasns, road, 

water, and telegraph. 


^ ... 




4 

9 

4 

4 


Topographic 
Bureau of 
General Staff 
(Turkestan 
division). 

....do 


War Departs 
ment. 

.. do 


1880. 
1863. 


aiiroooo 
60 versts. 

5T70Tnnr 

\ 


... do 


. do 


1859. 


do 


do 


1880 




lOOveratB. 
200 versts. 

49(AI00 


...do 


...do 


1880; 1876-'77. 


Mongolia^ 
Map of Russian Turkestan and 
neighboring states. 

Mfip '"if Asiatic T?nanin. 




1 
2 


....do 


....do .. 


1878. Lithographed for current 

use of troops. 
1880. 


do 


do 








Not published. 

Swedish text. Working maps, 
scale Ysiftnro. are prepared by the 
Geodetic Land Survey and To- 
pographic Corps. 

Formations shown by colors di- 
rectly superposed upon topo- 
graphic map of same scale fur- 
nished by topographic section 
of General Staff. 


Geologic map of Finland 

Geologic map of Kassia in 
Europe. 


154 


7 
3 


Geologic Bu- 
reau. 

Geologic sec- 
tion of Bu- 
reau of Min- 
ing Engi- 
neers. 


Mines 

Imperial Do- 
main. 



BELGIUM. 



War game and study map 


loSoo 






Military Carto- 
graphic Insti- 


War Depart 
ment. 


















tute at Brus- 














sels. 






Map of environs of Brussels . - . 


icina 


12 


12 


do 




Not catalogued for sale. Special 
military. 










Topographic map of vicinity 
of camp at Beverloo. 


aoJoo 




24 


...do 


War Depart- 
ment. 


Engraved on stone. 










Map of vicinity of garrisons. . . 
fitape map of Belgium 


Tuuuu 
HBOOU 






....do 


....do 


Wherever required. 
Engraved on stone. Shows halt- 
ing and camping places. 






...do 


. do 










Special road map of Belgium . . . 




6 


6 


... do 


...do 












tistical information for marches 














and cantonments of mobiliza- 














tion, with and without hills. 


Topographic map of Belgium . . 


uAot 




4 


..do 


-...do 


1880. Chromo-lithographed. Con- 
tours 20 meters apart in bister. 
Favorable military positions 
tinted in p.^le rose color. 



LIST OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



135 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

BELGIUM— Continued. 



Descriptien or n.-iiue of map. 


Scale. 


No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom is- 
sued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Remarks. 


Railroad map and communica- 
tions. 

Provincial map of Belgium .... 
Special road map of Belgium. . 


TotMjuu 

1 


1 
1 


4 

1 
1 

1 


MUitary Carto- 
graphic Insti- 
tute at Brus- 
sels, 
do 


War Depart- 
ment. 

do 


1880. 

Provinces shown by tints. 
Shortly to be published. 

Agiicultural regions. 


331)000 

saoVcra 
sooVoa 
Bjjifoon 

UOOUO 


do 


....do 


do 


....do 




....do... 


....do 


Cadastral maps 

Greologio map of Belgium 

Geological map of Belgium — 
Geological map of Belgium 










tion. Hydrographic and hypso- 
metric maps are also published. 


430 

9 

1 


27 

9 

1 


Geologic Com- 
mission. 

Military Carto- 
graphic Insti- 
tute. 


Interior 


Formations superposed in colors 
directly upon topographic map 
of same scale furnished by War 
Department and printed at the 
Military Cartographic Institute 
until 1883, and since through 
private publishers. 1878 to 1885. 
Second geological examination. 

Of the soil ; also subsoil. In two 




editions foreach kind, 1854-1878. 
First geo logical examination 
First geological examination. 






First edition, Paiis, 1854. Sec- 
ond edition, Brussels, 1876. 



DENMARK. 



Topo^n^pbic map of Zealand. . . 

Topographic map of Jutland . . 
Cadastral maps 



lOOOOU 


3 


3 




10 


1 




4o6a 











Military Topo- 
graphic In- 
stitute, Co- 
penhagen. 

...do 



War Dep.T.rt- 
ment. 



.do . 



Contours 30 " fod " apart 



1882. Photoohromo-lithographed 

in fl colors. 
Not published. 



PORTUGAL. 



Topographic map of Lisbon. 



Chorographic map of Portugal 
Chorographic map of Portugal 



Cadastral maps 

Geologic map of Portugal. 



■I 



sobo 

XSoVff 



GOSOO 

TfftfWw 



37 



l\ 



Office of Geo. 
detio and To- 
pographio 
Works. 

...do 

...do 



...do 

...do 



Public Works. 



.do. 
..do. 

-do. 

.do . 



1870. 
In hand. 

Not published. 

Formations superposed in colors 
directly upon the topographic 
map of same scale furnished by 
the Office of Geodetic and Topo- 
graphic Works. 



136 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEYEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS^ 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

INDIA. 



Description or name of map. 



Plans of towns, civil and mil- 
itary stations, forts and na- < 
tive cities. 

Estate surveys, maps of .. 

Khnsrah survey maps 



Districts and military dis-_ 
tricts, maps of 



Scale. 



sbBo 

3T355 
B3360 



TZTBU 

Mass 

B33Cn 

rstfTTo 
Revenue survey maps i miio 



Topographic maps ■ 



Pergunnab, Tcheaeel, Taloqna 
maps.f 

Presidencies, maps of 



Provinces, maps of . 



Frontiers, maps of . 



Charts of great trigonometri- 
cal survey of India. 



General map of India . . 



Railway map of India 



No. of 

sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 



B33B0 

sbdVso 

2027BiTJ 
TSBTTO 

TOT 3700 

533BO 

5EoVm 

SOTTESO 
2T3iJO 

booVbo 

0OH3OO0 

1 
20T75JO 

lOBBOTO 

IIOOSO 



ToaaoTBo 

I 505T7I3' 



Telegraph map of India J 'niBioo 



Total 
issued. 



By whom is- 
sued. 



Surveyor-gen- 
eral. 



Administra- 
tion. 



.do . 
do. 



do. 



Surveyor-gen- 
eral. 

...do 



.do . 



Surveyor-gen- 
eral. 



Home, Eeve- 
nue, and Ag- 
riculture. 



-do . 



...do. 

...do. 

..do. 

...do . 

.. do 
..do 



do . 



.do . 
.do . 



.do. 



.do 



do. 



.do . 



.do . 



.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do . 
.do. 
-do. 



.do .. 
do .- 



do . 



Kemarks. 



Also scales of 3^01 «io. iVoo. tAb. 

1(>B4< SrOBt OBsOt OOSOi IS840) 2Il30i 
OTOOOt 453401 ^^Ud ^^Jho. 



Used for native measurements by 
the Settlement Department. 

Also scales of ^Ao. b^. tAo. *od 
Tj^, and 1" =6, 8, 16, 24. 32, and 
64 miles. 



Tillage plans. Also scales of 
gj^go and gg^BDi *°^ 1"^ 8 miles 
1"=32 miles. 

Also scales of 1"^4 miles and 
2" simile. 



Postal map. 



Also scales of 1"=10, 20, 24, J 
and 64 miles, and ^oTAnm- 



• For non-revenue-paying districcs, very jungly and hilly tracts, and native states, 
this scale, 53^30 

t Comparable to the English "hundred." 

t Prepared from information furnished by the director general of telegraphs. 



Third issue. Corrected to Janu- 
ary, 1884. 

With corrections and additions to- 
1880. Hills in chalk. 

Ninth edition, with hills. 1881. 
Corrected to 1883; in skeleton. 

1875. Size, 12" X 13". 

Size of each sheet 40"by27"; cor- 
rected to 1884. 

Corrected to April 1, 1879. 
, tox>ographic surveys mostly on 



LIST OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



137 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 



INDIA— Coutiuued. 



Desoription or name of map. 



Indt'S maps. 



Scale. 



Cadastral maps 

Geologic map of India . 



Preliminary geologic sketch 
map of India. 



TTTOfBTJ 

SOOBSOO 
BUBaKBO 

TgjlJ 
9EE440 



76400 



No. of 
sheets 
when 
com- 
plete. 



177 



Total 
issued. 



*45 



By whom is- 
sued. 



Surveyor-Gen- 
eral. 



...do 

Geologic Bu- 
rean at Cal- 
cutta. 

.. do 



Administra- 
tion. 



Home, Reve- 
nue, and 
A gricul t- 
ure. 



....do 

Revenne and 
Agricnlture. 



.do. 



Kemarka. 



Indexes for great trigonometrical 
survey ; atlas of India ; Topo- 
graphic survey, &c. Issued at 
various dates. 



Formations shown by colors di- 
rectly superposed upon tops, 
graphic map of same scale fur- 
nished by the Great General 
Survey of India. 



Note. — There are also general and provincial maps of parts of India and adjacent countries, as 
Afghanistan, Assam, Baluchistan, Bengal, Berar, Bombay, Burmah, British Burmah, China and Siain, 
Hindoostan, the Caspian region, Hundes, Jamoo, Kashmir, Nipal, Northwest Provinces, Oudh, Persia, 
Punjab, Rajputana, Sind, Tenasserem, Trans-frontier States, Turliestan, Himalayan routes beyond the 
British frontier; also circar maps of the Nizam's Territories; divisional maps and those of the Native 
States of various scales, meeting numerous requirements vrhich are better understood by reference to 
the " Catalogue of maps, plans, and charts of the survey of ludia." 

♦There have been issued 45 sheets or parts of sheets, geologically colored, scale ixAu! 26 at scale l"=8m. ; 7, scale 
l"=16m. ; 4, scale l"=32m.; 1, scale l"=24m. ; 7, scale l"=2m. ; 19 scale l"=lm.; 1, scale i"=lm., and 1, scale l"=12m.— 
making 111 sheets or parts of sheets in all. 



138 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOORAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC— Continued. 

UNITED STATES. 



Description or name 
of map. 


Scale. 


No. 

of sheets 

when 
complete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom issued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Remarks. 


Outline map of the 
United States. 

Outline map of the 
United States, show- 


bOuOoUU 


4 

4 


4 
4 


Engineer Depart- 
ment, U. S. Army. 

....do 


War Depart- 
ment. 

....do 


Prepared in the Office of the Chief 

of Engineers, U. S. Army, 1885. 

Military posts shown by colored 

flags. 
Compiled for the Index to Report 

of Chief of Engineers, 1879. 






ing location of works 












Printed in black. 


and surveys for river 
and harbor improve- 
ments. 














Land Office map of the 


553«tnr 


4 


4 


General Land Of- 


Interior De- 


Compiled and printed in black and 


United States. 








fice. 


partment 


five colors, 1884. A new map of 
the United States is being com- 
piled on same scale (1 inch to 40 
miles), to be issued in 6 sheets. 


Topographical atlas 
of territory of the 
United States west 


I'jeAu 




35 


Office of Geograph- 
ical Surveys un- 
der Engineer De. 


WarDepart- 
ment. 


Thirty sheets issued with land clas- 
sification. 
Topography based on initial astro- 




of the 100th meridian.* 




95 


15 


partment. 




nomic points and trigonometric ex- 
tension. Natural objects, means 
of communication, artificial and 
economic features prominent ac- 


Geological atlas of ter. 
ritory of the United 
States west of the 


EffaWn 


93 


11 


...do 


...do 


cording to importance. Geology 
and Natural History incidental to 
main purpose, i. e., Topography. 
Colors superposed directly on to- 
pographic sheets of same scale. 






lOOth meridian. 
Atlas of geological ex- 
ploration of 40th par- 
allel (special topo- 
graphic sheets). 


it^aa 


5 


5 


Engineer Depart- 

ment.U. S. Army. 


....do 


Topography from ageologicalsta,nd- 
point,i. e., natural features prom- 
inent, communications less so, in 
ailiflcial and economic details 
deficient. Outlines engraved, hill- 


Atlas of geological ex- 


jfAu 


5 


5 


....do 


....do 


work in crayon, shading based on 
plotted contours. 
Outlines engraved. Elevations in 


ploration of 40th par- 
allel (special geolog- 
ical sheets.) 






contours. Geological formations 
in colors, superposed on the topo. 
graphic map as a base. Also 
1 sheet of geologic sections and 














an index map. 1 inch to 6 miles. 


Outline map of terri- 


I 


* 


4 


do 


do 


Prepared in the Office of the Chief 
of Engineers, U. S. Army. Printed 
in black ; printed also in hachures 


tory of the United 
States west of the 


3UOBO0O 






Mississippi River. 
Part of atlas of Colo- 
rado. 


^z^ms 


6 


6 


Geological Survey 
of the Territo- 
ries. 


Interior De. 

partment. 


in color. 
Topography from ageological stand 
point. Natural features most 
prominent, communications less 
so. artificial features still less. 



* For publications issued by this work, see "Liat of Report e and Maps of the United States Geographical Surveys west 
ofthe 100th Meridian, "2d edition, 1881; also, Annual Keports, Chief of Engineers, 1872 to 1885. 



LISTS OF GOVERNMENT MAPS. 



139 



MISCELLANEOUS, TOPOGRAPHIC, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT MAPS, 
INCLUDING CADASTRAL AND GEOLOGIC- Continued. 

UNITED STATES— Continued. 



Description or name 
of map. 


No. 
SmIb of sheets 
°'^"'- when 
complete. 


Total 
issued. 


By whom issued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Remarks. 


Part of geological at- 


S5a«4U 


6 


6 


Geological Snivey 


Interior De- 


Result of color directly saperpoaed 


las of Colorado. 








of the Territo- 
ries. 


partment. 


upon topographic map of same 
scale. This .atlas also contains 4 
sheets, each scale 1 inch to 12 
miles, embracing the State, show- 
ing triangnlation, drainage, land 
classification, and general geol- 
ogy : also geologic sections and 
panoramic views. 


f 












Work began 1841 1 work completed 
1881. Re-edition of69 charts being 












issued, printed in black. Eh-va- 


Charts of the snrveyof 
Northern and North- • 
western lakes. 


206inj 

Tshn 

&UUUU 


79 


79 


Engineer Depart- 
ment.U.S.Army. 


War De- 
partment. 


tions on older charts in hachnres ; 
on others by contours, 20 feet and 
CO feet intervals, and hachures. 
Copper engraved ; preliminary 
edition of 34 sheets by photo-lif ho- 












grapliy. For use of lake vessels 




4UU00CI 
ttuuuou 








. 


and as an aid to river and harbor 
improvements. 


Maps from survey of 
part of Mississippi 






16 


..do 


....do 


Photo-lithographed. Printed in 
black ; elevation by contours at 










River. 












3-fcet and 5-feet intervals. Exe- 
cuted under orders of Maj. and 
Bvt. Brig. Gen. C. B. Comstock 
of Mississippi River Comniissiou, 
1876. 1877, 1878, and 1879. Survey 










still in progress. 




..wiw.. 39 


32 


do 


....do 




Maps of part of Missis- 
sippi River. 












to its mouth. Surveys by Missis- 
sippi River Commission. 



Note.— The General Land Office of the Interior Department ispnes compiled planimetnc maps ot the 
United States, as also of the States and Territories wherein remain uusokl public lands, in black .and 
two colors, except for Florida and Arizona, which are in three colors. Ohio and Indiana, scale 1 inch to 
10 miles; Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Iowa, Mississippi, Wisconsin, Indian Territory, and Dakota, 
scalel inch to 12 miles; lUiuoi.s, Louisiana, and Missouri, scale 1 incli to 14 miles; Colorado, Kansas, Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, Oregon, Arizona, Utah, Washington Territory, and W.voming, scale 1 inch to l.'i miles ; 
Michgan, Nevada, Idaho, and New Mexico, scale 1 inch to 16 miles : and California and Montana, scale 
I inch to 18 miles. 

The Post-Office Department has, since the year 1869, issued 25 separate compiled planimetnc maps, 
aggregating 63 sheets, each embracing a single or a nnmber of States, on scales of 1 inch to 6 miie.« for 
the largest and 1 inch to 15 miles for the smallest (issued bimonthly). 

The Coast Survey commenced the compilation of a general map of the United States (engraviiig 
and publishing the plate showing New Jersey and adjoining territory), the appropriation for which, 
however, is now suspended. n 1 • 1 

Certain preliminary maps and those prepared to acconJpany reports were issued by the Geological 
Exploration of the Colorado River, and the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Rocky Mount- 
ain Region under J. W. Powell. . 

The present Geological Survey has also i8.sned 3 sheetsembracing territory in Northeastern Arizona 
and Northwestern New Mexico, the Geological Explorations of the Black Hills published 1 topographic 
and 1 geological map of the Black Hills, each scale 1 inch to 4 miles. The relief of the topographic 
sheet is by contours and hachures, witji drainage in blue; that for geologic purposes with contours 
and drainage in black. 



140 NAMES, CONVENTIONAL SIGNS, &0. 

There have been noted as employed on the topographic or base-work 
series of maps of Europe names, conventional signs, and abbreviations to the 
number approximately of 1,148, which may be divided as follows : (1) Those 
representing natural features, (2) pertaining to means of communication, 
(8) agricultiu-e, (4) commerce, (5) manufactures, (6) mining, (7) miscella- 
neous, (8) special military, (9) special technical, and (10) boundaries. 
Colors have been employed for representing more distinctly a number of 
objects from each of the above classes. 

The following, alphabetically arranged, are those for natural features — 
(1) land, (2) water, and (3) land and water combined: 

NATURAL FEATURES OF LAND. 

Alkaline flats, arable lands, alluvium, arid or barren, avalanches, basins, 
buttes, bushes, beaches, brushwood and rocks, bowlders, bars (river), bars 
(ocean), coast lines (high and low water), cliffs, crags, capes, copse, craters, 
canons, coverts, clays, caves, canon walls, chasms, defiles, drainage divides, 
deserts, dales, downs, detritus, deltas, depressions, dry meadows, exposed 
rocks, earthy banks, extinct volcanoes, furze, forests or woods (deciduous, 
coniferous, mixed, palm grove, mango grove), forests (wet or dry), fissures 
and cavities, gorges, glaciers, grottoes, grazing lands, glens, glades, grass, 
gravel pits, heaths, hills, hillocks, heath (high), heath (low), hidden rocks, 
islands, isolated hills, isthmuses, jungles, landslips, llanos and prairies, lime 
pits, mountain chains or ranges, mountains, mesas, mesa bluff's, moraines, 
moors (wet), moors (dry), meadows with bushes, meadows with hillocks 
mineral croppings of gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc, tin, coal, salt, 
quicksilver, &c., marl pits, plains, plateaux or table lands, peaks, passes, 
prairies, pasturage, points, pastures with rocks, trees, peninsulas, precipices, 
places, polders, rocky and barren, ravines, river banks, reefs, summits, 
shingle, sand flats, sand dunes, sand hillocks, strands, shoals, saline flats, 
steppes, salt beds, savannahs, spurs, sand rifts, seaweed, steep rocky ground, 
steep earthy ground, sand beds, thickets, turf, underwood, valleys, volca- 
noes, volcanic cones, velocity and direction of currents, willows 

NATURAL FEATURES, WATER. 

Bays or fiords, bayous, brooks, boiling springs, channels, cataracts, 
creeks, estuaries, fordable brooks, gulfs, geysers, lakes (permanent or peri- 



NAMES, CONVENTIONAL SIGNS, &0. 141 

odiccil), lagoons, mineral springs, oceans, ponds, rivers, river lakes, rapids, 
streams (permanent or periodical), springs, straits, sloughs, torrents, unford- 
able brooks, waterfalls, whirlpools, wet meadows, &c. 

NATOKAL FEATURES, LAND AND WATER COMBINED. 

Bogs, low bog, moss bog, mud lakes, marshes, morass with rushes and with 
reeds, peat bogs, puddles, pools, and holes, swamps, salt marshes, wet soil, &c. 

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 

After the natural features, the objects detailed information of which, 
reduced and shown in map form, is i-equisite for the military commander, are 
the means of communication, of which railroads, constantly increasing, are 
most important. 

It has been customary to show these on European topographic maps 
with conventional signs for the following details: Railway, whether single or 
double track, for passengers and freight, for freight alone, broad or narrow 
gauge, completed, in operation, in course of construction or projected; 
if undergoing construction, the present and prospective number of tracks. 
As well, there are shown embankments, tunnels, cuttings along and across 
line, culvert and other bridges on the line, of wood or stone, either con- 
tinuous or open track; bridges, whether of masonry, iron, masonry and 
iron, wood, suspension, draw-bridges, with stone or wooden ends, with 
widths and uses stated; also viaducts, ordinary stations of the several 
classes, with or without water supply, watering stations, stopping places, 
and guard-houses; also bridges over and under the line, level, raised, and 
depressed crossings, whether fenced or unfenced, with ballasting of stone, 
gravel, or earth, ticket offices, turn-tables, section stations for construction, 
storage, and repair, and termini; also street railways and other tramroads. 

The next in importance are navigable rivers, of which those with 
bridges, fords, ferries, and fish weirs are distinguished from those entirely 
unobstructed, with direction and velocity of currents ; also navigable lakes, 
transportation and irrigation canals, the former with and without locks, lined 
and unlined, with masonry, or wood, or earth, with draw, wooden, and stone 
bridges, and whether completed, projected only, or in course of construction. 

The ordinary roads, often of great strategic importance, are mostly 
classified as when under Government control, or specified as turnpikes or 



142 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

main roads, (1) fenced, (2) unfenced; also municipal, village, cross, or coun- 
try and local, permanent causeway, private and posting road, fenced and 
unfenced, both with or without trees; those inclosed by ditches or other ob- 
stacles, with positions of embankments and cuttings, or of contracted widths, 
as completed, or in course of construction, with widths, with retaining or 
parapet walls; steep inclines where drag-shoes are required, or hollow ways, 
whether paved or metalled, with or without foundation, macadamized, 
graveled, rubbish, or shingle, with culverts; or stone bridges with drains, 
and wooden bridges ; also winter roads, post and caravan routes, stone, 
wooden, and earthen causeways, walled on one or two sides, and as with cul- 
vert bridges, or embanked; earth or fascine ways, old Roman and other 
roads, poor and impassable roads, through roads, field and heath country 
tracks, cattle passage, bridle and foot paths, easy and difficult paths for pack 
animals, (trail), hollow roads, lanes with hedges and culverts, alleys, avenues, 
streets, field or forest road and by-ways, toll-gates, and bars. 

In France the ordinary roads are classified into Government, depart- 
mental, commune, local, and cross roads, either with or without trees, while 
in Italy there are four classes. In Sweden the country roads are divided 
into (1) canton or superior; (2) parish roads, good and bad; manor roads ; (3) 
roads for carriages or wagons, or narrow, for bridle or foot-paths ; streams, 
navigable, &c. 

There should not be omitted the usual ocean, sea, lake, and river means 
of communication, by steam and other boats and sailing ships and rafts. 
Other features commonly noted are fords for persons, horses, carriages, and 
pack trains ; ferrys for carriages and wagons, for horses, passengers; steam- 
boat, steam ferry-boat, flying ferry-boat ; by wherry, boat ferry, with or 
without ropes, raft or skifi" ferry, sailing boat, ferry and ferry bridge. 

Prominently noted have been Government or corporate telegraph lines 
or stations, and latterly the same for telephones. 

Bridges, with or without stone piers, besides being designated according 
to materials used, as iron, for sub- and superstructure, and specified as to 
width as to number of vehicles abreast, or as foot or bridle bridges, perma- 
nent or temporary, stone, brick, wood, &c., are mentioned as follows : Fly- 
ing, floating, raft, of boats, suspension, for carriage and as footways, pon- 



NAMES, CONVENTIONAL SIGNS, &c. 143 

ton, culvert, bridges for one and two wagons, draw- bridges, stone or wooden 
at extremities, and swinging bridges. 

Certain other features of lines of communication are noted, as passes, de- 
files, ravines, gorges, summits, rocks, peaks, cliifs, fordable and unfordable 
brooks, torrents, and streams, bridgeways, heliographic and optical signal 
stations. 

The special objects that have been observed and located as specially 
belonging to agriculture are : Cultivation boundaries and limits, country 
towns, drains, farms, fences, groves of oranges, olives, lemons, &c., gardens 
(vegetable and others), hedges, orchards, plantations, rice-fields, sheep-folds, 
vineyards, woodland, &c. 

The more important delineated features relating to commerce are : 
Bonded wai-ehouses, bazaars, breakwaters, buoys, banks, custom and light 
houses, cities, capitols, docks for merchantmen and mercantile harbors, grain 
elevators, hotels, jetties and dikes, market places, moles, piers, reservoirs, 
sea, river, and polder dams ; sea and land beacons and light-ships, sea quar- 
ries, ripraps, &c. 

More strictly relating to manufactures are: Alum, cast-iron, copper, 
glass, salt, wire, and other works, coke ovens, cement diggings, dynamite 
factories, factories with steam or water power, foundries, mills, ship-yards, 
tanneries, &c. 

The principal among the various classes of mines are : Arsenic, alum, 
copper, coal, cadmium, cobalt, gold, iron, lead, lignite, mercury, pit coal, 
silver, salt, saltpeter, tin, vitriol, working mines, and others. 

Certain miscellaneous features making up the whole of the artificial 
objects of a given area are : Abbeys, chapels, churches, cathedrals, crosses, 
cloisters, cemeteries, chateaux, convents, cottages, court-houses, capitols, es- 
tates, election districts, fountains, hermitages, mile-stones, observatories, obe- 
lisks, quarantines, shrines, school-houses, universities, wells, water-pipes, &c. 

Independent of all the natural and artificial features required for per- 
fect military maps, there are certain works and objects inherently needed 
on maps by this branch of the Government, such as arsenals, anchorage for 
war vessels, abattis, bastions, barriers, block-houses, camps, chevatix de frise, 
citadels, casemated works, drill-grounds, detached forts, docks for men of 
war, embankments, earthworks, entanglements, fortifications, fortresses, 



144 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

war, embankments, earthworks, entanglements, fortifications, fortresses, 
forts, fortified posts, gun-foundries, hospitals, halting and camping places, 
intrenchments, lunettes, loop-holed inclosures, mud forts, magazines, ma- 
nceuver grounds, navy-yards, neglected fortifications, obstacles, ponton 
bridges, palisading, pickets, patrols, redoubts, rifle-pits, retaining walls, sig- 
nal stations, stone dams, stone galleries, stockades, towers, turrets, tor- 
pedoes, trenches, traverses, vedettes, walled towers, position of troops, 
mfantry, cavalry, artillery, engineers, pioneers, sharpshooters, &c. 

Technical points are found inscribed as altitudes above mean sea-level, 
altitude of points between two contours, altitudes in meters, feet, &c., aux- 
iliary contours, bench-marks, boundary or survey pillars or wooden posts, 
buildings as trigonometric stations, compass points, calculated points, con- 
tours and chief contour lines, current arrows, ebb and flow arrows, geo- 
metric points, graphic points (auxihary), hill features in hachures, heights 
in meters and feet, instrumental horizontal contour lines, interpolated or inter- 
mediate contour lines, level of mean ebb and flow tide, principal stations, sig- 
nals, secondary stations, slopes with altitudes in meters or feet, trigonometric 
points of first, second, third, and fourth class or order, topographic points, 
trigonometric points on tower, stone or wooden buildings, in town or iso- 
lated, on light-houses, telegraph stations, trigonometric altitudes, water-mark, 
scales, &c. 

Boundaries regulated by the governmental and communal organiza- 
tions peculiar to the several countries are noted as frontier, administra- 
tive, ecclesiastic, militarj^, judicial, municipal, &c. 

The colors employed to express certain natural and artificial topographic 
features are, with slight variations, blue (Prussian), red (vermilion and 
carmine), brown (burnt sienna and sepia), and green (in various shades). 

The varied water forms are usually expressed in blue, as rivers, lakes, 
ponds, creeks, brooks, seas, bays, canals for navigation and irrigation, 
ditches, marshes, reservoirs, &c. 

Red has been generally employed for artificial features, such as aque- 
ducts, stone or iron bridges, stone buildings, towns, cities, fortified places, 
roads, and railways, &c., and to invite attention to objects espeeially ger- 
mane to military operations or such as may be of technical importance. 



Ki'lion Mil 3"' III! tV'Og roiisivss & -Kxliibilioti 1H81 



Plate 1. 




EXTENT OF TOrOGRAPHIO SURVEYS. 



145 



Brown is used to denote contours, rocks, moraines, mud houses, village 
and country roads and paths, &c., and green, in various tints, for trees, woods, 
forests, meadows, fields, .and feaures of cultivation in general. 

Mixed tints of gamboge, umber, and India ink washes are .also used 
for a variety of objects. 



EXTENT OF DETAILED TOPOGEAPHIC SUEVEYS. 

A map of the world on a small scale (Mercator projection) is here in- 
troduced to illustrate gr.aphically the loca<tion and extent of topographically, 
instrumentally, and mathematically surveyed areas, where these works rest 
on a computed trigonometric basis. The information gathered shows that 
a little over 6,000,000 square miles have been so surveyed, or are under- 
going such survey, or about one-ninth of the land portion of the globe, 
while the balance, or about eight-ninths, inhabited by over 900,000,000 of 
people, is comparatively poorly known, or, in part, a terra incognita from 
a true topographical standpoint. 

One of the results of modern civilization in its quest after habitable 
lands for their advantages to the multiple wants of man will naturally be, 
to gradually subject the temperate regions, at least, to the analysis of a 
minute topographical survey, the value of such data having already become 
so well fixed in the polity of the older civilized nations. 

The following lists show the distribution of areas "undergoing" and 
"not undergoing" systematic topographic surveys: 

Areas undcrt/oing siistemaiic insinimintaJ, mathematical, topographic surveys {based on computed iriangulalion). 



' Area undor- 
Continental divisions. ; going sur- Population, 
vey. 1 

1 


Scale of topographic 
maps. 


Remarks. 


1 Etirope 


3,412,417 


303, 064, 737 

271 068, 600 
2, 807. 626 


1:10,500 to 1:120,100 

1:253,551 and 1:100,000 
1:50,000 


States of Great Britain and Ireland (United 


2. Asia 

3. Africa 


2,367,956 
243, 485 


Kingdom), France, Spain, Portngal, Belgium, 
Holland, Beumark, Switzerland, Germany, 
Italy, Austria, Norway, Sweden, Russia (in- 
clusive of Poland, Finland, and Eoumania). ^ 
India and Java- 
Algeria (a department of France). 


Total 


6,023,858 1 579,000,963 





Note. — The "popnlation" is taken from Behm and Wagner's "Die Eevolkerung der Erde, VI," 18 

1336 WH 10 



146 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



Ar^as not iinclcgo'iig Sf/.iUmaiic ivfilriini<n'al nafliematical iopographic aurreys. 



Continental tlivisions. 


Aiea not nn- 
(Ier>ioing sur- 
vey. 


Population. 


^Remarks. 




354, 745 

14.811,380 
11,304,501 
14, 922, 074 

3, 457, 0J4 
, 1,745,326 

3, 025. 000 


10.864,261 

503, 384, 400 

2112, 811, 374 

98, 630, 500 

4, 031, 000 

82, 000 

50, 155, 783 


Bosnia, Herzegovina, Luxembourg, Servia, Montenegro, BoK 

^aria, Turlie.y and Greece. 
All except India and Java. 
All except Algeria. 
All except United States. (The latter proposed only.) 


2. Asi.a 


3. Africa 

4. America . . 




6. Polar rogiona 

7. United States .. 


Do. 
Proposed only. Special surveys in progress. 


Total 


40,650,119 


930, 233, 320 





While an average cost per square mile of a topographic or other sur- 
vey does not convey an absolutely accurate idea of intrinsic merit, yet as an. 
approximate guide to Governments prosecuting or about to prosecute such- 
surveys over large areas, estimates of cost, upon the various scales, based 
upon actual expenditures, cannot but be of value. 

In most instances these are naturally difficult to obtain : first, because- 
apparently the executive branches carrying on the works have not, as a rule, 
been called upon to compile the data ; again, since in any one of these un- 
dertakings from which has resulted a final, complete, and connected detailed; 
topographic map of an entire state, the scale upon which the field min- 
utes have been taken has often varied during the prosecution, as well a&. 
that of the published map ; of far more importance, however, is the varia- 
tion due to configuration of ground and facility and means of communica-- 
tion over it. 

The official reports of the survey of India give certain details from. 
actual expenditures concerning cost as follows : 

1. For the general topographic survey (scale 1 inch to 1 mile) based upon the 
primary triangulatiou, an average (for 10 years) of approximately $11 per square mile. 

2. For the village survey (scale 4 inches to 1 mile) based on main triangulation, 
an average (for 10 years) of $20.50 per square mile. 

3. The cadastral survey (scale 16 inches to 1 mile) the average rate of $82 (ap- 
proximately) per square mile, for a period of 15 years. 

To obtain the total cost in any of the above cases, to each must be 
added the cost of the astronomical and principal triangulation work and 
that of leveling. The cost of the latter along main lines has been estimated.. 



INTRODUCTORY. 147 

at $35 per linear mile Other estimates for the topographic field sur- 
vey (scale 2 inches to 1 mile) at $26, and of a 6-inch survey, with many 
established altitudes and contours, at $400 per square mile, are given, show- 
ing the wide range in cost, and a great excess for the 6-inch scale, with 
detailed topography, over that of the cadastral or purely horizontal survey, 
of 16 inches to the mile. 

All the above estimates are based on actual expenditures and do not 
include the cost of the production of the printed map from the original 
drawing 

From an examination of the above list* it appears that most of the Eu- 
ropean states will be possessed of complete detailed topographic maps of 
their respective territories from the scale of 1 :2,500 (as for England) to that 
of 1 : 126,000 for Russia, before or at the close of the present century, the 
principal triangulations having been in the main completed for a number of 
years. The above are mostly works of colossal proportions, such as can 
be executed alone by the concentrated force of a prosperous Grovernment, 
holding primarily in view the necessities for public defense, and incident- 
ally the requirements of all branches of the public service. Up to the year 
1857, most of the map results were held a secret and kept entirely within 
the custody of the Government ; now, however, with scarcely an exception, 
the resultant atlas sheets can be purchased, far and wide, at a most reason- 
able cost. 

In time of war, naturally, these sales are stopped within the home 
country, and all the map material held confidentially by the Government 
within the war ministry archives, for none other than war purposes. 

The topographic relief of the above list of chart series has been 
shown in several ways, as, for instance, by (1) lines drawn normal to the 
horizontal curves (called hachures) in number and thickness, according to 
the slope, with vertical light ; (2) similar lines, irregularly drawn, and illu- 
minated diagonally ; (3) by hachures and curves combined ; (4) by tinted 
mountain shading and curves ; (5) by contours principally, and hatched lines 
near mountain summits (as in the Swiss maps); and (6) by horizontal curves 
alone, as, notably, in the Spanish maps. 

• See pp. 112 et aeq. 



148 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Each of these conventional methods lias its champions, there being a 
leaning toward contours, where the accuracy of the field-work justifies. 
Doubtless a practical combination of curves and hachures, the latter for 
impracticable slopes (of an inclination greater than 45°), with the curves for 
the balance of the area, will at some time prevail. 

The method of graphic illustration of all generalized maps, by engrav- 
ing on stone, copper, and zinc surfaces, has gradually been superseded by 
processes for the greater part mechanical (the camera being introduced to 
perform principally the labor of transfer), and designated as photolithog- 
raphy, photozincograj^hy, heliogravure (developed to a high state of per- 
fection at the Military Institute, Vienna), anastatic, photo-chromolithog- 
raphy, &c. 

A skeleton description of certain of these processes will be found later, 
in which it appears that the saving in time and expense is very great, there 
being a loss only in clearness of detail and brilliancy of execution. 

Independent of the general European chart series, each covering the 
area of a single country, may be noted the Reymann chart of Central Europe 
being produced at the Berlin office of the Etat Major (see foot-note) in 462 
sheets (copper engraved), scale 1:200,000; also a chart being published at the 
Imperial Royal Military Geographical Institute at Vienna (scale 1:300,000) 
covering first Austria-Hungary, then to be expanded over Central and 
Western Europe; a map of France (1:200,000), latel}^ commenced, covering 
areas of countries adjacent to its frontiers and a part of England, and still 
another general map of Russia, overlapping to the west and south, on the 
scale of 1:420,000. 

There are special organizations for geological examinations and investi- 
gations and allied research (systematic work and reconnaissance) in the fol- 
lowing states: (1) Alsace-Lorraine, (2) Austria, (J) Bavaria, (4) Belgium, (5) 
Finland, (6) France, (7) United Kingdom, (8) Hungary, (9) Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, (10) Italy, (11) Luxembourg, (12) Norway, (13) Prussia, (14) Rou- 
mania, (15) Russia, (16) Saxon}^, (17) Spain, (18) Sweden, (19) Switzer- 
land, (20) Algeria, (21) Cape Colony, (22) India, (23) The East India 

Note. — This map series covers thf principality of Luxembourg, the only political division of 
Central Europe (except- the-ptitty^areas of .SaiLMirino, Andorra, Monaco, and Lichtenstein) without 
lis own topographic survey. 



INTRODUCTORY. 149 

Netherlands, (24) Japan, (25) New South Wales, (26) New Zealand, 
(27) Queensland, (28) Victoria, (29) Canada, (30) Greenland, (31) United 
States, (32) South Australia, (33) West Australia, (34) Servia, (35) Wur- 
temberg ; all within the jurisdiction of various civil departments of the Gov- 
ernments, such as the Interior, Public Works, Commerce, Industry, Public 
Instruction, &c. 

Hydrographic surveys of domestic and foreign coasts are being carried 
on alone by the Marine Ministries or Navy Departments of the following coun- 
tries: (1) Great Britain, (2) France, (3) Germany, (4) Italy, (5) Austria, (6) 
Japan, (7) Sweden, (8) Holland, (9) Chili, (10) British India, (11) Port- 
ugal, (12) Denmark, (13) Spain, (14) Russia, (15) Belgium, (16) Norway, 
(17) Java (East Indies). There is a Hydrographic Office in the naval estab- 
lishment of the United States, bitt its sphere is restricted in the main to 
office duties, reconnaissances of foreign coasts, and the publication of maps, 
while the systematic hydrographic survey of the ocean and Gulf coasts of 
the United States has been carried on by the United States Coast Survey, 
hj law a military and naval organization, with a civilian superintendent and 
civilians attached, in fact, at present, a civilian organization with naval officers 
attached, and found within the administration of the Treasury Department. 

The geological investigation in Portugal directed by an officerof Military 
Engineers, forms a section of the office of geodetic and topographic works, 
and in Wurtemburg, under the topographic branch, directed b}' an officer of 
the army, it is found connected with the Statistical-Topographic Bureau. 

• These examinations and investigations usually embrace the branches 
of mineralogy and paleontology, with chemical and microscopic analyses, 
and are either general in their character, locating and defining the rock and 
other formations, by means of surface examinations and those made in mines, 
or by boring and cross-sections, using the topographic map as a basis upon 
which to illustrate the former, with colored sections added, and in some 
cases investigating the dynamic forces, past or present, in relation to the 
development and present condition of the earth's crust, or economic, as in 
examining for the causes surrounding the presence of the valuable mineral 
constituents, found in rocks and soils and in analyzing soils and pointing 
out their relative values for specified purposes. 



150 GOVEENMENT LAls^D AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The resultant geologic map which appears to be one of the most im- 
portant practical objects and results of such an examination, while exceed- 
ingly valuable for the student of geology and the miner, is less useful to 
the world at large and the Governments more especially, than the purely 
topographic map upon which the colors are superposed, the latter and the 
special geologic signs tending somewhat to confuse the topographic detail 
proper. 

In other words, the topographic or mother map of a country is the Ous 
that all the world may use, while the geologic edition of the same, is limi- 
ted in its utility, to a by no means large class of specialists, and to speci- 
fied industrial wants. 

Government geologic investigations seem first to have been begun in 
France in 1825, followed by England in 1832, Belgium in \^3Q, Russia in 
1840, Austria and Spain in 1849, India in 1851, Holland in 1><52, Portugal 
in 1857, Sweden and Norway in 1858, Switzerland in 1859, Prussia in 
1862, and Italy in 1868. G. W. Featherstonaugh, an English geologist, 
was the first to conduct geologic work for the United States in 1834 and 
1835, making reports to Colonel Abert, chief of the Corps of Topographical 
Engineers in 1835 and 1836. Similar examinations specifically authorized 
continued until 1852, when they were stopped by law, after which geolo- 
gists accompanied exploring parties and geologic exploration itself was 
revived in 1867, and the present Geological Survey afterward created by 
statute in 1879. 

Of the directors of 38 separate Government works (about half of which 
are more of the nature of a geological reconnaissance), 28 are either pro- 
fessors of geology or practical geologists, 1 a geological surve3'or, 7 mining 
engineers, 1 an officer of the Corps of Military Engineers, and another an 
Officer of the Army. 

The total of the professional personnel engaged in these Government 
works in Europe, between 1882 and 1885, is as follows: Austria 23, Bava- 
ria 3, Belgium 14, Finland 8, France 53, England 57, Hungary 11, Hesse- 
Darmstadt 2, Italy 25, Portugal 6, Prussia 54, Roumania 3, Russia d, Saxony 
1), Spain 14, Sweden 12, Switzerland 15, and Wurtemberg 6, making a 
total of 402, consisting, other than the directors, of professors of geology, 



INTUODDCTORY. 151 

•or practical geologists, mining engineers, mining cadets, university students, 
paleontologists, collaborators, &c , only a part of whom are under the pay 
of the Government. Others may be noted as follows : Algeria 3, Cape 
Oolony 2, India 19, Java 5, New Zealand 4, Canada 20, Greenland 4, 
West Australia 2, and 262 for the United States * 

The work of these organizations is under the control of commissions 
in Alsace-Lorraine, Belgium, France, Hesse-Darmstadt, Italy, Luxembourg, 
Russia, Switzerland, Wurtemberg, which commissions are composed of 
tlie director of the Avork, in certain cases of officers of the Topographic Bu- 
reaus, professors of geology, mining engineers, practical geologists and 
others. 

They are directly under the administration of mines in Austria, Bavaria, 
Pinland, France, Italy, Prussia, Russia, Spain, Algeria, Java, New South 
Wales, Queensland, and Victoria. 

The operations are under the direction of the bureau of geodetic and 
toi)ographic works in Portugal, and under the topographic bureau in Wur- 
temberg. 

Elsewhere the chiefs or directors appear to report directly to the head 
of the Departments severally known, as of Agriculture and Mining, Public 
Works, Letters, Science, and Fine Arts, Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, 
Home and Interior Departments, Imperial Domain (Russia), Finance (Sax- 
ony), Revenue and Agriculture (India), Department of Mines and Water 
Supply, &c. 

It should be mentioned, however, that the several European Govern- 
xnent departments above enumerated, enjoy legal jurisdiction over the sev- 
eral industries specified, different from any of the grants of our own con- 
stitution or legislative acts thereunder. Many European Governments, un- 
like the United States, either own or exercise a control over the mineral 
resources of the State, which in some cases has been the direct cause of the 
geologic examination. 

The functions of the geologic works can be better understood by ref- 

"This number, which includes Ihe director, is taken from "Schedule of employes of the U. 
S. Geological Survey," found on p.nge 48of testimony taken hy the Joint Cnnprcssional Committee on "or- 
ganization of certain Bureaus," and may be classified as follows: Offici loiee, December G, 18B4, 64 
persons; "scientific employes" September 20, l'iH4, 71 geologists, &c., C:! topogra])herM, &c., also 64 
field a,ssistants above the grade of laborer. 



152 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

erence to the facts given under the headings of the several countries, but in 
the main may be stated to be the prosecution and execution of a geologic 
examination of a given region, at once useful to science and the economic 
interests of the country. This entails the production (usually by direct 
superposition of colors, or by compilation) and publication of general and 
special geologic maps, based on the topographic map (a separate function 
in all the older nations), also geologic profiles, sometimes with, as well as 
without, explanatory text. 

The decree of organization occasionally points out how and where the 
resultant colored geologic map shall be executed. 

Original topographic work, in areas selected by the geologist, has been 
carried on pari passu with the geological examination in certain newer coun- 
tries where the topographic works have not been brought to a permanently 
organized state, but in none of the cases observed has the geologist under- 
taken the mathematical, instrumental, ti'iangulation, or topographic work. 

Monographs and geological and paleontological reports usually form a 
part of the duties of these oifices, as well as the collection and care of all doc- 
umentary evidence requisite, bearing upon the work in hand and of ob- 
jects of geologic and mineralogic interest, as rocks, fossils, &c. 

These works, although yet young, are highly important and have been 
conducted with great activity and zeal, often in the face of numerous obsta- 
cles and with sometimes scanty funds, the latter elsewhere than in the United 
States. 

The methods of geological examination appear to be more individual 
than following a formulated convention, the field observations being very 
simple, especially where the geologist is equipped in advance with a com- 
plete topographic map. 

The annual expense has been learned for certain countries and will be 
found in the later text. 

The cost per square mile it has been difficult to ascertain, if indeed it 
has ever been strictly computed for any given class of work, for the reason 
that, independent of the unformulated condition of these works inherent to 
their very natui-e, the scope of the investigation, for reasons theoretic or prac- 
tical, may be varied and prolonged indefinitely. 



INTROBDCTOHY. 153 

The matter of conventional signs, especially designed for geologic rep- 
resentation other than the coloration of the topographic map (the latter for 
topographic, geologic, and statistical maps in the difterent countries still 
remaining in an inchoate state) it has been impracticable, for want of time, to 
compile and compare. 

The number for England, as shown by the sheet of conventional signs 
for 1856, is 10 for stratification, 12 indicating metals and one for dykes- 
Each country has its own conventional signs (some less and others more 
than the above) while the matter of the uni-fication of colors and signs for 
geologic representation is undergoing discussion among geologists, having 
received attention at the last International Geological Confjress at Bologne, 
Italy, and a similar movement in regard to orographic and other represen- 
tation by colors, signs, and abbreviations, in the various kinds of topo- 
graphic maps, occupies the attention of the International Geographical Con- 
gress. The progress in geological maps will be found partly in the lists of 
maps and separately for each country. 

The United States has thus far organized no systematic topogi'aphic 
sui-vey of an}' portion of Its territory. An act of Congress for a geological 
survey has been passed, and works of a trigonometric or topographic char- 
acter for speciiied purposes (notably those of the Coast and Lake Surveys, 
that of the Mississippi River and the various works to the Avest of it) have 
been earned on. In this regard, while the professional work performed 
especially by the Coast and Lake Surveys of the United States has been of 
the tirst order of merit, yet in the line of progress towards systematic and 
final results, the United States is in arrears of fourteen other nationalities. 

To effect the complete topographic survey of the entire country, which 
will it is believed some day be undertaken in force, the co-operation of 
the Genei'al and State Governments will prove advantageous; the former 
prodiicing the skeleton basis, with such added details including all natural 
features, with means of communication and all principal economic or artifi- 
cial details, as are first most needed for its uses, and the States clothing this 
skeleton with full and complete minor economic topographic details, the 
cadastral survey included. 



154 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

While the surveys of the various European nationalities have as yet no 
complete and thorough connection along their boundary or junction lines, 
having proceeded from independent initial points and bases, with initial level 
points starting from separate zeros or datum planes, with individual series of 
triangles and leveling operations, and while the details of topography have 
not followed the same system, nevertheless for a number of years the effort 
has proceeded through the "International Commission for European degrees 
measurements," with a central office at the Geodetic Institute at Berlin, under 
General Baeyer, late chief of the Prussian Military Topographic Survey, 
to harmonize and adjust the belts of ti'iangles along selected quadrilaterals, 
with a view to compare the astronomic and trigonometric measurements 
of the largest possible arcs of great circles, thus adding to our scientific 
knowledge of the true and exact figure and dimensions of the earth, and 
doubtless in time a single datum level plane will be assured for all Europe, 
to which the series of levels of different countries can be referred, and finally 
it does not seem too much to hope that as the revision of the various topo- 
graphic surveys progresses that the difference of field and map delinea- 
tion will disappear and the conventional illustration of the ground for all 
Europe be made uniform. 

The above organization is a natural outgrowth from the situation as it 
presented itself in Europe at the close of the main triangulation of the sev- 
eral countries (usually executed with the highest degree of accuracy attain- 
able with the instruments and formulae available and classes of observations 
in vogue at the epoch when the several works were performed), a neces- 
sary function of the detailed topographic survey, and which afforded abund- 
ant material upon which to base a unified fundamental trigonometric 
and leveling net, the occupation of the terrain for trigonometric and topo- 
graphic operations, permitting of that intimate study of its structui-al parts, 
by which alone, the most favorably situated quadrilaterals could be success- 
fully planned and executed So far as can be learned, independent of the 
uniformity in observations secured, say, in countries like Spain, Italy, and 
Austria, where the main triangulation was not complete when the "Degrees 
Measurements" was organized, the observations undertaken have been meas- 



INTRODUCTORY, 1 55 

uremeiits of parallels and meridians, gravity determinations, and more pre- 
cise levelings, connecting independent bench marks. 

The main features of the foundation of the topographic survey, i. e., 
the asti-onomically and trigonometrically determined points and levels of 
the first order, having been made, corrected, and revised, with additional re- 
observations of selected quadrilaterals once done, these permanent marks 
remain, mile-stones of scientific and practical progress that need never be 
lost. The remaining work becomes more a refinement of detail and accu- 
racy, with a comparison of specified parts and a generalization of the whole, 
thus confirming with time the tribute that organized civilized Governments 
are making and have made in aid of physical geography. 

The main triangulation of England has been connected with that of 
the Continent and a measurement of the arc of the great circle, by a cor- 
respondence between Governments, determined from Valentia, in Ireland, 
to Orsk, in the Ural Mountain region of Russia. 

The main triangulation of Spain has also been connected across the 
Mediterranean with stations in Algeria, and that of Italy with Tunis. 

In the summing up it can but be noticed, notwithstanding the admira- 
ble and persistent efforts of the European Governments, how little compar- 
atively of the land surface of the globe is made known to us in plentiful 
topographic detail, by rigid mathematical and instrumental processes. 

Having in view the experience of our European neighbors as a guide 
and the Avell-known energy of the United States, with its enterprises reach- 
ing in all directions within its borders, it still appears that there has never 
been a direct demand upon the General Government for the establishment of 
a general topographic survey, suited to the wants of the Government and 
people, to be developed to perfection of detail with the growth of the coun- 
try in density of population, resources and production; still, tvJiile elsewhere 
the necessary authority may not he found, it must be admitted, that the 
prosecution of such a work in time of peace by the War Department 
would be in consonance with the constitutional aim of the Government 
to '■^provide for the common defense" in protecting the soil and its in- 
habitants (interior as well as coastwise), a most substantial jjreliminary to 
which is an intimate knowledge of all the theaters of action in attack and 



156 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAPJNE SURVEYS. 

defense, the conformation of ground, the approaches thereto, and the de- 
tailed means of communication, present and prospective, of our entire terri- 
tory; all of which requires the determination of its every topographical feat- 
ure by actual detailed measurement, in pursuance of a systematic and 
comprehensive general survey, and the maps thereof produced and pre- 
served in peace, where they are tii-st, and most wanted in war, become the 
mother maps whence should be drawn all those needed for economic and 
scientific uses, except those for public land subdivisions, and for revenue 
purposes, the latter belonging to the States. No large and well conducted 
nation, of rich and prosperous people, is likely to remain indefinitely unmind- 
ful of their permanent interests, to the extent of neglecting such means for the 
common defense, as shall he dictated hy the requirements of modern scientific 
warfare; hence there will doubtless he at no very far distant day an appropri- 
ate general topographic survey of the whole country hy the War Department. 

A constant conviction as to the great permanent importance of a prop- 
erly established, accurately and intelligently executed general topographic 
survey of one's country, with a knowledge of the ultimate benefits therefrom 
to the Government and the people, prompt the presentation of a brief sum- 
mary of certain existing facts, together with conclusions logically reached, 
after a broad and thorough study, of the experience of the older civilized 
nations, and of the subject as a whole.* 

1. The Topographic is the indispensable and all-important survey (being gen- 
eral and not special in its character), tvhich underlies every other, including also the 
graphic basis of the economic and scientific examinations of the country. When 
properly conducted by thoroughly reliable and intelligent Government officers, it 
possesses a truthfulness and accuracy above suspicion. 

When accompanied hy its properly executed triangulation, and cartographic 
factors, to ivhich are added examinations in the Natural History branches of Phy- 
sical Geography, such as Geology, Mineralogy, (&c., it becomes a Geographical 
Survey. 

2. This {the Topographic Survey) has been the main or principal general 
survey in all civilized countries, and all other so-called surveys (as geodetic, trig- 

* The statements made with regard to all the works herein mentioued are based purely on facts of 
official record. 



INTltODUCTOUY. 157 

onomctric, revenue, or caaasfral, geologic, djc), special in character, are hut 
accessories or addenda thereto. Wherever special surveys have been attempted 
prior to the Genercd Topographic Survey, the latter has had finally to he adopted. 

3. By natural selection this (the topographic) survey belongs to the war branch 
of the public service, and in all large and well-organized Governments, it has been 
maintained continuously and is now found under military administration, and 
everywhere, without exception, military officers, alone, are eligible to the direction 
and control of such works. No other branch of Government administration has a 
general requirement for maps, sufficiently strong, to beget the invariable untiring 
energy demanded for the prosecution to its conclusion, of such an undertaking, 
complete and perfect, finally, for the whole country, as compared tvith the parts 
thereof naturcdly and usually selected for examination by specialists. 

4. No such survey now exists in the United States. All the present so- 
called surveys could be better and more economically executed if such a tvork 'were 
being prosecuted. 

h. All the older civilized countries have had, and now have, such a survey. 

6 Such a survey for the United States will soon become imperative for 
other reasons than for public defense, ivhich requirement, however, is the most im- 
portant, general, and lasting in its nature. 

7. The results of such a survey become the mother source, ivhence all other 
physical examinations may draw their graphic sustenance. 

8. The scope of this topographic survey, subordinated to the objects sought 
{the latter determined primarily by Government needs) should be defined bylaw; 
its administration permanently fixed in the War Department; a co- operation be- 
tween this and all other Departments pointed out by statute; and each Department 
should have the right at stated intervals to present its special requirements before 
an administrative considtative commission. This survey should embrace all ground 
admeasurements of a general character required by the Government, not includ- 
ing, however, the subdivision of the public lands or the surveys required for Gov- 
ernment engineering works. 

9. Specialists {particularly tvorkers in the theoretical branches of science) 
must be excluded f-om the direction and control of this class of works, which 
when undertaken demand the best endeavor of those having a talent for, and 
skilled in the exact sciences, in order to secure the first or highest grade of residts. 



158 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

10. Government topographic maps, sJwiving the natural and artificial feat- 
ures- of tlie ground, ivith the constnwtions and improvements thereon, are required 
first and most by the War Service, being of use also to the Civil Administration^ 
and of assistance to the industries of Agriculture, Commerce, and Mining. 

They are a pre-requisite for ivar in its protecting and defending influen- 
ces, as ivell as in its more active operations ; and an aid also to peace in its^ 
manifold undertakings, and their uses (increasing with time) accord ivith the 
accuracy, rapidity and cheapness with tvhich they are produced. 



INDEX SHEET OF TOPOGHAPHIC SURVEYS IN EUROPE. 

This sketch map shows the divisions into atlas sheets of all the 
general topographic map series of Europe, and also the special series in 
certain instances, as Italy, Belgium, &c. The explanatory note indicates- 
the number of sheets, area, scales, number of sheets completed, &c., while 
more or less detail concerning the topographic map of each country will 
])e found in the description of these works under the appropriate headings.. 



PLATE II 



GREAT BRITAIN AND ITS COLONIES. 

Topographic. 
THE OEDNANCE SURVEY. 

This work embraces, under a central head at Southampton, England,^ 
all the topographic and allied surveys, including those for cadastral pur- 
poses, for fortifications, boundai-ies, &c , embracing England, Wales, Scot- 
land, Ireland, and the Isle of Man (or the United Kingdom), an area of 
122,066 square miles.* The area under water in the Lake districts in Eng- 
land is about 14,600 acres, and that under lakes, large rivers, and tideways 
in Ireland is 494,726 acres. 

Civil Divisions. 

England is divided into 40 counties; Wales into 12 counties, Scotland 
into 33, Ireland into 4 provinces or 32 counties. 

Military Divisions. 

England, Scotland, and the Channel Islands are divided into 12 mili- 
tary districts, which are subdivided into 95 regimental districts. 

Ireland has 3 military districts subdivided into 8 regimental districts. 

The unit measure of length is the English standard yard, subdivided 
into feet and inches, the larger measures being fathoms, poles or perches,, 
chains, furlongs, statute miles, leagues, and Irish miles. 

'Tbis area was fiirnislieil at the Office of the Ordnance Survey in August, 1882. For England 
and Wales, the areaTvas computed from the 1 : 2,500 and 6inch scales for yl counties only; for the 
balance, the 1-inch scale being used; for Scotland, the compulation is taken from the 1:2,500 and 
6-inch scale, and for Ireland entirely from the 6-inch-scale maps. The latest computed area found in 
the Ordnance Survey Report for 1885, gives for England and Wales 59,470 square miles, Scotland 
30,902 square miles, and Ireland, 32,813 square miles, making a total of 123,185 square miles for the 
United Kingdom. The computation of these areas will be revised and perfected as fast as the larger 
scale maps (oVn) are completed. 

159 



160 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

The geological examination of tliis area formed a part of the duties of 
the Ordnance Survey until 1845, when it was given a separate jurisdiction. 
(See Gcohgical Survey of United Kingdom ) 

The organization consists of officers of Royal Engineers and enlisted 
sappers and miners, professional and technical civilians, laborers, &c., with 
Maj. Gen. A. C. Cooke, U. E , at its head as director-general.f This work 
was transferred on April 1, 1870, to Her Majesty's Office of Works. The 
surveys for the purely military map on the scale of 1 inch to 1 mile hav- 
ing been finished, it was not considered right to include the cost of com- 
pleting the cadastral survey in the War Office estimates; the organization, 
however, with its functions and mode of procedure, remaining intact both 
at and subsequent to the transfer. 

This work has proceeded by virtue of various acts of Parliament, of 
which the following are the most important: 4 and 5 Vict., capt. 30; 33 
Vict., capt. Xni; and 38 and 39 Vict., capt. XXXII. 

The last act (being the last of a number of acts relating to the legal 
continuation of the work) continued the survey for ten years from 1875, 
which, it is presumed, has since been further continued until 1890, the year 
at which it is expected the cadastral survey will be completed, thus estab- 
lishing a limit in time subsequent to which it would appear that revision of 
surveys is alone contemplated. The survey was under the Board of Ord- 
nance from its commencement until 1855, when that board was dissolved, 
at which time it passed directly under the Secretary of State for War, 
where it remained until 1870, as above stated. 

The origin of the military survey and the constitution of the Board of 
Ordnance I am able to give from information most kindly furnished by 
the director-general of the Ordnance Survey (Colonel Stotherd) and through 
the courtesy of Col . T. Wl » te. Royal Military Engineers, in chai-ge of office 
of administration: 

[Extract from Report of Select Committee of 1824 ou Irelaml, page 7.] 

" It has given your committee great satisfaction to tbinli that tbe direction of the 
survey can be undertaken by the Board of Orduance ; they cannot conceive any other 

tUp to 1878 (at which time I ho more purely scientitic part of the work of the Orduatico Survey, 
may be said to have beeu completed) the directors general were severally fellows of the Royal Society, 
aurt as such communicated nnoflicially from lime to time with that society. In 1885, Col. R. H. Stot- 
herd, R. E., had succeeded Maj. Geu. Cooke as director-general. 



GREAT BRITAIN— TOPOGEAPHIC. 161 

authority so well calculated to insure scientific accuracy and unity of principle which 
ought to distinguish a great national work. The high character of the ofiBcer who 
conducts the trigonometric survey of England, the advantages derivable from mili- 
tary organization, and the command of the best instruments, afford a sufiBcient secu- 
rity for the successful completion of the work." 

[Again, page 10.] 

" The general tranquility of Europe enables the State to devote the abilities and 
<^xertions of a most valuable corps of ofiScers to an undertaking, which, though not 
unimportant in a military point of view, recommends itself more directly as a civil 
measure." 

[Letter from Col. Colby, Director of Ordnance Survey, to Inspector-General of Fortifications, dated 
May 6, 1840 (page 2 of volume of correspondence on scale and contouring, 1854)]. 

States: " 1. The principal triangulation on which the survey of South Britain has 
been based was partly designed for astronomical purposes, and partly for a map on a 
small scale." 

"2. The detail plans were commenced by officers of the Royal Engineers, partly 
for the purpose of practicing them in military drawing, and partly for the purpose of 
forming military plans of some portions of Kent for the use of the Ordnance." 

"3. Wheii the officers of Royal Engineers were too much engaged in military works 
to admit of their being extensively employed in military drawings, a corps of Royal 
Military Surveyors and Draughtsmen was formed for home and foreign service. The 
gentlemen of this corps were employed and practiced in making detailed military plans 
in South Britain, their instruction being the principal object, and the plans which were 
used in forming a military map being of secondary importance." 

"4. The publication of some parts of this military map, on a scale of 1 inch to a 
mile, created a desire among the public to possess better maps than had formerly ex- 
isted. Additional surveyors were then hired to advance the progress of the military 
map." 

"5. The map was considered solely as a military map; its publication was at one 
time during the war suspended, and after the genei-al peace its continuance became a 
question of doubt, until it met with support in the House of Commons." 

With reference to the survey of Ireland, begun in 1^25, Colonel Colby says: 

"12. The number of plans of estates annually made in Great Britain and Ireland 
being extremely small, in comparison with the entire country, it was manifest that 
any attempt to obtain ready-trained surveyors in large numbers, by means of high 
prices, would be costly, and ineffectual in result. I therefore turned my attention to 
the Corps of Royal Engineers and to military organization for the execution of the 
detail survey, as well as for the triangulation of Ireland." 

[Statement of Sir Charles Trevelyan, assistant secretary of the treasury, K. C. B., in hisevidence before 
Viscount Duncan's select committee of the House of Commons, 1856 — 2'2, page 1 of Minutes of 
Evidence.] 

" It (the Ordnance Survey) began in the year 1788, as a military sketch map of the 
south of England; but as the work advanced, it came into general favor as a road 
map, a traveling map, a county map, and a general geographical map ; and so it went 
1366 WH 11 



162 GO VEHEMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

on, on the inch scale till 1824, when the triangulatiou was extended to some points in 
Ireland. * * * A committee of the House of Commons sat in 1824, of which Lord 
Monteagle was chairman, which committee recommended that the scale of six inches 
should be adopted for Ireland, and that it should be a town land survey. 

Constitution of the board of ordnance. 

The survey was begun in the last century under the master-general and honora- 
able board of ordnance and continued to be conducted under that, department until 
1855, when the'board was abolished and the jurisdiction of the survey passed directly 
under the War OflSce as reconstituted under a permanent Secretary of State. 

The board of ordnance was partly a military and partly a civil department. 

* "After the revolution" (of 1668), says Olode, "the department became divided 
into two distinct branches, traces of which were to be found at the time when the 
board was dissolved. The militai'y branch was ultimately developed in the ordnance 
corps (the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers), under the command of the master- 
general (or in his absence of the lieutenant-general), and the civil branch remained to 
administer the military bi-ancb and to discharge those important functions that may 
be roughly classified as (1) of custodians of public treasure in lands and stores, (2) of 
contractors or manufacturers to supply the navy and army with warlike munitions and 
equipments" (page 205). "As a measure, of defense the survey of the United King- 
dom was intrusted to the ordnance department" (page 217). 

"No doubt the ordnance admiuistration was that of the military as a class; indeed 
the civil branch had become so largely infused with the professional spirit, that it 
almost ceased to be recognized as a civil branch." 

The organization has not in detail, so far as is known, been either 
fixed or changed by law, it having been based on that one determined by 
the director-general in charge and the Secretary of State for War, and 
remaining intact through all the varying changes of administration. The 
execution of the professional parts of the work is in the hands of officers of 
Engineers (usually selected for their special fitness) and selected civilians for 
instrumental and higher computation work, with draughtsmen, engravers, 
photographers, &c.; non-commissioned officers and selected enlisted men 
are used also in the drawing, photographic, and engraving departments. 

The personnel consisted, February 16, 1885, of 30 officers of Royal 
Engineers, 357 non-commissioned officers and enlisted men, and 2,896 civil 
assistants and laborers. The officers of Engineers are allowed additional pay 
for their services on the Ordnance Survey, the amount of which is definitely 
fixed by regtdation; the enlisted men likewise to an amount within certain 

* The Militiiry Forces of the Crown ; their iulministration and government, by Charles M. Clode, 
published l)y John Murray, London, 1869. 



GEEAT BRITAIN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 163 

limits, detei-mined by the director-general; while the civilians remaining in 
service until a given age or for a stated period are entitled (all those enter- 
ing prior to 1870), by virtue of the superannuity act, to a life pension. 

The headquarters office at Southampton has under the chief the fol- 
lowing divisions: 

1. Administration, correspondence, and accounts. 

2. Examination of manuscript plans, reduction and drawing of maps 
for engraving, photozincography, letter-press printing, and electrotyping. 

3. Trigonometric branch. 

4. Engraving general topographic maps on copper, plate-printing, and 
coloring maps. 

There is a special boundary office at London and 10 sub-offices in 
various parts of England; one in Scotland, at Edinburgh; one in Ireland, 
at Dublin; the latter two for engraving, publication, and revision. 

There are also separate offices for carrying on the leveling and con- 
touring work and sketching of the hill features for the 1-inch map. 

The survey of the United Kingdom may be said to have commenced 
with the measurement under Greneral Roy, Royal Military Engineers, of the 
Hounslow Heath base line in 1784, the triangulation of the general survey 
for the purposes of a military topographic map (scale, 1 inch to 1 mile) 
dating from 1791 was completed in 1863. In 1824 this map (known as the 
1-inch old series) was advanced to include the south of England entire, with 
parts of Wales and Scotland, when it was practically suspended, that the valu- 
ation survey of Ireland (scale, 6 inches to 1 mile) might be undertaken. This 
survey of Ireland was finished in 1840 and that for the military map of 
England as far north as the southern boundaries of Lancashire and York- 
shire. It was then decided to survey the six northern counties of England 
and Scotland entire on this scale. Yorkshire, Lancashire, the Isle of Lewis, 
and several counties in the south of Scotland were finished on the 6-inch scale 
in 1851, when about this time the "battle of the scales" raged and retarded 
progress for a number of years. 

In 1851 the (j-inch scale survey was suspended, and the 1-inch scale 
ordered for the balance of England and Scotland. In 1 852 the 6-inch scale 



164 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

survey was resumed. In 1854 the 1 : 2, .500 scale was ordered for two Eng- 
lish counties. 

About this date the statistical conference at Brussels decided unani- 
mously in favor of the scaje of 1:2,500 (25.344 inches to the mile, and 
therefore commonly styled in England the 25-inch scale) for national 
cadastral maps. 

In 1855 this scale was ordered for cultivated districts in four northern 
counties of England and the unsurveyed parts of Scotland. The unculti- 
vated districts were to be drawn on the 6-inch scale, and the 1:2,500 plans 
reduced to the 6-inch scale for uniformity in the county maps. Large towns 
were to be surveyed and drawn on the 1:500 scale, and the 6-inch plots 
were to be reduced to the 1-inch scale to complete the military map of the 
whole Kingdom. In 1856 and 1858 these scales were again recommended 
and continued, and by treasury minute of March 18, 1863, it was directed 
that the same scale should be "extended to those portions of the United 
Kingdom which have been surveyed on the scale of 1 inch to 1 mile only." 
As the parish survey progresses all of England and Wales will be published 
on the 1-inch scale (new series), on a uniform system. When the 1:2,500 
survey was commenced in 1855 that of the 6-inch was abandoned. 

Therefore it was finally determined that the following surveys and 
revision of surveys and maps should be made : 

(1) A topographic map of the whole of the United Kingdom on the 
scale of 1 inch to the mile, 

(2) County maps of the same on a scale of 6 inches to the mile. 

(3) Parish plans or cadastral maps of the same on the scale of 1:2,500. 
(The county of Dublin for Ireland is the only one yet surveyed on this 
scale.) 

(4) Plans (scale l:oOO) of all towns exceeding 4,000 inhabitants, ex- 
cepting London and vicinity, for which the scale of 60 inches to the mile 
was adopted. (Twenty-five of these plans are equivalent to one sheet on 
the 1:2,500 scale.) 

The rate of progress is such as to insure the survey of the whole 
country in 1888, and to admit of the publication of the maps in 1890, in 



GREAT BRITAIIf— TOPOGRAPHIC. 165 

order to accomplish which it has been "necessary to largely increase the 
force of surveyors. 

The proposal for a cadastral survey of England was first made by 
Colonel Dawson, R. E., in 1837. 

The general survey of the whole country (decided upon about the 
year 1786) for a military map on the scale of 1 inch to 1 mile, or 1:63, 360, 
having been ordered in 1791, the first general topographic sheet was pub- 
lished in 1801, and the last of this (the first) series in 1871, the field and 
office work thereof extending over a period of seventy years. 

The main triangulation has been carried out with the utmost exactitude, 
commensurate with the refinement of instruments and formulae in use at 
the date of execution, with results computed by means of least squares 
showing small probable errors. 

The difference of the length of the base line at Lough Foyle (7.89 
miles long) as actually measured and as calculated from the triangulation 
carried from an independent base, was found to be only five inches. The 
results of other base lines, measured by the steel chain as compared with 
those measured by compensated rods, were found to be almost equally as 
good, and it is claimed that there is not much practical difference in accu- 
racy between the two methods. 

Base lines, of which there are six principal ones, have been measured 
with compensated rods, each consisting of two bars, the one of iron, the other 
of brass (Colby's pattern), also by steel chains. Primary triangulation has 
been measured by 36, 24 and 18 inch theodolites with reading microscopes, 
the sides of the main triangles averaging 35.4 miles, while the longest line 
thus measured reaches 111 miles. These principal triangles are subdivided 
into triangles of about 5 miles to the side with a 12-inch theodolite, while 
the tertiary triangles have sides of about 1 mile, measured with a 7-inch 
theodolite. 

The initial datum level for England, Wales, and Scotland was taken at 
100 feet below the copper bolt in the south face of St. John's church tower, 
Old Haymarket, Liverpool, and afterwards referred to a plane not differing 
materially from mean tide level at Liverpool, which was adopted as 57 feet 



166 GOVER^■MENT LAND AND MAu'lNE SURVEYS. 

below the above-mentioned copper bolt. The same for Ireland is taken 
from the mean high water level at Poolbeg light-house, Dublin. 

The surveys of all grades are founded on a trigonometric net, the belt 
of triangles having been developed from well-measured bases connected 
with initial astronomically determined points. The instruments used have 
been constructed mostly by Troughton & Sims, and Cooke Brothers, of 
York, England. 

Astronomical observations, were made for determining the direction of 
meridians at given points, also for ascertaining the latitudes and longitudes 
of various main triangulation stations, the principal instruments employed 
being zenith sectors.* 

Production of the manuscript plan. ' 

The following is quoted from the annual report of the Ordnance Sur- 
vey for the year ending March 31, 1885 : 

The original survey and manuscript plan are made on tbe 35^0 scale (about 25 
inches to the mile). The great distinction between these operations as carried on on 
the Ordnance Survey and as performed by civil engineers is that all the operations 
are done on the Ordnance Survey by diiierent persons, who, therefore, form a check 
upon each other. 

Each triangle of the parish triangulation is allotted to a surveyor, who measures 
on the ground with a chain all the detail contained in the triangle. He is ignorant of 
the actual lengths of the sides of the triangle as obtained by calculation. A second 

* To preveut erroueous impressious that may arise, where any part of the work of the OiduaDce 
Survey may have been ilesignated as a " geodetic survey" aud for the sake of accuracy in expression, 
which should govern in connection with scientific m ore than all other pursuits (wherein things ought 
to be called by their right names), it may be stated that there has never been any operation carried on 
in Great Britain, known or styled as a " geodetic survey," the orduance survey herein described com- 
prising the whole. The latter, in its earlier stages aud during the progress of the principal triangula- 
tion, measured or calculated geometrically several arcs of meridians and parallel comparing the same 
■with their lengths obtained astronomically. 

Observations were also taken at ditferent places to ascertain the deflection of the plumb-liue 
from local attraction. A junction was also eflected of the British and Contineutal triangulatious, (1) 
by General Roy, Koyal Engineers, in 1787, aud (2) in 1861 under Sir H. James, Royal Engineers, which 
enabled the great arc of parallel from Valeutia in Ireland to Orsk in Russia to be geometrically com- 
puted. 

The Orduance Survey has also at different times conducted important comparisons of its lineal 
standards with those of many foreign countries, including .some of the United States. 

See the following published works of the Ordnai^ce Survey, viz : 

ft) Principal Triangulation of the United Kingdom. 

(2) Extension of the Triangulation of England into France and Belgium. 

(a) Comparisons of the Standards of Leugth of Enghnid, France, Belgium, Prussia, Russia, India, 
and Australia. 



GEEAT BRITAIN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 107 

assistant lays down the Hues on tbo pl.iu. He sees iLat the lengths of the main lines, as 
measured, agree with their lengths as calculated ; if the discrepancy exceeds a certain 
amount, the line is sent back to the surveyor to be remeasured. This second assistant 
also jiiys down tin- subsidiary lines, and if they will not plot within a certain limit of 
accuracy, they are also returned to the surveyor to be remeasured. A third assistant 
plots the detail on the plan. A fourth assistant makes a tracing from the detail, which 
is given to a fifth assistant, who examines the work on the ground, and corrects any 
error. This assistant also collects the names and investigates the spelling. He enters 
the names in a book, giving three authorities for each. A sixth assistant draws the fair 
plan. A seventh assistant computes the area of each inclosure on the plan. These are 
collected together into parishes, and published in parish area books. 

These operations are carried on in offices, which are scattered over the country, in 
j)Osilions convenient for the work. All the documents are then sent in to the South- 
ampton ofHce, where they undergo a thorough examination. Thus, independent of the 
final examination at Sonthami^ton, there are seven persons employed in the production 
of the ])lan, who form mutual checks on each other. All err.irs, also, which may be 
made in the survey of a triangle, are strictly confined to that triangle, and have no 
tendency to spread into the adjoining work. 

Dynamo-electricity has been substituted in place of battery power, in 
electrotj'ping operations, compactness and decrease of cost, being- gained 
thereby. Steel-wire chains specially tested have been introduced, stronger 
and 2 pounds less in weight, than the old iron wire surveying chains. 

Descriptions of the manner of producing the plotting and final sheets, 
of leveling, contouring, and hill-sketching in the field will be found in Com- 
stock's "Notes on European Surve5"S," and in more complete form in "Meth- 
ods and Processes" of the Ordnance Survey. 

Geological data are engraved at the Ordnance Surve}' office on the 
topographic base at both the 6-inch and 1-inch scales. 

The publications are sold by the Government at established agencies 
at very reasonable rates, the receipts for sales for the year 1884 reaching 
nearly £12,267, or approximately S59,50(), while the donations in pursuance 
of the copyright act to public departments and institutions and libraries, 
educational establishments and foreign Governments, aggregate approxi- 
mately $20,000. 

Description of maps. 

Six-inch scale. — The sheets, prepared by photographic reduction from 
the 1:;^,500 scale sheets, are numbered by counties, each county having a 



168 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

special meridian of reference and each represents 6 by 4 miles, equivalent 
to 15,S60 acres, or to 16 sheets of the cadastral maps. The latitudinal and 
longitudinal borders are divided into 1" spaces. On the margin the number 
of the adjoining sheets are indicated. The additional features are all houses, 
barns, out-buildings, wells, fences, hedges, bridges, telegraph and railroad 
lines. The boundaiies of townships and parishes of Great Britain and of 
the town lands of Ireland are engraved on the sheets ; the relief is shown 
by level curves of 25 feet. 

The cadastral charts scale 1:2,500 (with description of boundaries, &c.) 
facilitate the registration, valuation, and transfer of land; the existence of a map 
on so large a scalenaturally leads toward the establishment of a general sys- 
tem of registration, while it is not at present proposed that it (the map) 
should be conclusive with regard to the limits of the several estates graph- 
ically laid down ; a further reference, in instances, being needed to writ- 
ten documents, conveyances, &c., still, it is evident that a nomenclature of 
landed estates in England is being slowly, but silently, accumulated, that 
may be made to serve as the basis of future transfer of title to lands the 
value of which is not likely to be overestimated. The work now being done 
is more particularly a cadastral surve}^ of the whole United Kingdom on 
the scale of 25, 3 inches to 1 mile, or 1 : 2,500 (called parish plans), with, also, 
the continuation of the county maps on the scale of 6 inches to 1 mile, and 
the re-engraving of the general topographic map (new series) on the scale 
of 1 inch to 1 mile, with maps of scale 1 : 5U0 for large towns, and special 
scales for London, as 60 inches to 1 mile, with special scales also for for- 
tifications and the approaches thereto, with curves originally of ft feet apart, 
but latterly 25 feet. The above scales have been in use since 1863. Dur- 
ing the production of the first 1-inch to 1-mile map, or up to 1870, a pri- 
mary and secondary triangulation had been made of the whole territory 
and extended to the tertiary grade for certain areas. It has been estimated 
that the surveys for the 25-inch map may be completed in the year 1890, 
appropriations looking to which are being annually granted by Parliament, 
attention having been directed to llie necessity for the early completion of 
the work, l)y the report of a committee in 1879, appointed to consider the- 
question of transfers of, and titles to, land. 



GEEAT BEITAIN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 169 

The 1-inch map (reduced pentographically, photography being inap- 
plicable on account of scale) is published in outline with contours only, 
and also with hachures without contours. Contours represent vertical inter- 
vals above sea level of 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 feet, according to circumstances. 

Hill features are represented by contours alone in the 6-inch county 
and 1-inch general maps, new series, by vertical hachures in the 1-inch 
general map, by horizontal hachures for scales 1 inch, 1^ inches, and 4 
inches, prepared specially for military purposes and by a combination of 
contours with horizontal or vertical hachures, in the 6-inch map, specially 
for military uses. 

The minor features of the ground being insufficiently shown by con- 
tours for military purposes on the 1 : 10,560 map, altitudes are marked in feet. 

Special confidential editions for war department uses are made of Ord- 
nance Survey maps on all scales of certain localities where fortifications 
exist, and these are kept purely for military purposes. 

It was deemed necessary, by a select committee, who repoi*ted on the 
subject of the cadastral survey in 1862, to revise the work once in fourteen 
years, and it was then assumed that the profits arising from the sale of maps 
would cover the expense. 

The projection is made by a series of rectangular co-ordinates, deduced 
from given longitudes and latitudes. Sixteen sheets on the scale of 1 : 2,500 
are equivalent to a single sheet on the 6-inch scale. In this way the pro- 
jection known as "six sheets of marginal lines of Col. Sir Henry James," 
has been utilized, the latter being a general projection suited to connected 
maps of any part of the world. 

The maps scales 1:63,360, 1:10,560, and 1:2,500 are published in 
black only, while those of cities and large towns appear in colors. The 
boundaries of counties, parishes, properties, &c., are pointed out by "meres- 
men," appointed by the local authorities, and when plotted are exhibited 
within the district, thus affording opportunity to dispute any boundary con- 
sidered incorrect. 

Each county is composed of a certain number of 6-inch sheets in full 
or in part. The high and low water lines are both surveyed. The high- 



170 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

est point in England is Scafell peak, county Cumberland, which is 3,210 
feet above sea level; tliat of Scotland is Ben Nevis peak, which is 4,406 
feet in altitude; and in Ireland, Carrantud Hill, county Kerry, which is 
3,414 feet in elevation. The seaboard of Ireland is about 2,200 miles. 
Contours from 5 to 25 feet intervals are shown on the 6-inch 1 : 2,500 and 
1:500 scales, and the plans are usually drawn before the fortifications are 
constructed. 

The maps of the Ordnance Survey, on the scales of 1 : 2,500, 6 inches 
to 1 mile, and 1 inch to 1 statute mile, represent the following areas: 

1 : 2,500, 1 J miles E. and W., and 1 mile N. and S., equivalent to 960 
acres (one square-inch equaling approximately 1 acre; 6 inch, 6 miles E. and 
W. and4milesN. andS. ; 1-incli (England), ISmilesE.andW. and 12 miles N. 
and S.; 1-inch (Scotland), 24 miles E. and W. and 18 miles N. and S. This 
gives the dimensions of 25 J inches by 87f inches for the printed portion 
of a sheet of 1 :2,r)00 ; '6 by 2 t inches for a 6-inch, and 12 inches by 17^ 
inches for a 1 inch sheet (England). 

The want of a geometrically connected projection for the old series of 
1-inch maps (different meridians being employed) has been svipplied in the 
new series, one central meridian being used. 

The methods of graphic illustration are principally by hand engraving 
on copper, zincography, and photozincography (see "Photozincography"), 
the latter for the 1 : 2,500 plans. The scales for the general maps of the 
country are 1 inch and 6 inches (1 : 63,360 and 1 : 10,560), while the scale of 
1:2,500 for property valuation is employed for all England and Wales and 
the cultivated portions of Scotland, and is generally known as the inch-to- 
the-acre scale. Items of current annual cost are shown by Report of 
Progress for 1885, as follows: 

Pay aud allowances of officers, non-commisBioned officers, and men, in addition to tlieir regi- 
mental pay £24, C25 

Pay of civilian assistants 141,000 

Pay of laborers 39, 000 

Total of the above 204,625 

Or approximately (1£ at $4.8.5) $991,431 

The total appropriated for the year 1884-'85 was £279,905 (approximating 11,365,9.36.40) ; that 
estimated for 1885-'86 is £295,506 (approximating $1,433,640.60. (See Budget, p. 177.) 



GREAT BRITAIN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 171 

The total amount expended from January 1, 1858, to January 1, 1870 
(twelve years), was £1,055,122, or at an average of £87,927 annually. 

The cost of the ordnance cadastral survey for the 1 : 2,500 scale from 
1872-'73 to 1881-'82 (ten years) was £1,059,800, exclusive of the pay of 
military officials and men. 

The above is of course in addition to the cost of the primary astro- 
nomical and triangulation work and the expense of the survey on the scale 
of 1 inch to 1 mile and 6 inches to 1 mile carried on before the commence- 
ment of the cadastral survey in 1862. 

The cost of secondary and tertiary triangulation, in addition to the 
above, and being a part of the 23 pence per acre, taken from an average of 
four years, is \.2ld. per acre, or approximately $15 per square mile. It 
was impracticable to obtain official figures giving the cost of the separate 
parts of the work, as for astronomy, triangulation, topography, &c ; still it 
was learned at the Southampton office that the total cost to December 31, 
1881 (taking for the year 1871-72 £200,354), actually was £4,545,050, or 
$22,725,250, thus determining an average expenditure of $186.00 per square 
mile to that date. During that period 11,053,000 acres were surveyed and 
10,706,000 acres published, or an average of 10,879,000, at an average 
cost of 23 pence per acre — approximately 46 cents, or $.^94.40 per square 
mile. 

PROGRESS. 

ENGLAND AND WALES. 

Out of an area of 59,470 square miles there had been surveyed 40,069 
square miles in 1884, including 21 entire counties. Surveys are in prog- 
ress in each of the 19 other counties. 

Publication of maps. 

Parish or cadastral maps (scale 1:2,500). — These have been pub- 
lished for 19 counties, also Isle of Man and part of Devon, Dorset, 
and Pembroke, specially surveyed for militar}' purposes, certain mineral 



172 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

districts in Brecknock and Caermarthen -Counties. The total number of 
sheets on this scale for England and Wales, not including the counties of 
York and Lancaster and the moorland uncultivated districts, is 51,488.* 

The area of the pubhshed sheets on this scale for England and the Isle 
of Man aggregates 26,600 square miles. 

Publication is in progress for 24 counties 

County maps {scale 1:10,560). — Maps have been issued on the 6-inch 
scale for 15 counties, independent of the Isle of Man and parts of other 
counties surveyed for military purposes. 

The publication of sheets pertaining to 27 counties is in progress. 

An area of 34,203 square miles for England is published on this scale, 
making 1,552 full sheets and 1,861 quarter sheets, to April 30, 1885, out of 
a total of 1,700 full sheets engraved and 7,748 quarter sheets photozinco- 
graphed for the entire area. 

Map, scale 1 inch to 1 mile (1:63,360), old series. — All of England and 
Wales are completed and published except the four northern counties of 
England and the northern halves of Yorkshire and Lancashire. 

The above comprises 54 whole and 138 quarter sheets, in black. 

Maps, scale 1 inch to 1 mile (1:63,360), new series. — Of the above sheets, 
being prepared as the cadastral survey advances, 127 are published in out- 
line with contours embracing an area of 181.84 square miles and 72 with 
hills in hachures, embracing 11,492 square miles. 

Plans of towns {scales 1:500, 1:528, 1:1,056). — There have been pub- 
hshed 194 towns at scale of 1:500, 19 at 1:528, and 60 at 1:1,056. Twenty- 
five of the plans of towns, scale 1:500, are exactly equivalent to one sheet 
of the parish map. 

London has been pubhshed in black on scales of 5 feet 12 inches and 
6 inches to the mile, and with details complete on scales of 1:2,500 and 60 
inches to the mile. There have been surveyed and drawn for England on 
scale 1:500, 31 towns. 

SCOTLAND. 

The survey of the whole of Scotland has been completed. 



'The date of the prosress of publication i.s April 30, 1885, unless otherwise stated. 



GEEAT BIUTAIN— TOPOGKAPHIC. 173 

Publication of maps. 

Parish or cadastral maps (scale 1:2,500). — Cadastral maps have been 
published for the cultivated portions of 28 counties. Not including the 
moorland uncultivated districts, there will be the approximate number of 
1'2,316 sheets on this scale for all Scotland. The total area published to 
Februar}^ 16, 1885, equals 12,687 square miles. 

County maps (scale 1:10,500). — There have been published 2,0.'56 en- 
graved sheets — the total number on this scale. 

Scale 1 inch to 1 mile (1:63,360). — Out of 131 sheets for all Scotland, 
96 have been published in outline with contours, representing an area of 
27,621 square miles, and 78 with hills in hachures, embracing an area of 
22,755 square miles. 

Plans of towns (scales 1:5'10, 1:528, 1:1,056). — The survey of the towns 
in Scotland is completed, 44 plans, scale 1:500; 1, at scale 1:528; and 15, at 
scale 1:1,056, have been published. 

IRELAND 

The whole of Ireland has been surveyed and the plans published on 
the scale of 6 inches to the mile, in 1,907 sheets. Only the county of Dublin 
has been published. For an area of 11,367 square miles, covering 15 coun- 
ties, the maps have been revised and new editions published. 

Scale 1 inch to 1 mile (1:63,360). — The whole of the map (205 sheets) is 
engraved and published in outline. There have been 168 sheets engraved 
and published with hills in hachures, embracing an area of 25,166 square 
miles. 

Plans of towns (scales 1:500 and 1:1,056). — There have been published, 
scale 1:500, 62, and scale 1:1,056,21, making 83 towns in all; 4 towns, scale 
1:500, 50 at scale 1:1,05b, 14 scale 1:3,168, and 12 scale 1:5,280 Imve been 
either surveyed, or surveyed and drawn, but not yet published. 

Twenty-five professional volumes and pamphlets (folio, 4to, and 8vo), 
with separate lists of publications of both maps and reports for England, 
Scotland, and Ireland have been issued. The publications other than maps 
of the Ordnance Survey, are professional treatises on the primary triaugu- 



174 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

lation, measuring of bases, determination of astronomical points, the main 
leveling, meteorological operations, &c. 

So far as is known no other branch of the Government issues topo- 
graphic maps of any part of the United Kingdom. 

In contradistinction to the plane-table method for obtaining interior 
topographic details in vogue on the continent of Europe, the chain and 
traverse measurement process obtains in England, which is undoubtedly- 
superior for the critical result of detailed distances required for the cadastral 
survey, while for purposes of general topography the plane-table offers the 
advantage of speed with tolerable accuracy, being deficient in exact values 
of the dimensions of special tracts.* 

Bevision of plans. 

On account of the great changes that are constantly being made by 
the inclosure of waste lands, the erection of buildings, and other alterations 
in the face of the country, it will become necessary to periodically revise 
the published maps, and experiments have lately been made in revisional 
surveys, with the view to obtaining the requisite information as to the 
probable extent and cost of revision on the larger scales. 

The original archives are held of record at the Southampton office, 
where also the copper and zinc plates (being of themselves most valuable 
originals) are stored in fire-proof structures. England, joining with the con- 
tinental countries of Belgium, Holland, Germany, Denmark, and Russia, 
contributed its share to the measurement of the longest determined arc of a 
great circle of approximately 77° in longitude, reaching from Valentia, 
Ireland, to Orsk, in the Ural Mountains. 

The detailed instructions and forms of record for field work are numer- 
ous and the result of long practical experience, and by means of which it is 
easy to trace each and every measurement, thus making the original ar- 
chives a record, which may be of further service later should maps of larger 
scales be required, and in cases of disputed property boundaries. 

* It has been proposed, and partially practiced, to replace the plane-table in Germany by the use 
of the theodolite and stadia. 



GREAT BRITAIN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 175 

It would appear that the cadastral survey of Great Britain, carried 
on with the method and accuracy of so experienced and stable an organi- 
zation as the Ordnance Survey, based on and checked by the initial 
measured bases and well-developed nets of triangulation, ranks in many 
ways as the first of such undertakings, especially as regards uniformity 
and care and comprehensiveness in relation to detail. 

When done an areal map, in acres (scale 1:2,500), will be produced of 
England, Wales, and Scotland, which will serve as a graphic index for more 
purposes than one in the economic use and distribution of properties, and 
can but be found to be of more and greater use as time elapses. The 
geological maps of the United Kingdom are based on the topographic 
sheets of the 1-inch and 6-inch scales, advantage of the production of these 
sheets and even of the more detailed scale (1:2,500) being taken by the 
geologist preliminary to his actual field studies. The advantage of detailed 
maps prepared in advance for the geologist is well recognized in England, 
as well as in all modern Europe; indeed they are considered a sine qua non., 
and the examination of a given district is often delayed until the topo- 
graphic map thereof has been prepared and published. The use of the 
detailed maps by the various departments of the Government and the 
public is found to increase somewhat in proportion to the time elapsed since 
the particular survey and the minuteness of the scale. 

Services are performed by the Ordnance Survey for other Government 
departments, as, for instance, engraving for the Geological Survey, ascer- 
taining boundaries for the census, areas for Crown offices, trigonometric 
points for the Admiralty, maps for the local government board, manuscript 
plans for the home office, special maps and local surveys when called for by 
the Stationary and War Offices, surveys for the Irish land commission, 
land judge's court and valuation departments of Ireland, the Exchequer 
Office, Edinburgh, Dublin Metropolitan Police, Colonial, Foreign and India 
Offices, &c. The amount of £100,000, approximate, per annum, the usual 
sum appropriated until 1880, was sufficient to allow of the completion of 
the cadastrnl survey by the year 1900, while the acceleration due to the 
increase of appropriation makes it possible that this work may be finished 
in 1890, or ten years earlier. 



176 GOVERNMENT LAND A^STD MARINE SURVEYS. 

A report of progress is issued annually, which is accompanied by 
index sheets showing the progress of the field survey and of publication. 
Much information concerning the methods and processes and details of the 
map will be found in Notes on European Surveys, compiled by General 
C. B. Comstock, United States Engineers. 

The following shows the total number of sheets of the regular series 
of maps for England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland issued to April 30, 1885, 
as shown by catalogues prepared and kindly furnished by Col. Stotherd, viz: 

Sheets. 

1 incli to Imile, or 1:63,360 412 

6 inches to 1 mile, or 1 : 10,560 7,356 

Scale of 1 : 1 ,056 (city maps) 125 

Scale of 1 : 500 (city maps) 242 

Scales of 1:528, 1:2,640, &c. (city maps) 26 

Total 8,171 

Independent of the above the number of the cadastral or parish maps 
alread}' pi-inted, are numbered by the thousands. 



GEEAT BRITAIN— TOPOGEAPHIC. 



177 



The following taken from the English Budget of Estimates for the year 
ending March 31, 1886, serves to show the system and detail demanded in 
the annual estimates, and the direct comparison with the appropriation for 
the year preceding, and is introduced as a type for reference : 

Cdst and estimates. 
SUEVEYS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 



ESTIMATE of the Sum which will be required in the Tear euding 31st March, 
1886, to defray the Expenses of Surveying the United Kingdou, iucluding 
the Eevisiou of the Survey of Ireland, Maps for use in Proceedings before the 
Land Judges in Ireland, Publication of Maps, and Engraving the Geological 
Survey. 

(33 Vict. c. 13, and 38 & 39 Vict. c. 32.) 



Two Hundred and Sixty Thousand Five Hundred Pounds. 



II. Sub-Heads under which this Vote will be accounted for by the Office of Works. 



^•~'^tJ.-^^° EXTRA PAY OF, AND ALLOWANCES TO, 
STAFF --•-•.....,.. 

B.-EXTRA PAY AND ALLOWANCES TO NON-COMMIS- 
SIONED OFFICERS AND SAPPERS 

C— PAY, &c., OF CIVIL ASSISTANTS, MERESMEN, AND 
LABOURERS ........... 

D.— TRAVELLING EXPENSES 

E.— FUEL, LIGHT, &c 

F.— STORES 

G.— CONTINGENCIES --...,.... 

£.. 

NON-EFFECTIVE CHARGE {SuperMin. Est., Class YI.) 
Charge for Stationery in the Year 1883-4 . £8,874. 



Estimated Extea Receipts 



1885-86. 



£. 

9,936 

17, 800 

208, 514 

6,000 

1,850 

11,000 

6,400 



260, 600 



1884-85. 



£. 

9,957 

17, 800 

190, 243 

5,350 

1,700 

11,000 

6,450 



INCREASE. 



£. 



18, 271 
150 



DECREASE. 



£. 



21 



350 



60 



242, 500 



18, 421 



•,«7 



7,016 



NetIxcuease - £.18,000 



1885-86. 



£. 
17, 000 



1884-85. 



£. 
16,000 



1366 WH 12 



178 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



III. 



SUKVEYS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM — continued. 

Details of the above. 



A.— PAY AND EXTKA PAY OF. AND 
ALLOWANCES TO STAFF: 



NUMBERS. 


1884-85. 


1885-86. 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


18 


19 


4 


3 


1 


1 


31 


31 



Birector 

Colonel 

Lieutenant Colonels 

Majors 

Captains 

Liijutenants 

Quartermaster - 

Total Pay, &o. 
of Staff - - , 





KeTi-sion 


ilaps 


Publica- 


Engraving 


Special 


Total 






of 


for 


Services 




Vot.id, 




Irish 


the Land 


tion 




Estimate 






Survey 




of 




for 






for 


Court, 


Maps. 


Depart- 




1884-85. 




Valuation. 


Ii eland. 


S"""}'- mcnts. 


1885-86. 




£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


870 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


870 


870 


183 


183 


183 


— 


— 


— 


648 


519 


1,095 


— 


_ 


548 


— 


— 


1,643 


1,017 


1,314 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,314- 


1,318 


4,189 


246 


— 


246 


— 


- 


4,681 


4,447 


725 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


725 


970 


155 


— 


- 


- 


-- 


— 


155 


i.:6 


8,530 


429 


183 


704 


- 


— 


9,936 


9,957 



A.— Besides these allowances the officers receive their military pay from Airay funds. Some of the olBcers are occasion- 
ally employed as Esaminers of Cadets for the War Office, and as Inspectors of Science and Ait Schools in the localities- 
■where they are stationed, for the Science and Art Depaitment, and receive fees for such services fioni those Departments. 



-EXTRA PAY AND .^LLOWANCES 
TO NON-COMMISSIONED OFFL 
CEES AND SAPPERS: 



NUMBERS. 



1884-85. 1885-86. 



128 128 



323 323 



Nou -com 
niissionet 
Officers 



Working Pay - 



and 1 

Sappers - t Lodging Money 
Total for EXTKA Pay 1 

of NOX-COMMIS- (. £. 
SIO-NED OFFICEUS, j 

&c. J 



Cadastral 
Survey. 



Revision 

of 

Irish 

Survey 

for 

Valuation. 



Maps 
I f..r 
the Land 
j Judges' 
Court, 
Ireland. 



£. 
11,910 



1,615 



£. 

1,770 



£. 
390 



395 



Publica- Engraving Special Total 
tion 
of 



Maps. 



Services Estimate 
Geological tor other 

Depart- 'o^ 
Survey, ments. 1885-80. 



£. 
1,600 



30 



20 — 



Voted, 
1884-85. 



£. 
30O 



10 



£. 
16, 000 



£. 
16, 000 



1, 800 1, 800 



1,620 



30 



310 17, 800 17, 800 



C— PAY OF CIVIL ASSISTANTS, MERESMEN, AND LABOURERS: 



1,900 
1,000 


2,000 
950 


2,900 


2,950 



Civil Assistants 
Meresraen • 
Labourers - 

Total for Pa 1' of Civil? 

ASSISTAXTS, &c. - S 



121, 049 

1,050 

37, 860 



p.— TRAVELLING EXPENSES: 

Travelling Expenses of Officers - 
Travelling Expenses of others employed 
on Survey 

Total for Travellixg Expenses - £. 



7,090 
2,110 



9,200 



1,900 
460 



27, 600 
4,100 



2,360 



31, 600 



1,285 
20 



1,305 



3,640 
450 



162, 464 

1,050 

45, 000 



4, 090 208, 514 



143,0)3 

1,200 

46, 000 



190,243 



1,690 
2,790 



4,480 



70 
140 



10 
200 



1,800 
3,200 



1,000 



1,600 
3,750 



5,350 



CANADA, &c.— LAND SUBDIVISION. 

Surveys of the United Kingdom — continued. 



179 





Cadastral 
Survey. 


Eevision 

of 

Irish 

Survey 

for 

Valuation. 


Maps 

for 

the Land 

Judges' 

Court, 
Ireland. 


Publica- 
tion 
of 
Maps. 


Engraving 

Geological 

Survey. 


Special 
Services 
for other 
Depart. 

ments. 


Total 
Estimate 

for 
1865-86. 


Voted, 

1884-85. 


E.— FUEL, LIGHT, &c. : 

Fuel, Light, 'Water, &c. ... 


£. 
1,380 


£. 


£. 


£. 
450 


£. 


£. 
20 


£. 
1,850 


£. 
1,700 


F.— STOEES, &c. : 

Stores and Materials for Printing, 
Electroiypinir, &c. .... 
Instruments and Kepairs 


5,090 
1,984 


500 
5 


lOO 

1 


3,000 
10 


160 


150 


9,000 
2,000 


8,000 
3,000 


Total for STOiiES, &c. . - £. 


7,074 


■ 505 


101 


3,010 


160 


150 


11, 000 


11, 000 


G.— CONTINGENCIES : 

Postage of Letters and Parcels 
Carriage of Stores . - - • ; 

Medical Bills 

Contingencies 


1,410 

1,330 

995 

1,463 


30 
60 
80 
60 


5 
45 
20 
25 


100 
200 
100 
100 


5 

N 


5 

10 

5 

330 


1,550 
1,650 
1,200 
2,000 


1,570 
1,880 
1,100 
1,900 


Total for CosTixr.EXCiEB . . £. 


5,200 


230 


95 


500 


5 


370 


6,400 


6,450 


Total Amoum FOR EACH Service ■ £. 


200, 148 


12, 494 


"3, 344 


38, 014 


1,500 


5,000 260,500 242,500 




blic Build 
hlic Build 

harsed on 
of Office 


ings, Great 
ings, Irelai 

the Civil S 
s and Men 


Britain,' 
d," for S 

ervice Es 
and otht 


' for Survey 
irvey Offices 

;imates . £. 
V charges on 


1885-86. 


1884-85. 




Amount of the above Estimate ■ 
Amount provided in Vote for "Pi 

Buildings (including Rents) 
Amount provided in Vote for "Tv 

in Dublin (including Kents) 


£. 
200, 500 

6,104 

1,192 


£. 
242, 500 

8,024 

1,781 




Totai, Cost of Survev c 
Add, Estimated Military Paj 
Army Funds 


267, 796 
27, 800 


252, 305 
27, GOO 






295, 696 


279, 905 






Net Incke 


ASE . 


- S. 15, 691 





B. — The Non-Commissioncd Officers and Sappers receive their ordinary Military Pay from Army funds. 
C— Among the Civil Assistants and Labourers there are a number of Army and Naval Pensioners and men belonging to 
the Auxiliary and Reserve Forces who are paid their pensions and Military Aillowances besides the Pay here provided. 
* This amount will be repaid from the proceeds of Sales of Estates. 

CANADA. 

Land subdivision. 
Surveys in Canada, under the Department of the Interior, are, up to the 
present time, entirely confined to the subdivision of Crown lands. With 
the exception of a minor triangulation, a few latitude and longitude deter- 
minations, and two or three geographical explorations, the work done con- 
sists simply in establishing standard and meridian lines, townships, arid 
sections. The maps and reports resulting from these surveys contain, how- 
ever, valuable information concerning the topography of the country. 



180 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The system of subdivision is identical with that estabhshed in 1803 by 
Professor Mansfield, of the United States Military Academy, for the parcel- 
ing of the outlying lands of the United States, with such slight modifica- 
tions as have been called forth by established precedents and special cir- 
cumstances. In the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec there has been no 
general plan of subdivision, each survey being a separate one, thus leading 
to another class of operations for purposes of registration. 

PEOVINCE OP QUEBEC (cANADA). 

Land subdivision. 

The provincial government of Quebec has not thus far any trigono- 
metric or topographic surveys, except the former for special objects and 
areas, and even these detached operations having no uniform system. 

Outside of Bayfield's Hydrographic Charts of the St. Lawrence, pub- 
lished in 1830, there is nothing indicating other hydrographic surveys. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Land subdivision. 

As yet no distinct system for the purpose of carrying on trigonometric, 
geographic, and topographic surveys has been organized, although somewhat 
extensive geological explorations have been made under the Dominion 
Government in this Province. (See Geological Survey of Canada.) 

The hvdrofj'raphic survey of the coast and adjacent islands has been 
made by the British Admiralty. (See English Eijdrographic Surveys.) 

JAMAICA. 

The duties of the surveyor-general of the colonial government of 
Jamaica are confined to the administration of the government lands and 
to the decision of constantly arising land questions. No trigonometric, 
geographic, or topographic sjirveys have here been undertaken. 

COLONY OF VICTORIA (AUSTRALIA).* 

Land subdivision. 
The first maps of the territory now forming the colony of Victoria 
were constructed from data obtained by the early explorers, notable among 

•Tho sketch is compiled from manuscript data furnished by the surveyor-general of Victoria. 



CANADA, &C.— LAND SUBDIVISION. 181 

whom, in 1836, was Major, afterwards Sir Thomas ]\IitchelL In the early 
stages of the colony, and with the increase of population, changes and con- 
veyances of property incident thereto made surveys in the more settled por- 
tions necessary, and, although isolated, they were connected by rough trav- 
erse lines following routes of communication, accomphshed by circum- 
ferenter compass and chain. From 183fi to 1851, while remaining under the 
government of the parent colony (New South Wales) the surveys were con- 
ducted by the surveyor-general, and were confined to the subdivision of 
lands required for settlement, having at the same time in view the general 
location on the map of the main rivers and mountain ranges, from traverses 
based upon magnetic needle surveys. In ] 851, Victoria starting as a sepa- 
rate colony, a large influx of emigrants, incident to the gold discoveries, ne- 
cessitated the establishment of new townships and land surveys. Although, 
with the increase of operations, greater care was bestowed upon accuracy, 
the surveys still remained more or less isolated, and with no general plan of 
connection. Discrepancies in meridians and standards became apparent, 
which could only be reconciled by reference to one established initial point. 
In 1858 the first scientific survey, entitled the " Geodetic Survey of Victo- 
ria," commenced. The 145th degree of longitude east of Greenwich was 
adopted as the standard meridian, based upon observations at "Williamstown 
Observatory, its position being fully ascertained by a long series of transit 
observations and triangulation. Other meridians, the 144th and llGth, and 
intersections with parallel 37° S., were subsequently established, and also 
became standards from which others could be differentiated. 

For the execution of this survey an organization consisting of a super- 
intendent, six geodetic surveyors, and the necessary assistants and computers, 
was perfected. A base-line near Werribee was selected and the colonial 
observatory at Williamstown adopted as a starting point for latitude and 
longitude. Changes in the mode of settlement introduced by the legisla- 
ture in 1869 made the rapid determination of fixed points in all parts of the 
territory necessary, and to a great extent destroyed the practical value 
of the geodetic principle; under the "free-selection" system then intro- 
duced, any settler being at liberty to take up and occupy 320 acres of 
Crown land before survey, the boundaries to le established bv contract sur- 



182 GOVBRyMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

veyors. An enormous demand for lands followed the passage of this law, 
and the lands department became unable to supervise and control these iso- 
lated surveys, as regards compliance with regulations. Thus, the practical 
value and utility of the geodetic survey being in a great measure dimin- 
ished, it ceased to be a separate survey, and was absorbed by the survey 
department (more purely land parceling), which is engaged in surveys and 
resurveys required to perfect the titles of the locators, who have already or 
who are daily taking up lands. That the application of accurate scientific 
principles cannot enter into the prosecution of these surveys is easily un- 
derstood, as no attempts are made to secure anything but the practical 
exactness that can be obtained from the use of the theodolite and chain 
in tJie establishment of boundaries. Possibly, in the future, when all the 
lands are disposed of, a cadastral survey may be required, and then the 
geodetic basis for the general survey will doubtless assume its proper place. 

This is an example of an attempt to apply a trigonometric check net, 
fundamentally based, to the extending disconnected selections of public 
lands, being rapidly taken up by settlers, which in practice had to be 
abandoned. An attempt to introduce something of a like nature into the 
land parceling surveys of the United States was made without success be- 
fore the House Committee on Public Lands in 1878 (see Mis. Doc. No. 
55, H. of R., 45th Cong., 2d Sess). 

The following maps illustrate the work and operations of the -colonial 
survey ; departmental map of continental Australia, scale 1 inch to 50 miles ; 
of Victoria (4 sheets), scale 1 inch to 8 miles ; triangulation map, 1 inch to 
12 miles; geodetic map, 1 inch to 35 miles; map of specimen of engraving, 
scale 1 inch to 20 miles ; map of Melbourne, scale 1 inch to 1 chains ; map 
of parish plans, scale 1 inch to 10 chains; map of township, scale 1 inch 
to 4 chains; map of features of mining district, scale-1 inch to 20 chains. 

Regulations, governing the work of the contract surveyors, with de- 
scription of instruments used and methods employed, are issued. The cost 
of the geodetic survey for 1858-'59-'60 was £ 1 1 ,057 18s. 6d. or approximat- 
ing $55,289.50. This sum represents the cost of establishing, approxi- 
mately, -GOO miles of geodetic lines, principally standards. No estimate of 
probable expense of the completion can be given. It was originally 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA, &C.— LAND SUBDIVISION. 183 

intended that the geodetic survey lines should precede and form the basis 
of the contract system, but the necessity of rapidly subdividing large areas 
for settlement compelled a departure from this plan. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Land subdivision. 

The surveyor-general of this colony is charged with the duty of divis- 
ion of public lands and the establishing of boundaries of such parcels 
thereof as have become the property of individuals, either permanently by 
title, or temporarily b}" lease. 

In the prosecution of these surveys a certain amount of topographic 
material is gathered, and the results thus obtained are embodied in the fol- 
lowing kinds of plans, viz : 

1. General plan, 15 sheets, scale 1 inch to 8 miles. 

2. General plan of southern portion, 1 sheet, scale 1 inch to 16 miles. 

3. County plans, in separate sheets, scale 1 inch to 2 miles. 

4. Hundred plans in separate sheets, scales, 1 inch to 1 mile and 1 inch 
to J mile (originally plotted on scale of 1 inch to 20 chains, then reduced 
and nmltiplied by photolithography). 

5. Plans showing boundaries of "runs or pastoral leases," in sheets, 
containing approximately 18,000 square miles of countr}^, scale 1 inch to 8 
miles; also similar plans containing about 9,000 square miles, scale, 1 inch 
to 4 miles. 

6. Township plans, in separate sheets, at scales of 1 inch to 2 and 4 
chains. 

Miscellaneous plans, such as exploration, railway, telegraph, statistical, 
&c., are produced on various scales, as required. 

QUEENSLAND (AUSTRALIA). 

Trigonometric surveys of this colony have only been recently au- 
thorized by parliament, but no system or organization has as yet been 
perfected. 

NEW ZEALAND. 

Land siibdivision. 
The survey of the const of New Zealand was made about forty years 
ago under the British Admiralty, while the geographical, trigonometric, 



184 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

topographic, and land parceling surveys were intrusted to the surveyors 
of the colonial government. 

The general survey of the colony comprehends two branches, viz, 
geographical and settlement, or standard and sectional, and it may be an- 
ticipated that this will remain the case till the advancement of wealth and 
increase of scientific institutions permit the undertaking of a topographic 
survey upon a trigonometric basis. The geographical operations ai'e based 
upon astronomic and telegraphic observations, combined with primary 
and secondary triangulation. 

The first survey or reconnaissance depends upon known points, and a 
rough triangulation, with natural objects for trigonometric points, is carried 
over the country to be mapped. Fi-om these points the courses of rivers, 
the limits of forests, plains, and lakes are sketched in, and their main sub- 
sidiary features established by tangent bearings. Thus a competent sur- 
veyor, with two men and three or four pack-horses, is able to survey an 
area of from 400 to 500 square miles per month. The instruments employed 
are a 4-inch theodolite, prismatic compass, and steel tape. The field-notes 
are plotted at the scale of half an inch to the mile, and the resulting map, 
together with the description of the land by the surveyor, furnishes the 
authorities an excellent idea of the country and its capabilities for settle- 
ment at very small expense. Latitude determinations by sextant and arti- 
ficial horizon are occasionally employed as checks. 

Next in order, if the country is deemed suitable for settlement, is the 
establishment of standards from the astronomical meridian. The triangula- 
tion is then proceeded with by means of a 5-inch theodolite, and bases are 
measured by a steel tape under a uniform strain of 14 pounds. The sides of 
the triangles are usually 2 and 3 miles in length. All the angles of each tri- 
angle are observed and repeated on different parts of the limb. The error 
of closing has been found rarely to exceed 2 links to the mile. Simultane- 
ously with the triangulaton, the same observer carries on a topographical 
reconnaissance the plot from which indicates the future lines of main roads,. 
heights of hills, saddles, confluence of rivers, plains, &c. 

The topographic surveys are plotted on a scale of 2 inches to tlie 
mile, and the combined cost of triangulation and topography is estimated 



FIJI ISLANDS AND CAPE COLONY— LAND SUBDIVISION, 185 

at from 1 to 2 pence, approximating 2 to 4 cents per acre, or from $12.80 
to S25.60 per squai-e mile. 

FIJI ISLANDS (BRITISH COLONY). 

Since the recent annexation of this group of islands by Great Britain, 
the newness of the settled form of government has only admitted of settle- 
ments and decisions of land questions, arising from purchases of land by 
Europeans from natives prior to becoming a British colony, and to the sur- 
vey of such native lands for Europeans as may have been passed upon by 
the colonial government. The surveys are, on account of the scattered 
nature of the old purchases of land from natives, very much detached and 
only connected by a rough cursory survey of the coast, but so far no maps 
have been published. Seven surveyors are employed in measuring lands 
purchased by Europeans from the natives preparatory to the issue of grants 
therefor. 

No general system of survey seems likely to be adopted until the 
desultory surveys are completed, and when called for must be done in the 
face of numerous difficulties, in a region visited with 100 inches average 
rainfall, heavily timbered in parts, and with abrupt slopes often rising di- 
rectly from the water's edge. 

No geological examinations have been made. Hydrographic surveys 
have been conducted by the United States and the Bi-itish Admiralty. 

CAPE COLONY (afEICA). 

Prior to the year 1752 no attempt at anything like a general delinea- 
tion of the then Dutch possessions at the Cape had been made. In that 
year the Abbd La Caille, at the instance of the Academy of Sciences of 
France, measured an arc of mej-idian between Cape Town and Piquetberg. 
His memoir thereon presented to the Academy was accompanied by a sketch 
map of the country between the Stellenbosh Range on the east and the 
coast on the west. 

From that date on up to 1821 a few rough maps were compiled from 
approximate coast charts and exploring notes and route sketches of travel- 
ers, when Captain Owen made a "running survey" of the southern coast 



186 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVEYS. 

joining to that of another officer on the west coast. Thus the geographical 
knowledo-e of the Cape was hmited up to 1839, when Sir Thomas Maclear, 
the astronomer royal, was directed to verify and extend the La Caille arc, 
while even in 1860 Captain Bailey, Royal Military Engineers, was ordered 
to continue the triangulation, difficulties having been experienced because of 
want of sufficiently accurate topographic data. In the mean time military re- 
connaissances, under the direction of Colonel Holloway, were made between 
1819 to 1825, which, liowever, proved inadequate. The insufficiency of 
material for map-making may, in a great measure, be traced to the manner 
in which this colony originated land settlements. The early settlers selected 
locations without regularity, and although, in accordance with the registry 
system of Europe, these farms were surveyed and described for the purpose 
of future conveyance, these surveys, executed by different surveyors of dif- 
erent ability, and without uniformity of system, remained Isolated. 

The office of surveyor-general of the colony was established in 1828, 
and more recently, since 1 860, extensive and precise land surveys have been 
executed, with instructions to refer to the trigonometric stations of Maclear 
and Bailey, the greater portion of which are still in existence. Naturally, 
the duties of the surveyor-general are restricted to the administration of 
Crown lands and the disposal thereof by sale or lease, as well as to the 
decision of land and title questions arising out of the old Dutch system of 
land grants with ill-defined boundaries. 

In 1877-'78amap of the Cape Colony was compiled (scale, 1 : 1,000,000). 

The following plans have been received: Captain Bailey's triangula- 
tion of southern portion of Cape Colony, with report; of division of East 
London; of King WilHam's Town and Cape Peninsula; of territories ad- 
jacent to Cape Colony; of Basuto Land, Transkelan territory', and eastern 
border district; of Cape Colony, one of date 1876, and another scale 1 inch 
to 800 rods. 

WEST AFRICA (BRITISH COLONY). 

Tlie public works department, under the direction of the surveyor- 
general, is charged principally with public works of construction, sucli as 
buildings, bridges, roads, &c. 

There are no maps outside of coast and Admiralty charts. 



GREAT BRITAIN— GEOLOGIC. 187 

THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

Geologic. 

The geological survey of England was originally begun as a private 
investigation by the late Sir Henry de la Beche. It was first organized in 
1832 as a branch of the Ordnance Survey, the operations being commenced 
in the southwest of England. The geological survey of Ireland was 
commenced in 1845, under Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) James, Royal 
Engineers, as chief The geological survey of Scotland was commenced in 
1854, but it was not made a distinct branch of the service until 1867 when 
the survey of Great Britain was divided into that of England and Wales, 
under Professor Ramsay as director, and that of Scotland under Mr. A. 
Geikie, a reorganization of the personnel being made, with a large addition 
to each staff. 

The work remained as a branch of the Ordnance Survey until 1845, 
when it was given a separate administration under the Department of Woods 
and Forests (Public Works). It was afterwards transferred to the Board 
of Trade, and in 1853 to the Science and Art (Education) Department, 
where it now remains. The whole work, embracing England and Wales, 
Scotland and Ireland, is now under the control of a director-general (at 
present Mr. Archibald Geikie, LL. D., F. R. S.), with a central office in 
London and two subordinate but somewhat independent offices for Scot- 
land and Ireland, respectively, at Edinburgh and Dublin. 

An act of Parliament giving geological surveyors the right to enter on 
private land and break ground for obtaining information, &c., was the only 
one known to the head office in London; otherwise, the survey proceeds in 
view of annual money grants. 

The greater part of the 1-inch map for England is completed (53,774 
miles having been examined up to 1881), the counties of Lincoln, Norfolk, 
and Suffolk being the principal areas unfinished;* in Ireland, 26,912 square 
miles have been covered, and in Scotland 9,699 square miles. 

England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, have each their own estab- 
hshment, the director-general having supervision of all, with headquai-tersj 

*At the end of 188:{ (Ue field survey was completed. 



188 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEJNE SURVEYS. 

in London, Avliere are located the principal store and publication depots, 
witli secretarial and accounting branches. 
The staff in each kingdom includes — 

1. A director in charge. 

2. One or more district surveyors or subdirectors in the field. 

3. A number of Cehl surveyors, divided, according to length of service, into ge- 
ologists and assistant geologists, the number of the former being fixed, and vacancies 
tilled by promotion from the latter. 

The personnel is obtained by selection from professional geologists, not 
educated by the Government, but who undergo an examination fixed by 
the director-general as well as also by the civil-service rules. 

The appointment of those selected is subject to the approval of the 
First Lord of the Council on Education. 

The work of both grades is similar, each geologist being intrusted with 
the survey of a definite district (usually a particular sheet of the ordnance 
map), and is responsible for its completion, the work in the field being 
inspected occasionally' by- the director or district surveyor, when, upon 
completion, a fair copy is made, which, upon approval, is prepared for the 
engraver. The scheme of organization provides for the supervision of 
assistants by trained geologists, and of placing the former on independent 
work when found qualified. The headquarters staff comprises officers in 
charge of stores and accounts (also secretarial diities), and supervision in 
publications, with a number of clerks, &c. The paleontological branch 
consists of four paleontologists, with assistants and collectors, the latter 
employed partly in the field as required, or in the fossil branch of the 
Museum. Formerly specialists, as chemists, botanists, and mining geolo- 
gists, were attached to the London office, but vacancies occurring have not 
been filled. 

The surface lines of principal dislocations, crops of mineral lodes, dips 
of strata, direction of cleavage, &c., are shown. 

In the north of England the 6-inch-scale map is used for plotting the 
notes, but not always published, except in important mineral districts ; but 
in all cases reduction is made to the smaller scale. Horizontal and vertical 
sections to illustrate structure are prepared, the former, scale 6 inches to 1 
mile, both for heights and distances, the sections being usually normal to 



GEE AT BRlTAm— GEOLOGIC. 189 

the general strike. When necessary, the details of formations are shown 
by vertical sections on a larger scale (for coal measures 1 : 480). 

Exposed fossiliferous strata are, when necessaiy, given on a large 
scale, the names of characteristic fossils being placed alongside of each bed, 
through the aid of the paleontologist. Another section of the work is the 
preparation of descriptive memoirs, either as short pamphlets confined to 
details, applying to single sheets or plates of sections, or large memoirs, 
affording the amplest geological description of a given district, as, for in- 
stance, the London Basin. 

It is stated that the perfection of the ordnance maps is so great that 
there is but little need for the use of instruments, especially upon the 6-inch 
scale, nearly all the work being sketched upon the printed maps, with simple 
measurements to the nearest fixed objects. In mountain sections, however, 
it sometimes becomes necessary to fix the point of observation by cross- 
sights, which is done witli an ordinary prismatic compass. For determining 
strata dips, a semicircular pendulum clinometer is employed, or a smaller 
one mounted on a pocket-compass. When alone the 1-inch-scale map is 
available, the lines of section are run by chain and level, in cases demand- 
ing great accuracy, or ordinarily by a small theodolite, reading to minutes. 

Where 6-inch maps are at hand any measurements for surface sections 
are unnecessary, as the 50 feet equidistant contours of the map, suffice for 
a section in any direction. In mountain districts aneroid barometers are 
occasionally used. 

The final maps are published usually on the scale of 1 inch to 1 mile 
and partially at that of 6 inches to 1 mile. These maps, with boundary 
lines of formations added, are engraved and printed at the office of the 
Ordnance Survey at Southampton upon requisition of the director-general. 
They are then colored by hand according to a standard of conventional 
signs, in preference to chromo-lithographic reproduction, on account of the 
size of each edition which is kept at a minimum on account of the neces- 
sary revisions. The plates are engraved by contract under Her Majesty's 
stationery office, where books for this as for all other Government depart- 
ments are printed. The cost since the work was placed under its present 
administration (March, 1853,) to include 1881, ajDproximating twenty-eight 



190 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

years, has been £418,050 4s. or approximately 82,090,251, the least annual 
grant appearing as £7,086 17s. Gd. in 1854:, and the largest £24,009 in 1879. 

During this peiiod it is stated that the work has embraced 90,384 
square miles. The number of the staff has varied from 13 in 1854 to 
57 in 188 1. The total number, for England, of maps of the 1-inch scale 
published to 1884 was 248 sheets, and of the 6-inch maps pubHshed to 
1884, 218 sheets. There had been sold during the eleven years ending 
1880, 25,050 copies of maps on the 1-inch and 4,535 on the 6- inch scale, 
the least number being 132 for 1870 and the greatest number 824 for 1876 
of the latter maps; of the former (1 inch) 1,573 in 1879 being the minimum, 
and 3,04S in 1873 the maximum sale. There had been issued up to Janu- 
ary 1, 1885, for Scotland, on the one-inch scale, 33 sheets, and on the six- 
inch scale 130 sheets; and for Ireland, 180 sheets on the former and 10 
on the latter scale, making a total of 909 sheets or quarter sheets, geologi- 
cally colored, and published for the whole United Kingdom at the end of 
1884. 

Independent of the published maps there have been issued as shown 
by the 'Catalogue of the publications of the * * Survey * * " a con- 
siderable number of memoirs in octavo devoted to special districts of dif- 
ferent parts of the United Kingdom, general memoirs, 8°, mineral statistics, 
8°, decades of British organic fossils, and four monographs on fossils, 4°, 
besides records and numerous catalogues. 

Descriptive geological memoirs of Trinidad, Jamaica, and British. 
Guiana appear in the list, the geological survey of the West Indies having 
been conducted in co-operation with that of the home Government. 

CANADA. 

Geologic. 

The examination is now known as the " Geological and Natural History 
Survey of Canada," and is at present directed by Dr. Alfred R. C. Selwyn, 
at Ottawa, whence it was removed from Montreal in 1881. 

The first satisfactory attempt at Government geologic investigation of 
the provinces of Canada begun in 1841, under Mr. William E. Logan (and 
one assistant) who submitted until 1869 various reports of progress. The- 



CAISTADA— GEOLOGIC. 191 

charge of the work appears since to have devolved upon the present director. 
In 1881 the personnel numbered twenty, mcluding the director. 

The annual reports of progress as late as 1883 were submitted to the 
minister of the interior for the information of the governor-general in 
council. 

The functions of this work appear to have embraced explorations, sur- 
veys, and scientific investigations in the provinces and territories of the- 
British Dominions from Nova Scotia to British Columbia, having generally 
in view the preparation of mineralogical and geological maps. The absence 
of complete detailed topographic maps has led to the prosecution of certain 
topographic work. The compiled base maps are taken from the admiralty 
surveys and from the plats of the Crown lands department and notes by 
individuals of the organization. 

The observations possible to make, except for limited areas, in the prov- 
inces bordering the St. Lawrence and the great lakes, has been more in the 
nature of a geologic reconnaissance, more especially so in the unexplored 
regions of the northwest territory and British Columbia. 

The principal publications are Reports of Progress, usually accompa- 
nied b}^ sketches, and to which series belongs a portfolio of maps. These 
commenced in 1843, since which they have appeared almost annually. 

There have been also 12 special reports, four volumes (decades) of 
" Figures and descriptions of Canadian organic remains," with several cat- 
alogues and descriptions of fossils, by Messrs. Hall, Billings, Dawson, and 
Whiteaves as authors. The principal general map issued is entitled " Geo- 
logical map of Canada and the adjacent regions, including the other British 
provinces and parts of the United States," by Sir W. E. Logan, F. R. S., &c. 
Published 1866". Scale 1 inch to 25 miles. 

There has lately appeared a map in 24 sheets, scale 1 inch to 4 miles, 
of the Island of Breton, in Nova Scotia ; also, 3 sheets of a part of New 
Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, scale 1 inch to 4 miles ; also, 6 sheets 
of the Province of Quebec and 1 of New Brunswick on the same scale. 
So far as noted the maps are without hachui'es, contours, or elevations. 
This work is still in progress 



S .; 



192 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Geologic. 

A first geologic examination was ordered by the government of the 
colony during 1839 and '40, and J. Beete Jukes was appointed geological 
surveyor. A general report was published in London (1843), with a gen- 
eral map of the island, with geological colors, for a part of the coast that 
had been explored. 

The more systematic geological examination of Newfoundland has been 
in progress, under Mr. Alexander Murray, since 1864, with one assistant. 
In order to illustrate the formations with a reasonable degree of accuracy 
it became necessary to make topographic as well as geological observa- 
tions from which to compile a topographic map, as a basis for the geolog- 
ical representation, as in 1864 it is stated that the entire surface of the 
island outside of the coast line was a "terra incognita," or at best incorrectly 
represented on any map. Reports of progress have been submitted annually 
to the government of Newfoundland, which, independent of geologj^, em- 
brace considerable geograpliical matter. These reports from 1864 to 1880 
inclusive, revised and corrected, have lately been published in one volume 
8vo, without maps, by Stanford of Charing Cross, London. In 1873 a 
geological map of Newfoundland on a small scale was published, showing 
the general distribution of the formations, a second edition was published 
in 1879, and in 1880-'81 an orographical map (scale 1 inch to 7 miles) 
giving the latest geographical information, both of the coast and interior. 

The last report of progress for the year 1881 (with two large geolog- 
ical maps of the Peninsula of Avalon, scales 4 inches to 1 mile and 1 inch 
to 4 miles, by A. Murray and James P. Howley), was published at St. 
John's, Newfoundland, 1882. Since 18^3 the survey has been abandoned. 

Independent of the annual reports the office at St. John's j)repares 
manuscript maps, results of the field work of a number of localities and on 
various scales, a list of which will be found on page 425 of the above 
volume. The annual salary of the chief geologist is given in the "Colonial 
Office List" at $1,800, and that of the assistant at $1,200. 

So far as known, no general or special topographic survey of this 



VICTORIA— GEOLOGIC. 193 

colony is extant other t.ian the topographic work incident to the appropri- 
ate delineation of the geological structure, the surveyor-general dealing 
alone it is believed with the horizontal measurements, essential to land sub- 
division. The coast survey has been chiefly the work of the admiralty, 
although portions were done by the geologists. 

VICTORIA (AUSTRALIA). 

Geologic. 

Geological researches, under the department of mines and water-supply, 
have led to the publication of a geological map of the colony, as well as of 
charts and plans of its principal gold fields, &c., besides a number of pub- 
lications on geologic, paleontologic, and mineralogic subjects. 

A geologic examination was commenced in 1853, and certain reports, 
with maps, were published from 1853 to 1868, under Mr. A. R. C. Selwyn 
as director. 

In 1869 Mr. Selwyn was replaced by R. Brough Smyth, who, in turn, 
was superseded in 1876 by Thomas Couchman, the actual director and 
secretary for mines of the colony of Victoria. 

Several general geologic maps have been published. The first, in 
1866, in one sheet, scale 1 inch to 32 miles, by A. R. C Selwyn, under the 
title of "Geologic Sketch Map of the Colony of Victoria; " the second, in 
1872, in two sheets, by R. Brough Smyth, by the title of " Sketch of a 
New Geologic Map of Victoria;" and the third, in 1880, in eight sheets, at 
the scale of 1 inch to 8 miles, by direction of the minister of mines. This 
last-mentioned map is entitled " Victoria Geologically Colored." 

Yearly publications, each entitled " Report of progress by the Secre- 
tary for Mines, with reports on geology," &c., have been issued since and 
including 1873. 

The total expense for geology proper for the five years ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1878, was £8,279 14s. lOd, or an annual average of $8,031.35 
(£l at $4.85). Other items of expense have been for "cutting tracks," 
analysis of minerals, publication of maps, reports, &c. 

Other publications embrace descriptions of fossils, mineral statistics, 
reports of chief inspectors of mines, also those of mining surveyors and 
registrars. 

1366 WH 13 



194 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Various local maps and plans, and geological sheets, upon the land- 
survey maps of the surveyor-general employed as a base, have been issued. 
The total area reported as examined on October 1, 1875, was 9,921 square 
miles, v?ith work in progress over an area of 2,887 square miles. 

CAPE COLONY. 

Geologic. 

The government of this colony ordered a preliminary geologic recon- 
naissance, which was executed from 1857 to 1858, by Andrew Wylley, 
geological surveyor to the colony. Two reports, without maps, were pub- 
lished in 1859. The discovery of gold and diamonds has caused the geolog- 
ical examination to be re-established since 1871, under the ministry of Grown 
Lands and Public Works, with E. J. Dunn, as geologist, at Cape Town. A 
dozen preliminary reports (4°) have been published since then, with some 
local maps of the regions where coal has been found. Besides, Mr. Dunn 
has published a general geological map, employing the conventional signs 
used in Great Britain, under the title "Geological Sketch Map of South 
Africa (no date), London, Stanford," in one large sheet, which comprises 
Cape Colony proper, Namaqualand, Bushmanland, Griqualand, Kaffirland, 
Basutoland, Orange Free State, Natal, and the Transvaal RepubHc as far 
north as Limpopo River. Data is now being accumulated for a revision 
of this map No systematic work is being prosecuted, a few hundred 
pounds being occasionally devoted to specific purposes. 

Mr. Dunn has been accumulating for twelve years facts bearing on the 
geology of South Africa. 

NEW ZEALAND. 

Geologic. 

A geological examination was commenced in 1866 under the direction 
of Dr. James Hector. An annual report, with local maps on large scales, 
is regularly published. 

A general geological map has appeared under the title of "Sketch 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND QUEENSLAND— GEOLOGIC. 195 

Map of the Geology of New Zealand, by Dr. James Hector, 1869," in one 
sheet; no scale. Another issue. on a larger scale appeared in 1873, by the 
title of "Geological Sketch Map of New Zealand, by James Hector, Wel- 
lington; scale, 1 : 2,000,000." The latter is a neat and good map. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Geologic. 

Geologic investigations, joining boundary and other linear surveys, 
upon which to base primarily a geological view, have only recently com- 
menced under Henry Y. L. Brown, government geologist, at Adelaide, 
those hitherto prosecuted being of a general exploratory character. Up to 
November, 1884, three special reports and one annual report, with maps, 
have been published. Reports on the geology of this colony, by Mr. Sel- 
wyn, director Geological Survey of Canada, and Professor Ulrich, have 
also been published. 

The first annual report (4°) contains a "geological sketch map of South 
Australia, exclusive of the northern territory." 

QUEENSLAND. 

Geologic. 

Queensland contains approximately 660,000 square miles, of which a 
great part has been until lately unexplored, even. The late Mr. D'Oyley 
H. Alpin was government geologist for the southern district from 1868 (the 
commencement of the work) up to 1870. During this period he addressed 
six separate reports to the minister for lands. 

The late Mr. Richard Daintree was geologist for the northern district 
from 1868 to 1871. He submitted ten different reports to the minister for 
works. 

Mr. A. G. Gregory was geologist for the southeastern district from 1877 
to 1879, publishing a report in 1879. 

Mr. Robert L. Jack was government geologist for the northern dis- 
trict from August, 1877, till 1879, and subsequently for all Queensland, 
with office at Townsville. 



19G GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

This official has made to the minister of mines no less than twenty-three 
separate reports (4°), with local maps, and is preparing a general geologic 
map of the colonv. The growing importance of the mining industry has 
actuated the government so far as to grant Mr. Jack an assistant geologist. 

The gold-field commissioners and wardens have usually reported annu- 
ally on their districts, including therein geologic data. Prior to 1877 great 
irregularity prevailed as to publication; subsequentl}^, however, a regular 
annual report embodies all information. 

Unofficial paleontologic publications, bearing on the geology of 
Queensland, have been made by H. A. Nicholson, M. D. D. Sc, F. G. S., 
&c., of St. i^ndrew's, and R. Ethridge, jr, of the British Museum. 

A general map has appeared, without the name of the author (probably 
Daintree), entitled "A Geological Sketch Map of the Colony of Queensland. 
By authority. Brisbane, 1872." Another general map by Daintree ap- 
pears in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 1872, 
by the title of "Sketch Map of the Geology of Queensland." 

NATAL. 

Geologic. 

A geological reconnaissance, with the special aim of determining the 
coal region, has been ordered by the government of Natal. 

Fred. W. North was appointed mining engineer for the colony, and 
one report (4°) was published in 1881 under the title of "Reports upon 
the Coal Fields of Natal," with a map of the coal fields of the colony; scale, 
1 inch to 4 miles, and several other maps and geological sections. This 
work was stopped in 1881. 

ORAKGE FREE STATE. 

Geologic. 

In 1877 the Orange Free State instituted a geologic examination, 
with George W. Stow as director, but at the death of Stow, in 1882, this 
survey was stopped. Two annual reports were published in 1878 and 1879 
without maps. These reports are printed in Dutch, with an English trans- 
lation. 



WEST AUSTRALIA, &C.— GEOLOGIC 197 

WEST AUSTRALIA. 

Geologic. 

A geologic reconnaissance and examinatioB of the colony has been 
made in 1870 to 1873, by Henry Y. L. Brown, government geologist. 

A general report, with a geologic map, of Western Australia, under 
the title of " Map of part of the Colony of Western AustraHa," no scale, 
has appeared at Perth in 1873. 

After a suspension of ten years the geologic examination has been re- 
sumed under the direction of Edward T. Hardman, and a report of the 
Kimberley district (4°), with geological map, has appeared in 1884. 

TASMANIA. 

Geologic. 

A geologic examination was instituted in 1859, with C. Gould as director. 
Several reports and local geologic maps, scale I inch to 1 mile, were pub- 
lished from 1861 to 1866, but since then the examination has been sus- 
pended and no general geologic map of the island has appeared. 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Geologic. 

A geologic examination commenced in 1873, with C. S. Wilkinson as 
director. 

Since 1877 an annual report (4°) is published regularly, containing 
important notices on the geology, the minerals, and mineral products of 
New South Wales. 

The publications of local maps are made each year by the de- 
partment of mines. A general map of the colony has been issued under 
the title of "Geological Sketch Map of New South Wales, compiled from 
the Original Map of the late Rev. W. B. Clarke, by C. S. Wilkinson. Scale 
I : 1,037,600, or 1 inch to 16 miles. Sydney, 1880, '81, and '82; 3 editions." 



GERMANY. 

TopograpJdc. 

Before the organization of the constitutional Empire of 1870 (known 
as United Germany, a confederacy of twenty-six separate states under an 
hereditary German Emperor (the King of Prussia), with Hmited constitu- 
tional powers, the various German states (the kingdoms of Prussia, Saxony, 
Bavaria, and Wurtemberg in the lead) had executed for a part or all of 
their territory special topographic surveys, most of which had been pub- 
lished on the scale of 1:50,000.* Upon the estabhshment of the 
Landes-Aufnalime (State survey) under the General Staff establish- 
ment, with field marshal the Count Von Moltke at the head, a gradual 
consolidation of works has resulted, until, in the practical absorption 
of the general topographic survey of the Grand Duch}- of Baden into the 
jurisdiction of the Berlin oflice, there remain but four integral surveys, 
three of which, with offices at Berlin, Dresden, and Munich, form a part of 
war administration, and with a fourth at Stuttgart (partly military and pai'tly 
civil) for Wurtemberg, with a minor though integral office at Carlsruhe for 
Baden. 

The plan of surveys for Germany entire has been unified, the plane- 
table sheets being produced on a scale of 1 : 25,000 in the same manner, in 
the four separate jurisdictions, each in turn furnishing to the Berlin office 
its quota of data for the map on the scale of 1 : 100,000. The number of 
sheets on the 1:25,000 scale are, for Prussia, 3,698 sheets; Saxony, 156 
sheets; Bavaria, 990 sheets; and Wurtemberg, 192 sheets; making 5,206 
in all, including 170 for the Grand Duchy of Baden. 

* Wherever the words "statute mile" are referred to herein, the English measure is uaderstood. 

198 



GERMANY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 199 

Meanwhile the Geodetic Institute, with General Baeyer, late of the 
General Staff survey, at its head, under the direction of the Ministry for 
Spiritual, Educational, and Medical Aifairs of Prussia, establishes and meas- 
ures quadrilaterals of its own, connecting the whole with the various series of 
principal triangulations of the several European states, through the inter- 
national commission for the "degrees measurements," having its central office 
at Berlin. The result, independent of the general topographic map of 674 
sheets (scale 1 : 100,000) for the entire country (Germany), will be, when 
completed, a series of detailed charts on the scale 1 : 25,000. These maps 
form the basis of those intended to illustrate the geological formations, the 
coloring therefor being superimposed upon the topographic sheet as a base. 

« 

Civil divisions. 

The Empire aggregates 4 kingdoms, 6 grand duchies, 6 duchies, 7 
principalities, 3 free cities and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. 

For administrative purposes these states are subdivided into provinces, 
still further into either circles ("Kreis"), districts, lordships or domains, 
and again into either bailiwicks or commianes. 

Military/ divisions. 

The Empire is divided for the purpose of military administration into 
17 army-corps, corps districts, each made up of two divisional districts. 
Each of the latter is divided into two infantry brigade districts, and the 
latter again into from 2 to 6 "Landwehr" battalion districts, the final di- 
vision of the latter being from 2 to 6 company districts, based upon the 
political sub-division of the state into circles ("Kreis"). 

Since January 1, 1872, Germany has adopted the metrical system of 
measures. 

The German metrical mile = 1 ,500 meters = 0.932 English statute 
miles. 

The area of Germany is 208, 36H square miles, with a population in 
1880 of 45,194,172, or an average of approximately 217 per square mile. 

The most densely populated of the German states is Saxony, showing 
in 1880 an average of 513 per square statute mile, while the most thinly 



200 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

inhabited section is Mecklenburg-Strelitz with an average of 103 persons 
to the sqnare statute mile. There were fourteen cities upwards of 100,000 
each in 1880 (the largest being Berlin, with 1,122,385), twenty-six others 
ranging between 50,000 and 100,000 each, and still seventy-three others 



Note.— Most of the statements regarding the Prussian state survey have been drawn from a pam- 
phlet ou the Prusslau statf' survey (Die Kouiglich Preiissiseho Laudes-Anfuahme), by Von Morozovicz, 
lieutenant general and chief of the survey in 1^75, revised to July 1, 18H5, and furnished by Major-Gen- 
eral Eegely, the present chief. The latter gentleman has also most kindly furnished manuscript notes 
that have been freely used. The following has been taken from the above pamphlet : 

"One of the main necessities of every well organized Government is the 
possession of reliable and accurate maps on which there can be supervised the 
ownership of real estate and the regulation of taxation, improvements of soil and 
water planned and constructed, canals, roads, &c., projected, administrative 
boundaries fixed, and in fact on which all work relating to surface improvements 
and cultivation can be graphically executed. 

" Furthermore, maps which support the war power of a State and elucidate 
the military use of the natural ground and its improved and cultivated features, 
as well as those following scientific examinations and theories, all of which in 
manifold directions give information relating to the natural, economic, and arti- 
ficial characteristics of one's country, are indispensable. 

''Judicature and taxation, agriculture and forestry, mining, industry and 
commerce, statistics, civil and military administration, science and art, peace 
and its manifold undertakings, and war, with its protecting and defending influ- 
ences, all these require maps, and their usefulness is the greater according as they 
are the more rapidly and cheaply, accurately and truthfidly produced. 

"■Each new necessity has its own requirements 

" Some need a large scale, the main consideration being that of the greatest 
mathematical accuracy, others place particular value on the correct representa- 
tion of surface forms, and still others are satisfied with small coup d'oeil produc- 
tions, compilations of segregated parts, and herein lies the difference between 
'economic,^ 'topographic,'' and 'generalised^ maps. 

" The ' economic' map is executed on scales \ :500 to 1 : 5,000 and becomes 
an ' Uebersichts' map from 1 :5,000 and 1:10,000, itsmain objectbeing the men- 
suration of buildings and land parcels, the exact determination of surface forms. 



GERMANY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 201 

with from 20,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. The entire German sea-coast is 
approximately 25H Germanzz 1,122 statute miles, of which 331 statute miles 
borders on the North Sea and 791 statute miles on the Baltic. 

and only in recent times the consideration of vertical dimensions has been added 
to that of the horizontal. 

^^ The Hopographid map generally employs for its originals scales from 
1:20,000 and 1:H(»,000, and as reduced maps scales of l:oO,000 aitd 
1 : 100,000. It cannot consider the exact reproduction of each and every object 
nor their exact dimensions ; it must be -contented to reproduce them by conven- 
tional signs and lay more stress upon the grouping and concentration of details ; 
it will, however, clearly show positions of points and distances, a view of com- 
bined groups of forms and altitude differences with more or less intenseness. 

'■'■According to theory and prevailing mathematical conception, surveys on a 
large scale ivould be required to produce by gradual reduction from the detail 
map, maps of lesser scales or generalized maps. Reductions by photography, 
however accurate and clear, would only result in productions, not discernible save 
by the aid of the lens. 

" To avoid this, the reduction requires not alone the diminution of lines and 
planes, it deniands a segregation and purging of matter, so that at the same time 
with the reduction a simplification takes place. The reduction may be arranged 
to a certain degree either mechanically or based upon mathematical principles 
and specified instructions, but a limit is soon reached where mathematical reduc- 
tion has to give ivay to conception and tvhere mathematical methods have to rest 
upon a mental digest of the whole. 

" This limit is reached at the scale of 1 : 20,000 and the more impossible it 
becomes according to the above intimations to give each smaller object mathemati- 
cal precision and measurable accuracy, the more it becomes necessary to place 
proper stress upon the segregation of important from unimportant detail and upon 
the representation of local characteristics. 

" Because there enters into the place of purely calculating and measuring 
methods, the combination of mathematical construction, with the balanced judg- 
ment of the superior mind, and because there is required for characteristic delin- 
eation not only the mere mechanical process of determining exact figures and 



202 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

There are 88 harbors of all grades on the North Sea (Hamburg and 
Bremen being the largest), and 47 on the Baltic (two of the most important 
of which are Kiel and Stettin). 

forms, hut a higher understanding with a deep and impartial insight; there- 
fore, the topographic survey of a country is a work quite different from that of 
mere mensuration which dictates that it (the topographic survey) may be assisted 
somewhat by prior mensuration works but can never be superseded by them. 

"From surveyors' field books, from, altitudes, tables, and field sketches, 
enough material may be gathered to construct the ' economic' chart in the office 
and even reduce these results to 1 : 10,000 and smaller scales. To reduce, 
however, this office result to scales applied to topographic maps, 1:20,000, 
1:50,000, and 1:100,000, a view of the 'terrain' and laying doivn its pe- 
culiar character in outline, would only furnish constructed, not digested and 
intelligent maps, cold reproductions of the main forms resulting from a mechani- 
cal combination of measured lines and given points, but no lifelike picture of the 
physiognomy of the country with its marked features, accurate even to the smal- 
lest details. 

'■'■For this reason, not only in Prussia, but in all the greater states of Eu- 
rope, England alone excepted, the topographic survey is entirely separated from 
the production of cadastral and other economic maps, wherever the latter have 
been completed, they may at best but aid the topographic surveys, but nowhere 
does the topographic survey wait for their completion but proceeds as an independent 
and original work and is placed almost everywhere in the hands of the General 
Staff 

''The 'generalized'' maps, as, for instance, that of Eeyman 1:200,000; 
that by Liebenow, 1:300,000; that of the Ministry of Commerce of Prussia, 
1:600,000, serve as ' Uebersichts' maps of a limited nature, having to 
segregate and drop more matter the smaller the scale chosen, but this is 
only office work, in which technical purposes or scientific views are taken into 
account. 

"A map of railroad and postal communications is different from one 
intended jor geographical instruction, and this again from an ' Uebersichts' 
map for military operations, even if all three of them were drawn to the same 
scale." 



GERMANY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 203 

There are 16 islands off the coast, in the North Sea, belonging to Ger- 
many, aggregating an area of 9.82 square German miles= 185.79 square 
statute miles, and 13 others in the Baltic, with an area of 43.09 square' Ger- 
man miles=8 15.26 square statute miles. 

The Lake area, including Lake Constance (9.5 German square miles, 
belonging to several states) approximates 112.5 German square miles= 
2,128.5 square statute miles. 

The principal streams emptying into the North Sea are (1) the Rhine 
(175 German miles within Germany, along which there are 23 tributaries), 
which empties through several mouths in Holland's territory, the upper 
portion belonging to Switzerland; (2) the Elbe, 171 German miles=:744 
statute miles, with 18 tributaries; (3) the Weser, 70 German miles=304.5 
statute miles, with 8 tributaries ; (4) the Ems, 43 German=187 statute miles, 
with 2 tributaries, also the Vechte and Eider. Those entering the Baltic are 
(1) the Vistula (130 German=565.5 statute miles), with 7 affluents; (2) the 
Oder (121 German=526 statute miles), with 19 affluents; (3) the Niemen 
or Memel (116 German=505 statute miles, 20 German miles in Germany), 
with 2 affluents; the Pregel (25 German=r: 108.7 statute miles), with 4 trib- 
utaries, and the Schlei, Trave, Scheventine, Warnow, Rechnitz, Rega, Per- 
santi, Wipper, Stolpe, Lupow, Leba, Passarge, Fresching, Minge, and Dange. 
Also the Danube, tributaiy to the Black Sea (374 German=l,627 statute 
miles), with 8 affluents. 

The personnel of the Prussian topographic survey consists of officers 
of the Etat Major or General Staff, with officers of military engineers, artil- 
lery, cavalry, and infantry (about fifty in number), associated by detail, 
with the requisite number of technical officials, as computers, draughtsmen, 
engravers, &c. 

The chiefs of divisions are also professionally engaged at the National 
Military School (Kriegs Akademie) at Berlin, and know in advance the proper 
persons to select for survey positions. Although a per diem is allowed while 
on field duty to cover extra expenses, still it is stated that the pay of the officers 
is less than that of civilians of equal acquirements ; the experience is found 
valuable in the later military service of the officer and a high esprit du corps 



204 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

prevails, each officer being fully imbued with the trust confided and honoi- 
conferred and the necessity of faithfulness and accuracy of work. 

The topographic survey has been considered superior to the land or 
horizontal survey in that it is based upon higher mathematics, requiring 
superior trained intelligence for selecting the objects to be represented, 
while the latter is more mechanical, following technically certain critically 
established principles ; hence, while the land or cadastral survey may be 
made of assistance to the topographic survey it never can replace it. For 
all Europe, except England, the cadastral or land survey has been held 
separate from the general topographic survey. 

The miscellaneous maps of Prussia have been the Reymann chart, of 
1 : 200,000 (462 sheets), and Liebnow's map, 1 : 300,000. 

PRUSSIA. 

In Prussia, prior to 1816, there existed only the works of a few Govern- 
ment departments and individuals. In this year the topographic surveys 
were transferred from the Statistical Bureau to the Greneral Staff of the army. 

First period (1816 to 1830). — A military map of Prussia was made be- 
tween 1816 and 1830, on a scale of 1 : 86,400, principally by commissioned 
officers, introducing the plane-table in 1821. 

The eastern part was reduced to the scale of 1 : 100,000, the western 
remaining at 1 : 86,400, neither being published on account of insufficiency 
of material, the result being more of a geographical sketch. 

Second period (1830 to 1865). — For the early part of this period offi- 
cers were detailed for three years only, then making way for others, which 
proved of more experience to the officer than value to the map. 

Equidistant horizontal curves, signifying the commencement of the 
third period, were introduced in 1 846. 

The following is the order in which the survey proceeded : 

Posen, south of latitude 63°, 1830 to 1832. 

Pommerania, 1833 to 1838. 

Brandenburg, 1833 to 1845. 

Westphalia, 1836 to 1842. 



PRUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 205 

Rhine Province, 1843 to 1850. 

Saxony and Thuringian states, 1842 to 1859. 

A commission in 1862 recommended an immediate and more extended 
triangulation 

The estabhshment of a bureau for the triangulation of the country was 
effected in 1865, with an annual appropriation of 51,000 thalers = $38,250, 
approximately. 

The personnel consisted of— 

1 . Chiefs of survey and triangulation parties, being commissioned offi- 
cers who were already employed at the trigonometric work of the General 
Staff, or such other officers as had been through a course of higher geodesy 
at the War Academy and distinguished themselves for their efficiency, for 
positions as ''dirigents" and triangulators of the fii-st and second classes. 

2. For the detailed triangulations, sergeants of artillery, who had to be 
graduates of the artillery school. 

The organization was as follows : 

1 major-general, as chief. 

1 field officer, as chief of division. 

5 captains, as chiefs of surve3^s. 

8 first and second lieutenants, detailed for the purpose. 

24 first sergeants and sergeants of artillery. 

Not less than thirty points wex-e insisted upon for each plane-table sheet 
(2^ Grerman square miles) instead of 3 as formerly. 

Third period {since 1865). — The commission of 18'. 2, which had not 
considered the use of the then extended triangulation for a new map, was 
succeeded, in 1869, by a new commission, wherein the General Staff was 
represented. 

It was found to be absolutely impossible to represent on one and the 
same map everything necessary for the various departments of the Govern- 
ment and for industrial wants, and that were it possible, it would be but 
squandering time and money to extend the same care and precision to all 
sections of a great country witli the knowledge that for small sections only 
could such refinement be utilized, therefore the idea of a "Unit" map (Ein- 



206 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

heits Karte) to meet all requirements was abandoned at the first session of 
the commission. This commission, however, agreed that — 

1. An accurate "Uebersichts" map (one over which the eye can be 
readily cast) should be prepared, on which all general projects, plans, &c., 
could be based. 

2. Additional detailed mensuration when necessary to be executed 
thereafter, independently in the various Government departments and be 
confined to specified objects only. 

As regards the "Uebersichts" map the original plane-table sheets of 
the General Staff" were found to answer fully as such, especially after intro- 
ducing such changes, when required, as would enhance their current value. 

A central commission for the survey of the state of Prussia was proposed, 
and the order of the King creating the same was issued June 21, 1870. 

This central commission consists of — 

1. The chief of the General Staff of the army as chairman 

2. The commissioners of different departments as members 
These members were to come principally from — 

1. Treasury Department : Division of forests and forestry and crown do- 
mains and of direct taxation. 

2. Department of Commerce ■ Division of railroads and of roads and 
river improvements. 

3. Department of Agriculture : Division for the amelioration of land 
and communal divisions. 

4. Department of Education : Geodetic institute. 

5. War Department and General Staff: Division of surveys and geo- 
graphical-statistical division of the General Staff. 

6. Navy Department: Division of hydrography and coast survey. 

7. Department of the Interior : One repi'esentative. 
The functions of the central commission are as follows : 

1. To organize, conduct, and supervise all the extended triangulations 
and topographic work confided to the general staff, in so far as its func- 
tions relate to all the departments. 

2. To prevent duplication, and to consolidate works of the same char- 
acter, so far as this relates to the detailed surveys of the different depart- 
ments. 



PEUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 207 

3. To establish a register of all surveys and maps made at the expense 
of the state, and for the purpose of supplying all Government offices with 
all necessary information and results connected therewith. 

It is the duty of this commission to receive annual reports (at its ses- 
sions in December) of all work done, and to examine the special projects 
for the next year's work, and also for the second year, in regard to the re- 
quirements in general, and to revise and modify the same. 

The commissioners are to submit at regular or occasional meetings a 
detailed report as to the results of any works of mensuration so as to make 
them generally available. 

Besides this the central commission has to examine into the methods 
and intruments in use and the published results, to see that the same are, 
as much as the means and time will permit, in accordance with the advanced 
state of the science of surveying. 

The central commission was placed under the charge of the State De- 
partment, and its members, as far as these were salaried officers or officials, 
receive no extra pay. A small appropriation pays for clerks, miscellaneous 
expenses, &c., and for scientific purposes. 

The central commission held its first session May 11, 1872. At its first 
deUberations the following conclusions were reached : 

1. A triangulation of the entire state to be made and the estabHshment 
of not less than 10 trigonometric points to the square mile (German), marked 
by stone monuments, the same with the adjacent ground to become Govern- 
ment property. 

2. The topographic surveys to be made with the plane-table and stadia 
at a scale of 1:25,000 with equidistant contours. 

3. The results of the surveys are to be published at the original and 
also at a reduced scale according to cuiTent wants. 

4. The area to be surveyed annually to be 200 square miles (German). 
The topographic survey to follow the triangulation immediately, and the 
maps to be published as early as possible. 

5. The revision by reconnaissance of older surveys to be made as far 
as necessary. 



208 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

6. And also to cany on all work of a purely military character, and 
such as should be found necessar}^ for the special service of the General Staff- 

The result of all the deliberations was the creation of the state survey 
under the charge of the General Staif, the final organization of which was 
effected January 1, 1875, after having provided for educating the technical 
personnel, by gradually enlarging the original topographical section of the 
General Staff. The present organization for the triangulation was perfected 
in 1865, and that for the topography in 1873. 

THE PRUSSIAN STATE SURVEY. 

Topographic. 

The area embraced by the Prussian state survey, in connection with 
the 1:100,000 map (not including, of Germany, the territory of Saxony, 
Bavaria, Wurtemberg and Baden), is 159,947 square statute miles, with 
33,412,115 inhabitants in 1880, or an average of 209 to the square mile. 

The state topographic survey forms a distinct and independent branch, 
with many powers of self-control, of the General Staff military establishment 
brought to so great perfection in its organization and comprehensiveuess 
of purpose by field marshal the Count Von Moltke. 

The divisions of the General Staff establishment, practically an inde- 
pendent administration in times of peace, are strategical (Nos. T, II, and III); 
Eailroads, IV; Historical, V ; Statistical, VI. The strategical divisions are 
so divided that the sum of the functions of the three embrace the data 
essential to the fullest and most exact understanding of all the political and 
landed divisions of the globe, the approaches thereto, the communications 
between, the exigencies of and opportunities for military occupation, with 
the strategical lines therefor, and in general all such information concern- 
ing the races of people, their modes of life, facilities for intercommunica- 
tion, means of subsistence, &c., as would be of advantage to a military 
leader operating in these regions. 

The other three divisions are readily undei'siood frum their designa- 
tions 

This institution has among its purposes the collecting, preserving, and 
elaborating the elements of military science, and historical data concern- 



PRUSSIA-TOPOGRAPHIC. 209 

ing the operations of armies, the preparation of information for the enlight- 
enment of the command, the perfection of military instruction, and the 
furnishing of officers with subjects for reflection and study. 

The state survey is, then, a practically independent branch of the above 
extensive institution. 

It was found necessary on account of the increase of the purely mili- 
tary duties of the chief of the General Staff to appoint a separate chief of 
the state survey. 

CHIEF OF THE STATE SURVEY. 

He is subordinate to the chief of the General Staff, from whom he 
receives all orders pertaining to the General Staff, and in regard to the 
execution of the decisions of the central office. He stands in the same 
relation towards his subordinates as the chief of the General Staff to its 
different branches. He has charge of the executive, discipline, technical 
work, and the expenditure of the appropriation for the state survey. 

The chiefs of the three divisions under his charge (the trigonometric, 
topographic, and cartographic), regulate the work in their respective divis- 
ions and are responsible for the same; the chief of the state survey, con- 
trolling the whole, harmonizes the working of the divisions and distributes 
the foi-ce and material for the best advantage of the whole. 

Force, appropriation, c^c— The force of the royal Prussian state sur- 
vey is given herewith : 

Officers : 

1 chief of the state survey (a majorgeneral). 
3 chiefs of division. 
14 staff officers and captains to conduct surveys- 

1 adjutant. 

28 detailed lieutenants. 
Superior officials : 

2 chiefs of survey parties and 1 superiutendent of publications. 
1 inspector of the map archives. 

Technical force: 

(a) Permanent officials (fixed yearly pay): 

51 trigonometers, topographers, and cartographers. 

3 technical inspectors. 
1 chief of printing. 

1 chief photographer. 
1366 WH 14 



210 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

Technical force — Contiuiied. 

17 copper engravers and lithographers. 
8 printers, including foreman. 
1 photographer. 
1 assistant lithographer. 
(6) Temporary ofiflcials (paid by the month, week, or day): 

106 assistant trigonometers, topographers, and cartographers. 
1 galvano-plastic assistant, i engravers, and 1 lithographer. 
10 technical assistants. 
Clerks, messengers, and laborers : 
(a) Permanent employes: 

1 accountant. 
6 registers. 

4 secretaries. 
4 messengers. 
4 janitors. 

3 watchmen and porters. 

2 firemen. 

(6) Temporary employes : 

4 assistant clerks. 

Embracing — 

47 officers, 
208 technical employes, 
30 clerks, laborers, &c., 

in all, 285. 

The officers belong to the General Staff, with the exception of the 28 de- 
tailed lieutenants, who are carried on the rolls of their regiments as detailed, 
and receive an extra compensation out of the appropriation for the sitrvey, 
and while in the field a regular mileage and per diem compensation. 

Note. — OfiBcers of the general staff who h.ave served in the topographic division generally gain 
advantages as to promotion upon returning to their respective commands. The Great General Staff of 
the Prussian army is composed of two branches, the " Haupt Etat" and the "Nebeu fitat," the latter 
for scientifio purposes. Positions in the latter, as well as those connected with the survey (" Landes- 
Aufuahme") are only filled by officers who have seen active service in the army, and never by persons 
taken directly from civil life. Generally civilians are only eligible to the positions of lithographers 
and engravers in the cartographic division, the main body of technical officials having previously 
served in the army for several enlistments. The greater proportion of the officers transferred to the 
General Staff are those who have passed through the War Academy (a school for officers) with distinc- 
tion, which affords a guarantee of the maintenance and development of the scientific element. The 
War Academy ("Kriegs Academic") is intended for those officers only who, "after having acquired 
elementary knowledge in other establishments, desire to increase and perfect the same in every province 
of the art of war, in order to gain the necessary skill for the higher and extraordinary demands of the 
service." 

It is only until lately that officers ordered to the topographic survey had not graduated at this 
academy. 



PEUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 211 

From among these officers sis are selected to conduct trigonometric 
and five for topographic surveying parties ; these officers are not retained 
in this position longer than about three years, that they may not be 
estranged from their regular army duties. 

The technical employes are appointed and promoted according to their 
merits and general efficiency, with the exception of the assistant trigonom- 
eters, topographers, and cartographers, who are required to show a service 
of nine years in the army and as assistants in the state survey to be pro- 
moted to trigonometers, topographers, and cartographers in accordance with 
their time of service, while their compensation is regulated by the date of 
their employment in the state survey. 

The inspector-general of artillery details a number of sergeants, also 
other commanders of troops (non-commissioned officers), for these positions 
as assistant trigonometers, &c. They are continued on the rolls of the 
army, but are entirely paid by the state survey, and allowed to wear citi- 
zens' clothes ; they receive, while in the field, mileage and per diem com- 
pensation, as do the civil employes, and are afterwards entitled to a position 
in the civil service of the Government. To be employed as bureau offi- 
cial, or clerk or in one of the lower positions, it is necessary to possess a 
certificate entitling one to an office in the civil sei'vice of the Government, 
received in consequence of long and faithful service in the regular army. 
For promotion, it requires the necessary qualifications. 

All aforementioned permanent employes are appointed by the Secre- 
tary of War on the recommendation of the chief of the state survey and 
with the advice of the chief of the General Stafi", and range in accordance 
with the date of appointment regarding their compensation. 

All assistants are employed by the chief of the state survey on the 
recommendation of a chief of division, and are employed by and can 
leave or be discharged from month to month. The appropriation for the 
fiscal year 1885-6 was 1,116,500 marks. 

This money, in charge of the chief of the state survey and deposited 
with the funds of the army, is expended by a commission of three, namely, 
(1) chief of division, (2) the adjutant, and (3) the accountant. 



212 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

In addition to this there had to be appropriated the following sums : 

Marks. 

For extra pay for the ofi&cers 175, 864 

For commutatiou for quarters for all entitled to the same . 57, 600 

For office of the central supervision of the state survey, according to act of the 
German Parliament : 

Appropriations, cap. 22, tit. 8-12 17, 610 

Appropriations, cap. 25 and 27, for ra.tions and extra pay for heads 
of bureaus 1, 860 

Total 19,470 

This last amount is in charge of the chief of the General Staff, as pre- 
siding officer of the central office. 

The total amount of 1,369,434 marks appears in the appropriation bills 
of the German Parliament ; but in consideration that this work has been 
carried to a higher order than the purely military interest of the empire de- 
mands, and it being so extended as to incur the expenses for a great num- 
ber of civil employes and it mostly being in the interest and for the benefit 
of the state of Prussia, therefore this country has to reimburse the German 
Empire to the amount of 800,000 marks per annum as long as the survey 
continues under its present organization. 

The German Empire, whose military interest is also greatly benefited by 
the survey, assumes the balance, together with occasional deficiencies, the 
amount of pensions for retired employes, and the expenses for the office 
building, just finished ; but, on the other hand, receiving all money accru- 
ing from the sale of maps, &c., and other published results of the survey, 
which are given by contract to booksellers and publishers ; these last-named 
transactions being in charge of the inspector of maps and chief of the state 
survey. 

The following are the divisions : 

(1) TRI60N0METEIC DIVISION. 

The force consists of 1 chief, 6 chiefs of surveying districts, 1 chief of tlie editorial 
section, 8 detailed ofiicers, 26 trigonometers and assistants, 3 registers and ofQce clerks. 

This division establishes a system of triangles over the whole state, by 
determining a number of points in regard to their horizontal and vertical 
relations with such degree of correctness as time and means permit. 



PEUSSI A— TOPOGRAPHIC. 213 

This system of triangles constitutes the basis for all military and eco- 
nomic maps and surveys, and the triangles are so compacted as to allow 
the establishment of ten trigonometric points to each square mile (German). 
These are securely marked by stone monuments, and embrace also all 
prominent points, as spires, chimneys, &c. 

The work is then continued from this primary triangulation to a sec- 
ondary, tertiary, &c., and thence to the detail survey. 

The system of main triangles is observed with the greatest care and 
correclness and with the best instruments, the sides averaging about eight 
German (37.44 English) miles in length. 

Within this triangulation of the first order one of the second order is 
constructed, the sides of the former being the bases for the latter, the sides 
of its triangles to be reduced to about 1^ German miles. Within these two 
again a more detailed triangulation, with the points of the third and fourth 
order, is introduced to such an extent that the above-mentioned number of 
points to the square mile is determined. 

To preserve these points, established with so much labor and expense, 
the laws of October 7, 1865, and April 7, 1869, were enacted. 

These laws transfer to the state the ground around each monument to 
the extent of two square meters, for which the owner is compensated. 

The monuments of the first, second, and third order consist of a granite 
slab, 3 feet square, in the center of which are cut two cross-lines. This stone 
lies 3 feet under the surface of the surrounding ground, on top of which 
is placed a stone column, 3 feet high, smooth and square on the top, with 
like cross-lines cut in the center, this cross lying in a vertical line through 
the lower one, thus indicating the correct trigonometric point, 

A preliminary reconnaissance is made for the selection of points prior 
to the commencement of the principal triangulation. 

The topography is usually commenced the second year after the com- 
pletion of the tertiary triangulation. 

Eight years are required from the date of the ordering of the work until 
the issue of the final map, as follows: First year. Reconnaissance for the 
main triangulation. Second. Main triangulation observations. Third. Ob- 
servations for secondary triangulation. Fourth. Tertiary triangulation. 



214 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Fifth. Preparation for topographic survey. Sixth. The topographic survey. 
Seventh. Issue of lithogi'aphed plane-table sheets. Eighth. The issue of 
topographic map (scale 1:100,000) and manoeuver maps. 

The computation is made by the most coi'rect formulae known to sci- 
ence, with the introduction of the method of least squares. The probable 
error, if more than 1:100,000, in the length of the side of a triangle of the 
first order excludes the result. 

Leveling and determination of altitudes. — The basis for ascertaining 
altitudes is by direct leveling, geometric methods being used since, 1867, 
in place of the trigonometric methods theretofore employed. 

On account of the greater accuracy of the former they are designated 
as levels of precision, and are determined by means of level telescopes and 
leveling rods. These telescopes are sufficiently powei-ful to permit of 
reading in a clear atmosphere the millimeters on the rod at a distance of 75 
meters. 

Belt lines of leveling having an average circumference of 300 kilome- 
ters (185 miles) are followed. 

All trigonometric points included within these belts and not more than 
2 kilometers from fixed points on the main road lines are connected with 
these by geometric levels, and the last-named, points sei've to determine the 
altitude of all others inside the polyconic belt by trigonometric measurement. 

The zero point for altitude was the level of the sea, having been called 
absolute altitude, until it was discovered through a system of precision levels, 
which included all tide levels on the coast of the Baltic from the city of Memel 
to Ekernforde, that the surface of this sea, though showing the usual rise and 
fall, is not identical with any other level surface on the globe. Therefore 
a bench mark was established on one of the observing piers at the Berlin 
observatory, designated as -f 37 meters, and is known as the normal zero 
point; the correct zero point 37 meters below it differing very little from 
mean sea level. 

Lastly, it is the duty of the trigonometric division to collect the com- 
putation of its observers, arranging it for the use of the topographers and 
for publication, and to make this material accessible for all branches of the 
Government, for other Governments and the public. 



PRUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 215 

The organization of this division is as follows : 

Section I. — Office and register of tbe chief, care of iustruments and vehicles, 
the coi-respondence in regard to the transfer and title of ground 
surrounding monuments. 
II. — Principal triangiilation. 
III. — Triangulatiou of the second order. 
IV. — Detail triangulatiou. 
V. — Levels. 
VI. — Publications, archives, and library. 

(•2) TOPOGRAPHICAL DIVISION. 

The force consists of 1 chief, 5 chiefs of surveying districts, 20 detailed lieuten- 
ants, 79 topographers and assistants, 3 registers and office clerks. 

The work assigned to this division is a topographic survey of at least 
200 square (German) miles per annum of the country, prepared by the 
trigonometric division. 

This survey, at a scale of 1:25,000, has to contain all material of im- 
portance in either a military or economic sense. 

The projection is the same as for former surveys, polyhedric (poly- 
edrische). Each plane-table sheet contains 10 minutes of latitude and 6 
of longitude. Inside of this space the curvature of the earth's surface is 
not considered, but the same regarded as a level. 

The 2^ square miles embraced by each plane-table sheet has to con- 
tain, according to order, 10 points to the square mile, or about 22 for the 
whole sheet, these trigonometric points being marked by stone monuments, 
and are so located as to allow the placing of the surveying instrument 
exactl}^ over the trigonometric point, and to take bearings of at least one 
other trigonometric point therefrom, thus rendering any further triangulatiou 
by the topographer unnecessary. To these, all other prominent trigono- 
metric points, designated as points of the fourth order, are added, as spires, 
chimneys, &c., which swells the number on the plane-table sheet some- 
times to 32-34. The altitude of all these points is also determined. 

Contour lines are drawn as a rule for every 5 meters, but for plain 
parts of the country intermediate lines may be inserted at 2^ and 1^ meters 
whenever the formation of the country requires it, while in rocky parts only 



216 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

SO many coutoui" lines are given as is necessary to show the character of 
the elevations without crowding' the drawing. 

In the general topographic map (scale 1:100,000], as is true also 
for similar map series of other countries, it being impossible to delineate 
correctly by the scale the smaller dimensions, conventional signs are em- 
ployed, varying in their minor but quite uniform in their major details,^ 
while in some instances legends of distances, geographical positions, azi- 
muths, and elevations are added, proving an advantage to the student or 
reader of the map. 

The topographic field work is done by 5 surveying parties in charge 
of captains, with a force of 80 surveyors (20 lieutenants and 60 topogra- 
phers and assistants) and a reserve of 5 men in case of sickness, &c. 

Two hundred square miles to be surveyed annually gives to every sur- 
veyor 2.5 square miles, or somewhat more than one plane-table sheet. 

These finished plane-table sheets are reproduced at the same scale, 
1:25,000, by means of lithography for publication, and used in compiling 
the degree map at a scale of 1 : 100,000. For the purpose of preserving the 
originals, photographic copies are taken and used by the draughtsmen and 
lithographers. 

It is also the duty of the topographic division to make, besides these 
new and original surveys, corrections of older surveys which have not been 
kept up with the time, but are of importance in the interest of the State, by 
reconnaissances. These corrections are mainly lines of communication, as 
roads, railroads, &c., ranges of mountains and smaller elevations, the last 
named to complete the hypsometric system of squares. 

The work of this division for the winter time consists in preparing for 
the field work of the next summer. This includes the preparing of 90-100 
plane-table sheets, the projections for the same, and the locating of 30 trigo- 
nometric points for each, or .S,000 for all. 

The office work is arranged as follows : 

Section I. — Register aud office of the chief. 

" 1 1. — Preparations for field work ; care of the instruments, archives- 

and library. 
" III. — Reconnaissances. 

" IV to VIII. — Five surveying divisions from A to E. 



PRUSSIA— TO POGEAPHIC. 217 



(3) CARTOGRAPHIC DIVISION. 



The force consists of 1 chief; 2 officers and 1 civil employ^, as directors; 52 car- 
tographers and assistants, 3 techuical inspectors, 1 chief of ijrinting, 1 chief photographer, 
1 photographer, 6 copper engravers, 12 lithographers, 8 printers, 1 electrotyper, 10 
technical assistants, 3 registers and clerks. 

The work assigned to this division is the production of correct maps, 
based on the work of the trigonometric and topographic divisions of the 
state survey, and to keep these maps current with all new material. 

The cartographic division nses the collected material of the topo- 
graphic survey for the following authorized publications : 

1. Map of the state of Prussia at a scale of 1: 25,000. 

This map consists mainly in a reproduction of the plane-table sheets 
by means of lithography ; photographic copies of the original are furnished 
for the work. The more important sections are done by lithographers reg- 
ularly employed; the others are given in contract to prominent lithographic 
establishments. 

The publication of these plane-table sheets is principally in the interest 
of state economy. The scale of 1:25,000 still shows the cultivation .of the 
country, and the contour lines furnish a base for all contemplated improve- 
ments, as roads, railroads, canals, irrigation, geological researches, forest 
culture, &c. 

For military purposes at great manoeuvers the scale of these maps is 
too large, and the representation of the elevations of the country by means 
of contour lines not so favorable and comprehensive as by means of hach- 
uring, for which reason extra sheets with hachures are issued. 

2. The degree map at a scale of 1 : 100,000. 

This being a purely military map of the state of Prussia, the scale of 
1:100,000 was decided on as the best, it being possible at this scale to 
represent everything of importance in a military map, and keep the same 
in convenient size to overlook at a glance. 

The 200 square miles annually surveyed form twelve complete sections; 
to these are added three sections of reconnaissance, making in all about 
fifteen sections to be annually engraved. 



218 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The degi'ee map includes at present only Prussia, with such parts of 
other states as are inclosed by the Prussian territory. 

The following states are not included in this map: Saxony, Bavaria 
(including Pfalz), and Wurtemberg. 

Saxony possesses a map nearly identical with the Prussian map, onl)' 
differing in regard to the zero, this one being established at the astronomi- 
cal observator}^ at Leipsic. 

The acknowledged necessity for a military map of the whole German 
Empire, at a scale of 1:100,000, resulted in a convention of representatives 
of Prussia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Saxony in 1878 

The conclusions arrived at were as follows: 

{a) To make and issue a map of the whole German Empire at the same scale as 
the Prussian state survey map, namely, 1:100,000. 

The work to be done by the combined forces of the above-mentioned states, 
namely, the General Staffs of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, and the Topographico Statisti- 
cal Bureau of Wurtemberg. 

(6) The projection is the same as used for the maps of Prussia and Saxony, 
polyhedric (polyedrische), longitude and latitude referring to Berlin (ob.servatory). 
The sections of the map, representing Bavaria, Saxony, and Wurtemberg, showing on 
the edge the difference between their own and the longitude and latitude of Berlin. 

(c) As a rule, every one of these four states furnishes the full sections of their 
own territory, the boundary or connecting sections to be done by the state whose 
territory occupies the greatest space of the same. 

{d) The sections,are numbered in regular order, but each section is named after 
the largest city situated in its limits and belonging to the Gei-man Empire. 

Prussia assumes for the smaller states all work of a military character for which 
it is indemnified out of the common treasury of the German Empire; therefore, the 
sections covered by these states are issued by Prussia. 

3. A further duty of this division consists in the work of issuing all maps of a 
military character, and especially such as are of importance to the General Staff; to the 
last named belong the so-called mauceuver maps, generally at a scale of 1:50,000, to 
be used at the annual autumn raauoeuvers. 

4. And last, the very difBcult work of keeping the existing maps current with 
the material furnished by new surveys, &c. 

Two annexations to the cartographic division may be mentioned, which 
serve to make this division independent of private enterprises, namely : 

(a) The printing establishment: Eight printers, with eight assistants, 
do all plate and lithographic printing, af also the printing of circulars, 
blanks, field and account books, &c. 



PRUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 219 

(b) A photographic establishment: In charge of a chief photographer, 
he being a well-trained and scientific man; his duty is to make the very 
lately organized establishment a model by observing and making the best 
use of all new inventions. 

The stereotyper of the division belongs to this branch. 

The office is divided into sections, as follows: 



Sectiou I. — Office and register of the chief, archives, and library. 

" II. — Drawing of the map at a scale of 1:100,000 (degree map). 

" III. — Section for the issue of the state map, at a scale of 1:25,000. 

(a) Topography, lettering, and contour lines (original plane-table 

sheets). 

(b) Maps of the country surrounding garrisons. 
*' IV. — Corrections of original drawings. 

" V. — Lithographic corrections. 

" VI. — Copjier engraving. 

« VII.— Printing. 

" VIII.— Photography. 

" IX. — Miscellaneous, and for General Staff purposes. 

Prior to 1874 the area annually surveyed was 80 German square miles. 
It is estimated that thirty years from 1870 will be required for the comple- 
tion of the entire work, or until 1900. 

Heliogravure is now being introduced. The publications other than 
maps consist of professional papers on degree measurement, levels, triangu- 
lations, elevations, topography, &c. 

The maps are for sale to the public at very reasonable rates at a 
number of Government agencies. 

As a result, Prussia contributes 544 sheets; Saxony, 30; Bavaria, 80; 
and Wurtemberg 20, making the total of 674 sheets. 

The borders of the sheets are parallels of thirty minutes and meridians 
of fifteen minutes apart. The size of the paper is 19 inches X 16.35 inches, 
and of the part covered by topography at the latitude of 52° N., approx- 
imately 13.5 inches X 10.75 inches, representing 370 German square miles, 
or approximately 7,000 square statute miles. 

Description of sheet, scale 1:100,000. 

The rehef is expressed by Mufiling's system (broken and waving hachures) 
for slopes of 5° and 10°, and Lehman's system (full straight-line hachures, 



220 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

normal to horizontal curve, varying in thickness according to declivity) for 
more abrupt ground. A great number of elevations, given in meters, have as 
a point of departure the normal zero established at the observatory at Berlin. 
The mean level of the Baltic Sea at Eckernforde, at the mouth of the Pregel, 
is 0™.34 below the normal zero. 

The limits of the administrative district are colored, and, instead of 
placing on the sheet the name of the district, a little ellipse, tinted in the 
interior with the same color as the border of the limit, bears a number re- 
produced below the border. The sheets, embracing sea-coasts, give the 
soundings in meters and curves, indicating the zones of depths of 2, 4, 6, 
and 10 meters. The basis of the map is printed in black and the waters in 
blue colors. 

Description of sheet, scale 1:25,000. 

Each sheet comprises 10' in longitude and 6' in latitude, embracing 
approximately the area of 45 square miles for an average sheet. The size 
of the drawing (a reproduction of a field plane-table sheet) at the latitude 
of 51° 30' N. is 18.15 inches horizontal by 17.35 inches vertical dimension, 
printed on paper 23.5 inches X 22.3 inches. Two scales are given below 
the border, one in kilometers and another in geographical miles. Connected 
horizontal curves at equidistances of 5 meters (each fourth curve drawn 
heavier) cover the entire area, each curve of 10 meters being marked at the 
extremity reaching the interior border line. 

Where declivities are expressed by hachures, forty are employed for 
each 3 centimeters (1.18 English inches), which vary from 5° of slope up 
to 45°, the ratio of the black line to its immediate blank space appearing as 

■ -o_ -, X denoting the declivity. 

The size of inhabited places, cultivated fields, forests, reservoirs, &c., 
are shown. 

Canals, limits of administrative departments, rail and common roads 
and other routes or lines of communication, &c., are laid down. 

The sheet is known by its number in the index map, as also the name 
of the principal town which it contains. It is, in fact, a faithful and artistic 



PRUSSIA— TOPOGEAPHIC. 221 

reproduction by lithography of the plane-table sheet, revised and perfected 
b}' the addition of special elevations and distances. Elevations are occa- 
sionally written along the curves. The names of the four adjacent sheets 
are given along the borders. The base is printed in black aad the water 
in blue. 

For a sheet of the 1:25,000 chart the surface embraced by one de- 
gree of geographical latitude and longitude is divided into sixty parts, each 
of which embraces ten minutes in longitude and six minutes in latitude. 
The size of such sheet thus varies according to latitude, and in Germany 
fluctuates between 1.9 and 2.7 geographical square miles and embraces on 
an average 2.3 geographical square miles. The office of the survey pub- 
lishes yearly about 100 of these sheets, covering an area of, say, 230 square 
German miles, or 43,516 square statute miles. 

Hand engraving on copper plate has so far been employed for the map 
of 1 : 100,000, as well as for those on the scale of 1 : 50,000. The sheets 
(scale 1 : 25,000) are produced by lithography on stone, and the Reymann 
chart (scale 1 : 200,000), heretofore reproduced by copper engraving, is at 
present published by the heliogravure process, in which experiments are 
being made with a view to its more general introduction. Campaign maps 
are rapidly printed from photolithographic transfers. 

The annual cost, derived from the "budget," which receives the 
approval of the Reichstag, is 1,200,000 marks* ($300,000 approximately), 
divided as follows: (1) for the field 400,000 marks, (increased by the salaries 
of officers), and (2) for the office 800,000 marks. 

The cost of the trigonometric branch from 1865 to 1877, inclusive, 
was 2,738,761 marks (approximately $684,690), or at the rate of approxi- 
mately $57,000 per annum, Avhile for the trigonometric, topographic, and 
cartographic divisions from 1877 to April 1, 1881 (4 years), the amount 
actually expended was 4,011,957 marks (approximately $1,002,975), or 
approximately $250,075 per year. A general estimate of the present cost 
per German square mile for (1) triangulation, (2) topography, (3) carto- 
graphy, was for the first 1,900 marks (approximately $475), for the second 

•This had increased to 1,369,434 marks in 1885. 



222 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

2,400 (approximately $600),* and for the third 1,700 marks (approximately 
$450), or at the rates respectively per square statute mile of approximately 
(1) $25, (2) $31.70, and (3) $23.75, or at the total rate of approximately 
$80 per square statute mile for the production of this special map. The 
above amount would be increased by payments made from the military 
budget, and is in excess of all expenditures (for maps of various scales) 
made prior to 1872. 

Prussia had finished 395 sections of the 674 sheet map in July, 1885, 
at which date Saxony had completed sixteen, Bavaria six, and Wurtemberg 
none. 

So far as known, no other branch of the Prussian state government at 
Berlin or that of United Germany issues topographic maps, except the 
topographic bureau proper (state survey of the general staff establishment). 

Until latterly the Department of Commerce issued general maps, pos- 
sessed of orographic details and the Finance Ministry, charged with the ca- 
dastral survey for revenue, have doubtless their own charts, but I have 
not been able to examine them if there are such. The map of the De- 
partment of Commerce (1868 to 1875) was on the scale 1:25,000. The 
publications other than maps and plans of the Prussian state survey con- 
sist of a number of special works on the trigonometric and topographic 

*Thecostof the actual topographic field work varies according to the physical coufiguration 
means of communication, and frequency and extent of artificial objects of different sections of the 
country. 

The following has been furnished by the chief of the Prussian state survey : 
The current average annual cost of the typographic field woi-k alone, not counting the salaries 
of topographers and carriers of instruments (the latter detailed soldiers), as well as the expenditures 
for instruments, signals, &c., is about 900 marks per square German mile, approximately 22 square Eng- 
lish miles. 

Other annual expenses are : 

Marks. 

Salaries of 25 officers 69,294 

Salaries of 79 topographers 163,790 

Salaries of 3 bureau officials 9, 120 

Expenditure for material 8,386 

Incidental expenses 3, 437 

Extra allowances 7,980 

Repair of instruments 14, 737 

Total 276,744 

The above for an average of 200 German equare miles for a season increases the 900 marks as 
above to total of 2,300 marks (approximately 105 marks or $26.50 per square English mile) per square 
German mile. This, of course, is in addition to the costof the niaiu office audthat of triangulation and 
cartographic branches. 



PRUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 223 

operations and results with manuals for topographers. This office has an 
annual revenue of about 50,000 marks (approximately $12,500) from the 
sale of maps, which can be purchased by agents recognized directly by 
the Government or through almost any prominent bookseller. 

The main positions are determined with a high order of accuracy both 
as regards field observations and subsequent computations, while the intro- 
duction of the improved plane-table processes leaves nothing to be desired 
as regards the appearance of the original sheets and their accuracy (no 
error being appreciable upon the drawing at the scale employed), but want- 
ing simply in that storehouse of practical detail (for both present and 
future use), resulting from the measurements from traverse lines and by 
offsets and of the actual lines of boundaries, large and small, natural and 
artificial which however should naturally be supplemented by a proper 
cadastral survey 

The original archives are permanently in the custody of this branch of 
the war department, and available for future reference, and found where 
needed when the war arm of the Government has to be brought in requisi- 
tion. 

It is believed that the general staff survey, now carried on with so 
much precision and system, answers all the wants of the Government as 
regards both general and detailed topographic maps, and hence, with the 
exception of the planimetric charts of the finance department, now issues 
all the general and special maps upon which orographical details appear, 
while at the same time the geological service avails of these as the ground 
work of geological representation. 

The present cadastral survey of Prussia, under the ministry of finance, 
was established by law of May 21, 1861, which nullified all hitherto exist- 
ing regulations. There had been employed up to the time the new law was 
to take effect (January 1, 1865,) no less than 14 different systems and 100 
kinds of cadastral maps. During the French occupation (up to 1815), when 
the Rhenish- Westphalian Provinces were re-ceded by France to Prussia, a 
cadastral survey was in progress, and was continued b}^ Prussia under sub- 
stantially the same rules and regulations with modifications adopted in 1819. 
This cadastral work was completed between 1818 and 1834, in all, 843.5 



224 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



(German) square miles, or 53 (German) square miles per year, at a total 
expense of 4,148,617 thalers. The following scales were employed: for 
large districts, 1:50,000; parishes, 1:10,000 and 1:20,000; private proper- 
ties, 1:2,500, 1:1,250; and 1:625 for towns, villages, and hamlets. 

The cadastral survey of Hanover had no definite organization up to 
1861; even up to 1856 an examination of surveyors was not deemed nec- 
essary. 

The first surveys in Hesse-Cassel commenced in the sixteenth century 
The first cadastre law of 1764 was the basis of the regulations of the final 
statutes of 1833 which continued in operation up to 1866. Scales: for gen- 
eral maps, 1 : 1,500 ; for villages, 1 : 750 ; for forests, 1 : 3,000. Not less than 
11 different measures for length and 20 square measures had been used in 
the surveys of Schleswig-Holstein, the errors and confusion arising therefrom 
being evident. Nassau and the free city of Frankfort had their own spe- 
cial cadastral surveys, the laws of the latter dating back to 1611. 

On the 1st of January, 1872, the adoption of the new measure of the 
empire entered iu force. Up to 1861 there had been surveyed by the 
existing carfas^re in the six eastern provinces 70,856,136 morgen (45,639,466 
acres) at the following scales: 



Scale. 



1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

Various (89 difierent scales) . 



2, 000 . 
2, 500 . 

3, 000 . 

4, 000 . 

5, 000 . 



Per cent, of the 
entire survey- 
ed and mapped 
area. 



1.8 
18.8 

8.9 
18.5 
50.0 

2.0 



Since 1866 the resurvey of the newly acquired provinces has resulted 

as follows: 

Schleswig-Holstein, including Lauenburg, 16,966 maps; area, 1,882,532 
hectares; 8 different scales. Hanover, 27,433 maps; area, 3,842,156; 13 
different scales. Hesse-Cassel, 18,497 maps; area, 101,077 hectares; 11 
different scales. Wiesbaden, 15,560 maps; area, 556,205 hectares; 10 dif- 
ferent scales; and Meisenheim, 1,128 maps; area, 17,640 hectares; 4 differ- 
ent scales. 



PEUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 225 

The scales at present adopted are 1:5,000, 1:3,000, 1:2,500, 1:1,500, 
1:1,260, and 1:625. 

The condition of measurement of arcs of great circles falling within 
Germany receives attention in the publications of the Geodetic Institute 
under General Baeyer, as well as all of those arcs where the measurements 
are of an international character. 

GEODETIC INSTITUTE OF PEUSSIA AND EUROPEAN DEGREES MEASUREMENTS. 

The Geodetic Institute at Berlin (under the administration of the Min- 
istry for Spiritual, Educational, and Medical AflFairs) executes base measure- 
ments, trigonometric connections, astronomical observations, determinations 
of polar co-ordinates, leveling and tidal observations for determining the 
relative levels of the European seas and comparison of measurements, as 
well as the functions of the " Central Bureau of the European Degrees 
Measurements." 

The following translated from "On the origin of the European Degrees 
Measurements" (Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Europiiischen Gradver- 
messung) bears upon the origin, organization, and functions of this Central 
Bureau. 

The first degree measurement in Europe was made in 1525 by the Pa- 
risian physician and mathematician, Fernel, between Paris and Amiens. 

Since then men of science have continually devoted themselves to the 
determination of the figure and dimensions of the earth. For this purpose 
great operations had been undertaken in the eighteenth century by France, 
and in the nineteenth century by England and Russia. 

The following degree measurements have been made in Europe up to 
1861: 

Two great and three small arcs of meridian and three arcs of parallels. 
The latitude measurements are : 

1. The great Freucli-English arc of uieridiau from the Balearic to the Shetlaud 
Islands (from Formentera to Saxavord), exteudiiig over 22 degrees in latitude. 

2. The great Eussiau-Scaudiuaviau arc of meridian, beginning near Ismail, ou 
the Danube, and ending at Hammerfest, near the Arctic Ocean ; extending over 25^- 
degrees of latitude. ^ 

1366 WH 15 



226 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

3. Three suiall arcs of meridian iu Central Europe, viz : 

In Hanover, between Gottingen and Altoua, 2° 1' longitude ; in Denmark, between- 
Lauenburg and Lyssabel, 1° 32' longitude ; and in Prussia, between Trunz and Meniel, 
10 30' longitude. 

The first longitude nieasurenient along the parallel from the mouth of 
the river Gironde, in France, via Turin, Milan to Fiume, was executed by- 
France, Piedmont, and Austria. 

The second, between Brest and Strassburg, was begun in 181S, and,., 
after many interruptions, only lately completed. 

The third, proposed in 1857 by W. Struve, was executed by Russia,, 
Prussia, Belgium, and England ; it extends from Orsk in the Ural, in Russia,, 
to the west coast of Ireland, 77 degrees in longitude. 

This arc is over 600 German miles in length and is the greatest ever- 
measured in the world ; this measurement will decide the interesting ques- 
tion whether the curvature of that arc-is that of a segment of a circle or 
the segment of another curve. 

Other degree measurements have also been undertaken by France, in 
Peru and Lapland, and by England, in the East Indies and at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

All these extensive and costly operations have been solely undertaken 
to determine the figui-e and dimensions of the earth. 

But these latitude and longitude degrees measurements have been ex- 
ecuted independently one of another ; in the new degree measurement pro- 
posed, both kinds of operations, i. e., longitude and latitude measurements,. 
will be connected in such a manner as to demonstrate the curvature of tho 
earth surface in any or all directions. 

This is the task which the Central European degrees measurements has to 
accomplish. Central Europe contains very elaborate material in its exten- 
sive triangulations, and the connecting chains of triangles, stretching over 
Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, furnish 
the most desirable material for the accomplishment of a degree measure- 
ment which shall fully meet present scientific requirements. 

The area embraced between the meridians of the observatory at Bonn 
and Trunz (the southern end point of Bessels degree measurement) and 



PKUSSI A— DEGREES MBASUEEMENTS. 227 

between the parallels of Palermo and Christiania* represent an area of over 
12° of longitude and of nearly 22° of latitude, equal to about 38,000 Ger- 
man square miles. 

More than 30 observatories are located within this area; they are all 
provided with excellent instruments and competent observers and thus 
offer inducements and facilities nowhere else to be found in any other part 
of equal extent in the world. 

Within this area more than 10 arcs of meridians at different longi- 
tudes and a still greater number of parallels at different latitudes can be 
measured. 

General Baeyer's project, the "degrees measurements" of Central Eu- 
rope, was sanctioned by the Prussian Government June 20, 1861, and the 
office of foreign affairs instructed to invite all those states of Central Europe 
lying within the area of the proposed operations to participate in the under- 
taking, and if agreeable to appoint proper persons for the execution of the 
work. 

General Baeyer Avas appointed representative of Prussia, with whom 
those of the other states should communicate. All states invited consented 
to take part in the operation. 

The central bureau was established at Berlin, with General Baeyer at 
its head. 

DIVISION OF THE WORK. 

The proposed work- is divided into three classes, viz : 

1. Work executed by the several members (commissioners) in their 
own countries, as : Examination and sifting of material on hand ; verifica- 
tion of a unit of measure ; execution of triangles to fill gaps, if such exist, 
or to replace old triangulations of defective character ; computation of polar 
co-ordinates between astronomically determined points ; measurements of 
polar altitudes, azimuths, pendulum observations, and telegraphic longitude 
differences. 

2. Work which the commissioners of one state execute in conjunction 
with the commissioners of adjacent states, as connections of chains of tri- 

* Prof. Hansteen, of Christiania, proposed an extension northward to Drontheim. 



228 GOVEENMEisT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

angles, adjustment of differences; computation of polar co-ordinates be- 
tween determined points in their own country with points in adjoining 
states; measurements of telegraphic longitudes, differences between the 
same, &c. 

3. All such work as can be undertaken by joint operations on a large 
scale. 

The practical scientists appointed by the several Governments as com- 
missioners, and who are charged with the execution of the work indepen- 
dently in their respective countries, send annually special reports to the 
central bureau, by which the results are compiled, printed, and published. 

The first general conference was called by General Baeyer for October 
15, 1864, to meet at Berlin. He submitted the following points for the 
deliberation and action of the conference : 

1. Regulation of units of measure in cases where direct comparison is 

impossible. 

2. Adjustment of errors in the connection of triangle chains and transfer 
of azimuths. 

3. Determination of limits of errors in polar azimuth and telegraphic 
longitude observations. 

4. The grouping of points, the astronomical determination of which is 
most desirable. 

5. Determination of intensity of gravity. 

6. Astronomic and geodetic, polar co-ordinates. 

7. Levelings, and regulation of absolute heights. 

8. Miscellaneous matter, i. e., bureau work, theoretical investiga- 
tions, &c. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL BUREAU. 

The business of the bureau is twofold. 

1. INTERNATIONAL MATTERS. 

According to the action of the general conference, the central bureau 
is the executive organ of the commission. 



PEDSSIA— DEGEEES MEASUEEMENTS, 229 

Its functions are as follows : 

1. It receives the annual reports of the representatives of the several 
States participating in the degree measurement. 

2 It submits these reports, with comments thereon, to the permanent 
commission for examination and criticism. 

3. After the rendition of opinions by the permanent commission, the 
reports are returned to the central bureau, by which the same are compiled 
into a general report for publication. 

4. It conducts under the control of the permanent commission all work 
necessary in regard to unification of geodetic and astronomical measure- 
ments. 

5. It is charged with the administration of the archives, library, and 
material collected by the central European degrees measurements. 

2. NATIONAL MATTERS. 

It is charged with the execution and calculations of Struve's and of 
central European degrees measurements, so far as they fall to the share of 
Prussia. 

1. The execution of scientific triangulations, conditioned by the de- 
grees measurements; polar altitude and azimuth observations and levelings. 

2. Measurements of difi'erences of longitudes between principal points 
of the geodetic net. 

3. Observations of intensity of gravity on all necessary points. 

4. All necessary computations. 

It is also the duty of the central bureau to keep itself instructed in 
all scientific questions which may present themselves in this field, and as 
the organ of the permanent commission and head of the central European 
degrees measurements, it must have constantly in view the theoretical as 
well as the practical development of science, and it must be competent to 
meet promptly and efficiently all demands which the general conference in 
their transactions, relating to astronomical and geodetic questions, may put 
to the central bureau. 



230 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



The personnel of the central bureau consists of three members, viz: 

General Baeyer, president. 

Professor Focrster and Dr. Bremiker. 

Four permanent assistants, which number may be increased if needed. 

One clerli and one messenger. 

Note. — So far as may be ascertained from published reports already received, tbe results of the oper- 
ations of the International Commission, through the central office at Berlin, has been confined princi- 
pally to measurements of arcs of meridian and parallel, gravity determinations, and the precise deter- 
minations and comparisons of elevations. It claims to have proven with great certainty (see "Report 
on the Progress and Work of the European Degrees Measurements," by Prof. Th. von Oppolzer, of 
Vienna, in the Geographical Year Book for 1884, by Herman Wagner, Gotha, 1885, p. 119) that the levels 
of tbe different seas or oceans of Europe are not at the same horizontal plane in their mean water stages. 
These differences have been found, however, in no case to exceed one meter. 

General Baeyer gathered the material necessary for the study of the differences, referring all 
levels to the mean sea level of the Baltic at Swiuemiinde. 

The most important data, which may yet undergo revision from more extended comparisons, are 

as follows : 

M. 

I. Baltic at Swinemiinde above the Mediterranean at Marseilles (across Switzerland) +0. 664 

II. North Sea at Amsterdam above the Mediterranean at Marseilles -)-0. 757 

III. Baltic above the Mediterranean (via Ostende) +0.6.58 

IV. Ocean level at Sant.ander above sea level at Alicante (by General Ibafiez) -fO. 663 

V. Baltic at Swinemiinde above Adriatic at Trieste -|-0. 449 

The partly provisional results found in France are, according to Mars: 



Sea level at — 


A'bove the Mediterranean 
at Marseilles. 


Sea level atr- 


Above the Mediterranean 
at Marseilles. 




M. 
+0.90 
+0. S4 
+0. 951 
+0. 903 
+1. 050 


Brest 


il. 
-t-1. 090 
+0. G20 
+0. 579 
+0. 230 
+0. 150 




Med'Aix 








Cette 









SAXONY. 



Topographic. 

The Kingdom of Saxony (possessed of an area of 5,787 square miles, 
with a population of 2,970,220 in 1880, or an average of 513 per square 
mile) is engaged in the preparation and completion of a topographic map 
(with curves alone, and also with colored "terrain'') of its territory on the 
scale of 1 : 25,000 in 156 sheets, and contributes also the data for 30 sheets 
of the general topographic map of Germany (scale 1 : 100,000 — 674 
sheets). The preparation of this special chart (1 : 25,000) is intrusted to 



SAXONY— TOPOGRAPniC. 231 

the Topographic Bureau of the Saxon General Staff of the War Ministiy 
at Dresden, under Major-General Holleben, chief of the General Staff. 
Tlie personnel of the bureau consists of — 

1 director. 

1 to 2 officers. 

2 geographical engineers. 
12 to 15 topograpliers. 

In October, 1880, Dr. Ruge read a paper before the Geographical Soci- 
ety at Dresden, on Saxon Cartography and the Land Surveys of the six- 
teenth Century, prepared from data found among the state archives, from 
which it appears that the oldest map of any part of Saxony then discovered 
was of the district of Schwarzenberg, by George Oder, date 1531, scale (ap- 
proximately) 1 : 26,000. The elector, August, appears to have encouraged 
the land survey, which, from 1550 to IGOO, was exclusively made by the 
^'Oder" family. 

The elector, however, attempted to prevent the publication of special 
maps of his country, a practice almost universally observed in Europe until 
far into the eighteenth century. This is proven by the fate of Scultetus of 
Gurlitz, who attempted to publish a map of the electorate in 1569, and also, 
Joh. Griginger, rector of Marienberg, who, only after tedious negotiations, 
was permitted to publish a map of Saxony, at Prague, in 1568. This was 
the first printed map of Saxony, the original not yet having been discov- 
ered, but Ortelius had copied and reproduced it in his collection, and it con- 
stituted, for over 200 years, the basis on which all maps of Saxony were 
rej^roduced. (See " Registrande,'" 1881.) 

As early as 1781 the triangulation was begun, and followed by detail 
surveys in 1785. These were made and completed to the scale of 1:12,000, 
each original sheet of 24 Dresden inches, representing 1 square mile. 

The guiding principle of this work was to make the infonnation 
available the earliest possible. In 1819 the publication of a Topographic 
Atlas of Saxony (scale 1:57,600, in 24 sheets), based upon the foregoing, 
to be engraved on copper, was ordered. This atlas, the originals of which 
were still employed on revision work remaining uncorrected, has been 
withdrawn from the market. In 1861 the Topograpln'cal Bureau was 



232 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

directed to publish a topographic map of Saxony (scale 1:100,000, in 28 
sheets), principally for military purposes. The engraving was on copper, 
a few were published in outline without hills, and the others as "terrain" 
maps with hills (Lehman's system modified to 60° black), on the de L'Isle 
projection. 

The road map has been discontinued and the "terrain" map, properly 
revised, is now used for the Saxon quota of the general German map, same 
scale. 

The old original sheets of the Saxon land survey, scale 1 : 12,000, are 
used as a basis for the topographic chart (scale 1 : 25,000) for the territory 
of Saxony entire. 

That part of the Austrian domain shown on the map is transferred from 
the photographs furnished by the Royal Imperial Military Geographical 
Institute (Vienna), (scale 1 : 28,800), and where new surveys of the Prus- 
sian and Altenburger territory are made, the system of the Prussian Gen- 
eral Staff survey (scale 1:25,000) is followed. 

All the planimetrj^ is supplemented by a plane-table survey, brought 
up to the required standard, while, moreover, the forest charts of the Royal 
Saxon Forest Commission, prepared on a very large scale, are used, and for 
cities and village sites the special detailed charts prepared on a similar scale. 

The accurate representation to the scale of 1 : 25,000 has the security 
resulting from work done upon the ground on a much larger scale than that 
of the map, the only exception being that of the small areas, the detail of 
which has apparently been received from Austria, before the new or present 
survey of the Mihtary Geographical Institute (scale 1 : 25,000) had reached 
the region in question. 

Determination of altitudes. — These are obtained by — 

(1) Levelings, (2) trigonometrically and (3) incidentally, by baro- 
metric measures for points comparatively inaccessible, such, for instance, as 
cliffs overgrown with trees, where trigonometric and survey levelings can- 
not easily be carried. 

The survey levelings follow the lines of that part of the European 
degree measurement, falling within Saxony, having a datum point on the 
Baltic Sea as a basis. 



SAXONY— TOPOGEAPHIC. Ji33 

The level stations are " midway," thus eliminating (practically) curva- 
ture and refraction, and are at slight intervals, so that the trigonometric 
measurements are not over distances greater than 500 to 600 meters, and 
hence can be simply calculated. The admissible error between two points 
7,500 meters apart is fixed at 0.03. 

For the ten years ending December 31, 1881, the main levels have 
been carried over lines of (approximately) 5,000 German miles in length. 
The graphic transfer of the levels immediately follows their calculation. 

The trigonometric measures follow the graphic transfer of the level- 
ings, the rule being to measure as small angles as possible, connecting be- 
tween and checking upon level points. The observations are made by ver- 
tical circles from Breithaupt & Son, Cassel (giving direct readings to 10 
seconds), and universal instruments, by Starke & Kammerer, Vienna, the 
latter reading to 20 seconds. For the ten years to January 1, 1882, about 
111,000 altitude points had been established in the above manner. 

The barometric measurements are restricted to the use of an aneroid 
barometer joined to parts determined by leveling, having the greatest pos- 
sible difference of elevation, referring to the daily record of a second sta- 
tionary aneroid. 

The index chart shows that 126 of the 156 sheets (scale 1 : 25,000) had 
been completed and published on July 1, 1885, that 16 were to be issued 
October 1, 1885, and that the remaining 14 sheets would be completed as 
early rs April, 1886. 

Scale 1 : 25,000. — The approximate area of an average sheet (10' iu 
longitude by 6' in latitude) is 51 statute square miles, the area covered by 
the topography on the sheet (paper 21f inches square) is 18.25 inches by 
17 inches at the latitude of 50° 30' to 50° 36' N. The planimetry is printed 
in black, the water and marshes in blue, and the contour lines in a reddish- 
brown. Curves are at equidistances of 10 meters, also 5 and 2h meters 
were necessary for level country (each fifth curve being stronger), with 
elevations marked at ends of each contour along the single border line. 
Border lines are not divided into parts of degrees for either latitude or 
longitude ; scale in kilometers ; elevations of marked points given. Each 
sheet is known by its number and name of principal locality. The 



234 GOVEEXIiOiNT LAND AND MARINE SUEVEYS. 

number and names of each of tie four surrounding sheets are stated 
along the respective border lines. The various natural and artificial fea- 
tures follow a legend of conventional signs. The only difference in the 
sheets with colored relief is in showing the nature of the slopes between 
contours by a brown, crayon tint, shaded according to the gradations of the 
Lehman system. The sheets do not close with the boundary of the king- 
dom when reached, but are executed in full. 

The planimetry or outline of the map is engraved on copper, while 
the hydrographic part, the horizontals, and the relief coloring are litho- 
graphed, and this map also forms the basis for the geological charts (begun 
in 1872), which latter, as well as the topographic sheets, are reproduced 
through the Royal Ministry of Finance. The printing is done directly from 
the copper plate, without any transfer upon stone, by Giesecke & Devrient, 
Leipsic. 

There are two editions: (I) with colored terrain, (II) without; the latter 
showing alone the planimetry, water, and curves. 

This special map was begun in 1872 ; it is expected that the last section 
will be published in April, 1886. It is believed that no other branch of the 
Saxon Government issues topographic maps. 

The original archives are the property of, and held in custody by, the 
War Ministry. The projection is after the " De ITsle" system. Each sec- 
tion is represented by a trapezoid, the parallel sides of which contains 10 
minutes of latitude and the convergent sides 6 minutes in longitude. The 
belts of trapezoids extend from 50° 6' to 51° 30' N. latitude, and from 29° 
30' to 32° 50' longitude east from the Isle of Ferro. There are 14 belts, 
comprising the 156 sections. 

In 1830 an estimate for a cadastral survey at a cost of approximately 
800,000 thalers, requiring ten to twenty years for completion, Avas made. 
This being deemed too great by the representatives of the country, the use 
of the topographic plane-table survey (scale 1 : 12,000) was suggested as a 
base. Prior to the above date plane-table surveys based upon a trigono- 
metric net had also been executed at scales 1 : 4,800 and 1 : 2,400. 



BAVARIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 235 

BAVARIA. 

To])ograpliic. 

The General-Staff branch of the War Office of th 3 Kingdom of Bavaria 
has its own independent works, subject entirely to the administrative con- 
trol of the Royal Government, the expense of which is defrayed purely 
from Bavarian funds. 

There has resulted a topographic map of the kingdom (scale 1 : 50,000 — 
110 sheets, complete, except for the revision of a few half sheets), and prog- 
ress upon a special map (scale 1 : 25,000—990 sheets), and data (in pursu- 
ance of the convention of 1878), is being furnished for 80 of the 674 sheets 
of the general topographic map of Germany (scale 1 : 100,000). A top- 
ographic map of Southwest Germany has also been issued by this office 
on the scale of 1 : 250,000, in 25 sheets; a hypsometric map of Bavaria, 
scale 250,000, 16 sheets; also a hydrographic map of Bavaria (scale, 
1 : 500,000). There are also maps of a purely military character for gam- 
son, land-wehr and other administrative districts, for recruiting, reserve, and 
other uses and purposes. 

The Kingdom of Bavaria embraces 29,283 square miles of territory, 
with a population in 1880 of 5,271,516, or an average of 176 per square 
mile. 

The topographic surveys of this country are confided to the topo- 
graphic bureau of the General Staff, under the War Ministry at Munich, 
with Colonel Charles von Orff at its head. 

The Bavarian Topographical Bureau when created was a civil organiza- 
tion under the Ministry of the Royal House (State) until 1817, when it was 
ti-ansferred to the War Department and given a military organization by the 
chief of the General Staff, General von Raglowich, retaining, however, the 
civil employe's. The work has progressed by authority of royal decrees of 
1817 and 1867. 

The present organization of the Topographical Bureau is as follows: 

1 colonel, as director. 

1 captain (first class), mathematical section. 

1 captain (first class), known as major of the topographical section. 

1 captain, chief of the reproduction works, especially the photographic branch. 



236 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAKINE SUEVEYS. 

1 captain (first class), conservator, 

2 captains from the retired list. 
1 accountant. 

1 copper-engraving inspector. 

1 copper-engraving reviser. 

8 copper engravers. 

1 lithographer. 

6 assistant topographers. 

I foreman of printing. 

G draughtsmen. 

1 photographer. 

2 assistants and 1 messenger. 

The above are permanently in service, while the following are tem- 
porary : 

12 lieutenants — 3 for mathematical section, 9 for topographic section. 
12 subofiBcers (10 in the topographic section). 
2 soldiers, also printing clerks. 

For topographic duties in the field, the chiefs of the mathematical 
and tojDOgraphic sections and the twelve lieutenants, with two draughts- 
men, are employed. 

H istorically speaking, Bavaria appears to have been possessed of top- 
ographic works from an early date 

It is stated that Aventine prepared in 1523 a map of Upper and Lower 
Bavaria. The map of "Apian," in 1563, has, however, been called the 
masterpiece of the Middle Ages. The material for this map was secured 
from 1554 to 1563 by "Apian " and a few assistants, traversing the country 
and making astronomical and other observations. It embraces 484 square 
feet, in 40 sheets (^scale 1 : 50,000). The original is lost, and only a few 
copies of part of the map are preserved, but a reduction (scale 1 : 144,000), 
in 25 sheets, was published in 1568, which formed the basis of all maps of 
Bavaria during the two hundred years next following. 

German cartography is much indebted to one Johann Baptista Homann, 
from Nuremberg (1663-1724). He published in 1816 a large atlas of the 
world in approximately 100 sheets. This business, similar to that carried 
on by the present establishment of Justus Perthes at Gotha, consisted more 
particularly in collecting and compiling originals scientifically. 



BAYAEIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 237 

The following is the title of the atlas : 

Homaiiii's Atlas of 100 maps, representiug geographically all parts of the earth, 
also settiug forth clearly the difl'ereace existing betweeu countries and states, with a 
review of the mathematical, natural, and historical geography. Published by the 
heirs of Homann, Nuremberg, 17-17. 

It is accompanied by 40 pages of text and a description of the French 
degree measurement. 

The only trace of a Roman itinerary is the so-called "Tabula Peuting- 
eriana," which is a list of places along the military road of the West Roman 
Empire, made either dimngthe reign of Emperor Severus (193-211 A. D.), 
or compiled by order of Theodosius (also called "Tabula Geographica 
Theodosiana"). 

This table, designed in 12 sheets of parchment, was found by Conrad 
Cettes, a monk in the Benedictine Convent at Tegernsee, who gave them to 
Conrad Peutinger, the antiquarian at Augsburg (1465-1537). 

Eleven of these sheets, forming when conjoined a strip of 6 meters long 
and 0.3 meters wide, were found again in 1714, having been lost after 
Peutinger's death, and are at present in the Imperial Library at Vienna. 

The Bavarian atlas is of military origin, its inception being due to Bonne, 
a celebrated French military geographical engineer, attached to the French 
army of occupation, whose plan was interrupted by the declaration of peace 
of 1801 and the recall of the army. Max. Joseph I (first King of Bavaria) 
recognized the importance of the plans of Bonne (1805), and decided to 
have an elaborate topographical atlas constructed. He opened negotiations 
with the French Republic (which Government was then in the lead as re- 
gards scientific, topographic, and trigonometric surveys) with a view to 
enlist the services of French engineers, and Bonne and two others were 
allowed to repair to Munich and remain until 1807. 

Advances were gradually made in practical geodesy and astronomy, 
and especially through the works of Soldner, whose "application of rectan- 
gular spherical co-ordinates" is still in use. 

From the Topographical Bureau thus established at Munich geodetic 
and astronomical observations were carried on by Bonne and his French 
associates, and plane-table work and detailed surveying by Bavarian engi- 



238 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

neers, from which resuhed atlas maps, somewhat defective, however, as to 
their topographic representations. 

King Maximilian Joseph I ordered, in 1808, a general land survey on 
the scale of 1 : 5,00(\ and there was organized a central bureau, with a 
numerous staff, entitled ("Koenigliche unmittelbare Steuer-Kataster-Com- 
mission") the Royal Revenue Cadastral Commission. The Topographical 
Bureau was, however, to proceed to completion with the construction of 
the topographic map of the country (scale 1:50,000). Reductions of ap- 
propriations and intervening war restricted this bureau for a time to office 
work alone and publication of maps. 

The first two sheets (Munich and Wolfrathshausen) were published in 
1812, and nine more were ready for publication in 1817. 

These sheets, while showing marked improvements, were still unsatis- 
factory. The Topographical Bureau, which had been up to 1817 under the 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, was transferred to the War Office and placed 
under the charge of the chief of the General Staff, the number of civilians 
reduced, and their places taken by officers of the General Staff. In the 
mean time the cadastral surveys were pushed with great vigor and their 
results incorporated in the topographical atlas, from time to time improved 
as to its topographic delineations, Lehman's method of representation, 
with slight modifications having been adopted. There were thirty-seven 
sheets executed from 1820-30. Maps of Upper and Central Franconia, 
comprising the principalities Anspach and Bayreuth, were also published 
during this decade, although resulting from indifferent surveys. 

The maps of the mountainous districts of South Bavaria, published 
from 1825-35, excel in precision and artistic effect. 

During 1830-50 maps of Suabia, Central and Lower Franconia, and 
from 1850-67, maps of Bavaria, on left bank of Rhine, were published. 
Meanwhile a general topographic map of South Germany (scale 1:250,000, 
25 sheets, copper engraved,) was in course of preparation, delaying the- 
progress of the atlas (1:50,000), which was finally completed in 1867 in 
in 110 sheets. 

There having been a lack of uniformity in the successive delineations 
of this atlas, a thorough revision of 47 of the oldest and faulty sheets was. 



BAVAEIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 239 

ordered. In 1838 trigonometric determinations of altitudes were com- 
menced, and gradually extended over the whole country, except south- 
western parts of Upper Bavaria and Upper Suabia. 

These measurements, together with the precision-leveling of 1868-78, 
form the basis of other hj'psometric works, but inasmuch as these heights 
(in total) were obtained partly trigonometrically, partly by leveling, and 
the balance by mercurial and aneroid barometers, and official considera- 
tions requiring a frequent changing of the fields of operation, these were not 
continuous and connected, while also the net-w^ork of triangles was more 
dense in some parts of the country than in others, and the established 
bench-marks, therefore, vary from 6, in the southeastern part, to 60, in the 
Palatinate, to the square German mile. 

Measurement of heights. — The surveys begun in 1868 with level curves 
at normal equidistances of 10 meters, served as a frame-work or rough scale 
for the topographic sketching, confining the scope or conception of the 
topographer to narrow limits. In the absolute amount of the detail to be 
secured by the topographer much has to be left to the individual judgment 
of the observer, since if all the changes of relief are to be absolutely de- 
termined with great mathematical precision, and delineated, as is the case 
in the contour surveys of sites for fortifications for instance, the time and 
cost would be immoderate, unjustifiable, and incommensurate with the 
intended objects or expected advantages. 

This may be to some extent also understood when the cost of the 
limited space accurately profiled by a final railroad or canal survey is taken 
into consideration, which survey if made general for an area instead of 
being confined to the actual line of construction would reach figures in 
most instances greater than any present or prospective value of the land. 
For each cadastral sheet (5.44 square kilometers) 80-160 points (bench- 
marks) were determined, or at the rate of 15.30 points for each square 
kilometer. 

The first accurate measurement of heights commenced in 1838 in the 
Palatinate, and after many interruptions was provisionally completed in 
1851. The original datum point is a bench-mark at the principal Protest- 
ant church of Carlsruhe, being on the floor at door = 39.36 Baden rod* 



240 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

— 40.458 Bavarian rods = 118.08 meters. This point bad been trigono- 
metrically determined by the aid of an 8-inch theodolite, with vertical 
circle, during the hypsometric triangulation of Baden, and is referred to 
the pavement of the cathedral at Strasburg — 48.584 Baden rods — 145.752 
meters. 

From the Carlsruhe bench-mark the positions of all the primary tri- 
angulation points in the Palatinate were determined by trigonometric 
methods. The reduction of angles and calculation of the primary triangu- 
lation, verified by numerous observations, was made by the method of 
least squares, the mean error of a directly measured difference in elevation 
proving to be n -|- 0.639. 

The bench-marks engraved on the atlas for the areas along the right 
bank of the Rhine designate the elevation above the tide-gauge at Amster- 
dam, or the normal zero at Bei'lin reduced by 1.74 meters. Elevations 
brought from the Adriatic in 1863, as reported by the Military Geographical 
Institute, require a correction of— 0.42 meter to be made to the bench-marks 
referred to mean sealevel at Amsterdam, while late communications fix this 
coiTection at —0.94 meter. The difference thus indicated between the mean 
levels of the North Sea and Adriatic is but little greater than that between 
the North Sea and Baltic determined by the Prussian land survey. 

The method of surveying the level curves was introduced in Bavaria 
m 1868; these are not, however, introduced into the atlas (1 : 50,000), but 
are made accessible to the public at small cost by reproduction of the 
original field minutes (scale 1 : 25,000) by photolithography; up to 1885 
200 of the 990 sheets (scale 1 : 25,000) had been issued. 

The 47 sheets of the map 1:50,000 undergoing revision are to be is- 
sued as 85 half-sheets, of which 55 were complete at the close of 1880, the 
whole to be finished in 1886. 

Bavaria contributes 80 sheets to the 674 required for the "degree map 
of the German Empire" (scale 1:100,000), of which the 2 sheets on the 
left bank of the Rhine, and 4 sheets of the northern tier were completed 
July 1, 1885. 

The character of the hachures on the above maps has been so modi- 
fied as to represent declivities from 1° to 5° by dotted hachures and from 
5*^ to 10° (45° black) with alternately one dotted and one full hachure. 



BAVARIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 241 

To defray the expenses of Bavaria's quota for the general German map 
(1:100,000) 9,000 marks per annum is allotted. 

The Bavarian surveys, in their full sense, have the two following prin- 
cipal purposes : 

1. The preparation of an exact cadastral plan for revenue considera- 
tions and all practical public purposes, where horizontal dimensions and 
distances alone are required ; and 

2. The preparation of a suitable topographic map primarily for mili- 
tary purposes, but for scientific and economic ends as well. 

The execution of the former upon the scale of 1:5,000 by the cadas- 
tral bureau (organized in 1808) was completed in 1860. 

Its foundation was a system of primary triangles, with the necessary 
astronomical observations. Upon these operations a special work was pub- 
lished entitled "The Scientific Basis of the Bavarian Land Survey." The 
primary triangulation was combined with others of the second, third, and 
fourth orders, thus determining 30-35 trigonometrically determined points 
to the square German mile. 

With these points as a basis, the detail survey has been made contin- 
uous and connected (for the present 1:25,000 map) by means of the plane- 
table and a special distance-measuring apparatus. There results perfect 
atlas sheets for imposts and duties. 

The cadastral bureau is now limited to the revision of the cadastral 
charts (1:5,000) and supplementary surveys on a larger scale when re- 
quired. 

The work (2) is executed by the Topographical Bureau. While the 
Cadastral Bureau has cognizance only of the horizontal survey (ground 
plans of inhabited places, boundaries of property, &c.), the chief duty of 
the Topographical Bureau has been the surveying and delineation of the 
ground reliefs, i. e., of the vertical features, and the production of a com- 
prehensive graphic projection and delineation thereof 

In the commencement the surveys were made largely by sketching, 
but for the last twenty-five years the measurement of altitudes have been 
made partly by trigonometrical, partly by barometrical, and partlj- by 
ordinary leveling methods. Since 1868 level curves, at equidistances of 10 

136G WH 16 



242 GOVERNHIENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

meters, have been introduced. For obtaining the level curves, portable 
alt-azimuth instruments and aneroid barometers are used, 800-1,000 alti- 
tude points to the square German mile resulting therefrom.* 

The topographic results are transferred upon the cadastral sheets, 
then reduced to scale of 1 : 15,000, the orographic details drawn by the 
Lehman system, and then reproduced by photolithography at scale of 
1 : 25,000, forming also the basis of the copper-engraved charts of 1 : 50,000. 

The Cadastral Bureau has the following organization : 1 upper impost 
supervisor, 1 cadastre inspector, 2 cadastre assessors, 2 trigonometers, 8 
ttpper geometers, about 30 cadastre geometers, 1 lithographic reviser, 1 
printing master, and, approximately, 30 lithographers. The labors of this 
bureau are not restricted to the survey alone, but they embrace the calcu- 
lations of surface property, the value of soils, the harvest productions, &c. 

The cost of the cadastral survey (each sheet embracing 5.45 square kil- 
ometers) cannot be given, but for a single sheet it has been estimated at, 
approximately, 1,000 marks (about $79 per square statute mile). 

The average cost of the cadastral survey (1810-1860) may be approx- 
imated at 600,000 marks (150,000), and since 1860 at 300 to 350,000 marks 
per annum. 

The whole country (1,380 German square miles) is divided for this 
purpose into 1 20 precincts, within each of which one geometer resides for 

*Tlie following taken from an address (" Mittheilungeniiberdle Aufgaben uuddieThatigkietdes 
topographiaclien Bureaus in Miinchen," see proceedings of Geographical Society of Munich, part 8, 
1884,) by Colonel von Orfif, bears upon the origin of horizontal curves to express topographic relief: 

"The French engineer Noizet de St. Paul,t was the first to propose the use of horizontal curves 
but only in connection with architectural planning (on large scales) and constructions; afterward, 
Mouge, the ingenious inventor of descriptive geometry, applied them in representing uneven surfaces ; 
still later, Bonne, as member of the commission for determining upon construction of the Atlas of 
France, 1 : 80,000, proposed to express the "terrain" by equidistant curves, but was not successful in 
having the proposition carried out. In Geimany this method was first employed on the survey and 
original drawings of the beautiful atlas of Hesse-Cassel (1835), which, however, it was deemed more 
appropriate to publish in hachures." 

Lieut. General von Morozowicz, late chief of the Prussian state survey, in the pamphlet here- 
tofore cited, says : 

" The present state of development of topographic methods was, in 1830, still in its infancy. The 
brilliant idea of the Swiss engineer du Carla, to express " differences of altitude and variation in form 
of the earth's surface" by equidistant curves, has long battled for recognition, the necessity of suffi- 
cient level and altitude determinations, conditioned thereby, delaying its practical introduction." 

" Between 1830 and 1840, the first attempts in this new direction of terrain representation were 
published, but it took until the years 1840 to 1850 before this idea was fully appreciated, and still some 
Governments pay no attention to the use of equidistant curves." 

t General Noizet de St. Paul, whoso writings on fortifications appear as early as 1792, was for- 
merly "Director of Fortifications" in France, and the originator of what has been termed the "new 
method" in Fortification. 



BAVARIA— TOPOGEAPHIC. 243 

the purpose of revising cadastral plans, following divisions and changes of 
property, his services being paid for by the property-holders. 

The following is a description of the maps on the scales of 1 : 50,000 
and 1 : 25,000 : 

Scale 1 : 50,000. — The sample is taken from the old series, printed in 
black, with hachures and no curves (substantially Lehman's system, or de- 
clivities of 60°, a fully black surface, graduated to no color or plain for 0°), 
without underlying tint. Each sheet comprises 30'. 8 in longitude by 13'.5 
in latitude (an area at latitude 47° N. of exactly 1,000 square kilometers, or 
approximately, 390 square miles). The delineated portion of the printed 
sheet (paper 39 by 24 inches) covers 31^ by 19f inches. No elevations are 
shown on the sample, the usual conventional signs having been followed. 
The initial meridian of reference is Munich. Figures are given for each 
degree and five minutes in latitude and longitude, and divisions along the 
borders for each ten seconds. The sheets are known by number and name 
of the principal place, and the name of the four adjoining sheets appear on 
the corresponding borders. The printed scale is in geographical miles. 

Scale 1 : 25,000. — The area of each is, approximately, 34 square miles. 
No latitude or longitude divisions are stated. The divisional areas are not 
aliquot parts of the sheet's scale, 1 : 50,000. The size of the topographic 
portion on No. 390 is 14f inches square, printed on paper 21^ by 17 inches. 
The delineation of relief is by a combination of hachures and contours,* 
and issued by photolithography in black without tint. The elevation of 
prominent points is given in meters (no number given on contours). The 
sheets are numbered besides stating name of principal locality. The scale 
is in kilometers. The curves are at an equidistance of 10 meters. The 
publication has been in course since 1875. These sheets are square, each 
side being 9,336 meters in length, equal to 4 cadastral sheets (each of the 
latter sides being 2,334 meters), or an area of about 87.5 square kilometers. 

Note.— These sheets represent the so-called ' ' Situation," that is, the details concerning habitation 
(places, villages, &c.), the water and road net, the boundaries of cultivation (fields, meadows, orchards 
vineyards, forests, &c.), as well as property boundaries. The reliefs, however, are not considered on 
the cadastral map. The objects and aims of the Topographical Bureau consist, therefore, to express, 
on a scale of 1 : •^.'),000, the form of the "terrain" as accurately as the scale will permit, at the same 

* Since 1884 hachures have been omitted, and horizontal curves, printed in brown, from 5 to 10 
meters apart, introduced. 



244 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

time to ascertain and record sucli changes as to planimetric detail as may have taken place aince the 
cadastral survey was made. 

The survey of the "terrain" is, therefore, of a two-fold natnrc: 

1. Fundamental determination of as many altitudes as there are mathematically established 
points on which to base further detail operations. There are determined in this manner 50 to 60 fixed 
points per German square mile (54f square kilometers or about 22 square statute miles) either by level 
or trigonometrically, or by carefully controlled aneroid observations ; in consequence there is not lesB 
than one point (fixed in latitude, longitude, and altitude) to every square kilometer. 

2. The detailed survey is intimately connected with these fixed points. According to the com- 
plexity of the surface forms there are determined from 12 to 25 altitudes per square kilometer with the 
use of small vertical circles or aneroids in pairs, at the same time the natural features are sketched on 
the spot and the horizontal curves (5 to 10 meters interval) are drawn on the original cadastral sheets. 

A well trained and expert topographer can furnish a survey of 12 square kilometers and the detail 
for revision in ten days. 

The entire annual appropriation of the Topographical Bureau is 115,- 
000 marks ($28,750). Found at 110,000 marks in 1835. In earlier years 
the annual cost was 55,000 florins, and it has been estimated that the entire 
sum expended by the Topographical Bureau alone has aggregated 7,000,- 

000 marks (approximately $1,750,000). The appropriations form a part of 
the regular military budget. The above expenditure, which is independent 
of the cost of the cadastral survey, is at the rate of $59 per square statute 
mile.* Independent of the usual scale of 1 : 5,000, there are maps of the 
following special scales issued by the Cadastral Bureau, viz: 

1 : 1,000, for large cities. 

1 : 2,500, for sections containing much subdivided property and medium- 
sized cities. 

1 : 100,000, for the general divisions of the country and of the bounda- 
ries of impost communities 

The Topographical Bureau issues maps on the scales of 1 : 25,000, 

1 : 50,000, 1 : 100,000, 1 : 250,000, and 1 : 800,000, as before stated, with the 
exception of the 47 sheets on the 1 : 50,000 scale undergoing revision; that 
atlas is complete, and work is progressing on the quota of 30 sheets for the 
General German Atlas and upon the 990 sheets of the 1 : 25,000 scale. The 
cadastral map (scale 1 : 5,000) is engraved upon stone; while chromolithog- 

* Colonel von Orff gives as the current field cost of determinations of principal and minor alti- 
tudes, topography, and revision from 14 to 20 marks per square kilometer (|9 to §13 per square statute 
mile). (It should he remembered that here the original astronomical and trigonometric determina- 
tions have been made and that an elaborate cadastral survey has already been carried over the same 
ground.) 

He also gives the cost of copper engraving (scale 1 : 50,000) at 2J marks per square centimeter of map 
or 10 marks per square kilometer of ground ; also 4 marks per square kilometer on scale 1 : 100,000. 



BAVARIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 245 

raphy is about to be introduced for the plans of cities. Copper engraving 
in the topographical bureau is confined to the sheets of scales 1 : 50,000 
and 1 : 100,000. Photolithography is employed for the series of the scale 
1:25,000. Chromolithography is exceptionally employed, and "heHo- 
gravure " is passing through the experimental stage. 

So far as known, no other branches of the Government of Bavaria, 
besides the Cadastral and Topographical Bureaus, issue maps of its terri- 
tory. 

The publications other than the maps consist of the quarto volume 
already mentioned upon the main scientific features of the work, and a sec- 
ond in course regarding the minor triangulations and topographic and 
detailed survey operations. Following the unification of map work for the 
entire German Empire, the triangulation of Bavaria has been joined with 
that of Prussia at the three following points: Gross-Gleichberg, Inselberg, 
and Katzenbuchel; the necessary reobservations were made and the whole 
rendered homogeneous, in pursuance, it is believed, of requirements for 
observations enjoined by the Central Bureau at Berlin for European degrees 
measurements. In most of the German survey operations the plane-table 
has gradually succeeded the method of direct measurements upon the 
ground, and while it answers very well for all general contours it must 
necessarily fail in securing that sum of critically measured lines that are 
unfailingly required for the present map, and which, in turn, become a store- 
house for future refei'ence. 

The original records rest among the archives of the war branch of the 
Government, there to be ready at first hands in the hour of need of such 
further and added details in time of war as the movements and operations 
of troops and the plans and strategical features of the campaign may render 
imperative. 

The method of projection adopted for the topographical atlas is known 
as that of "Bonne" or "Flamsteed" modified. This has sometimes been 
called the "projection du ddp6t de la guerre." 



246 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

WURTEMBERG. 

Topographic. 

The Kingdom of Wurtemberg has special surveys of its territory, based 
principally upon the cadastral survey scale 1:2,500 (execiated from 1818- 
1840), which, in turn, is reduced to 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 for publica- 
tion, and it contributes a quota of 20 entire sheets to the general topo- 
graphic map of Germany (scale 1:1,000,000 — 674 sheets).* 

The area of Wurtemberg is 7,528 square miles, with a population of 
1,970,132 in 1880, or at the average of 261 per square mile. The work is 
entrusted to the Royal Statistical Topographic Bureau at Stuttgart. 

The personnel of the topographic branch consists of 1 director (Col. H. 
Bach, Corps of Engineers), and 1 honorary director, 1 secretary, 1 trigo- 
nometer, 2 computers, 1 reviser, 2 lithographers, 3 topographers, 1 geognost, 
4 draughtsmen, 3 copper engravei's, 3 clerks, 1 copyist, and 1 messenger. 

There is also a consultative commission composed of delegates from 
the Ministries of Justice, Interior, Education and War. 

The Bureau was created in pursuance of royal decree of November 
28, 1820, placing it under the Ministry of Finance, confiding to it the duty 
of collecting and tabulating accurate and exhaustive information on all sub- 
jects relating to population, geography, national and local resources, &c. 

1. The general statistics of the country relating to real estate, popula- 
tion, agriculture and live stock, trades and industry, commerce and com- 
munication, as well as 

2. Administrative statistics particularly concerning church and school 
affairs, revenue and budget. 

In the topographic branch the following requirements are to be met: 

1. The continued correction and publication of the topographic maps, 
based upon the cadastral survey. 

2. The completion of the description of the " Oberamts" districts. 

3. The compilation of meteorologic observations. The bureau is also 
chai'ged with editing the periodically appearing Court and State hand-book. 

* See lists of maps for Wurtemberg in introduction. 



WURTEMBEECt— TOPOGRAPHIC. 247 

The work of this bureau is sub-divided according to objects into 3 
branches, liaving the care and development of (1,) statistics, (2,) topog- 
raphy and meteorology, and (3,) history. 

It was also charged with recording all changes occurring in these 
branches from year to year, thus enabling Government departments as well as 
citizens to obtain correct and detailed information of the actual conditions 
and circumstances of the country. The bureau for a time was in co-operation 
witla the " National Historical Society," the latter being specially charged 
with affairs pertaining to history, statistics, and topography; also with the 
publication of results in form easily accessible to the public. In order that 
this bureau should be encouraged and aided by the active co-operation of 
the different ministries, and at the same time meet all public demands, it was 
concluded, in 1856, to consolidate the National Society of History with 
the Statistico-Topographical Bureau, under regulations then made and pro- 
vided. 

The following brief historical notes are gathered from the history of 
German surveys byJordan & Steppes: 

Johann Stoffler (1452-1531), a celebrated mathematician and astron- 
omer at Tubingen, appears to have been the first Suabian cartogi'apher, 
but his works were burned in the fire which destroyed the university in 1 534. 

There is, however, in existence a map by his pupil Sebastian Miinster, 
a monk of the convent at Tiibingen, dating back over 300 years, and con- 
sidered the oldest on record. A fac-simile of this is given in Quenstedt's 
("Geologische ausfluge in Schwaben) " geological excursions in Suabia," 
Tubingen, 1864. The rivers and localities are fairly represented, but not 
the mountains. 

The oldest published map of Wurtemberg appeared in 1559 at Tiibin- 
gen, being a wood cut, and printed on common letter paper. In 1572, 
David Seltzin, at Ulm, issued a map of Suabia, showing latitude and longi- 
tude degrees. About 1570, 22 plates, finely drawn on parchment, were 
pubUshed by George Gadner, and copied in 1575 by "Ortelius" in his 
"Theatrum orbis terrarum;" Mercator's atlas, ed. Hondius, 1635, also re- 
fers to Seltzin and Gadner. 



248 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Mostlin (1550-1631), the instructor of Kepler and Schickard (1592- 
1635), first determined the latitude of Tubingen. 

One Bohnenberg appears as a reformer in South German topography, 
having submitted in 1793 to the Duke Carl a plan for a trigonometric 
survey and for the construction of a map after the method of Cassini's map 
of France. The total amount appropriated from public funds was 600 
florins (less than $300), as the balance was to be supplied by the firm under 
contract to publish the map. The first sheet of Bohnenberg's map ap- 
peared in 1798, and the sheet "Tubingen" about 1800. 

A more extensive map of Suabia was afterwards undertaken by Boh- 
nenberg and Amman, the first sheet appearing in 1798, 19 in 1806, and 30 
in 1810. This work was finally carried into Baden by "Michaelis," and 
later into Hesse, until 60 sheets were finally produced, each 18.72 square 
German miles, on the scale of 1 : 86,400, constructed on the Cassini projec- 
tion (Soldner's). 

A French military map of Suabia was also commenced about the year 
1800, in which the Bohnenberg material was utilized, the map being more 
attractive in appearance. 

The history of Wurtembei'g's land survey is intimately connected with 
the name of Bohnenberg, who was appointed its director in 1803, in which 
capacity he was engaged until his death, April 19, 1831. All topographic 
works prior to 1818 are nmch inferior to those executed later, when tri- 
angulation as a basis for cadastral surveys was begun. Height measure- 
ments were also commenced at this time. Trigonometric determinations 
of heights referred to the floor of the cathedral at Strasburg (145,752 meters 
above sea level) were made in 1836-38. The height measurements com- 
menced more in detail m 1859, were completed in 1880, and the principal 
points entered on both the topographical and geological atlas maps. 

Agreeably to the requirement of co-ordination with the military map 
of Germany of 1 : 100,000, it was ordered to reduce all heights to the nor- 
mal zero at Berlin. The topographic land survey atlas (1818-40) is 
based on plane-table sheets 1,145.96 meters on each side (scale 1:2,500). 
These sheets ai-e reduced to 1:25,000; 100 of these reduced sheets form 
again one sheet (1 : 25,000) of the same dimensions as the original plane- 



WUETEMBEEG— TOPOGRAPHIC. 249 

table sheet (16 inches), and four of these latter sheets (1 : 25,000) are again 
reduced to one sheet (1 : 50,000) for general publication. Lehman's method 
is employed for expressing the topography. For several of the older atlas 
sheets it has been necessary to transfer the altitudes connected with the nor- 
mal zero at Berlin. No perfected sections of the 20 integers to be contrib- 
uted to the general topographic map of Germany (1 : 100,100) have yet 
been finished (August 1, 1885). The first will be published toward the first 
of the coming year. 

The number of field survey sheets (scale 1 : 50,000) was 189 ; these were 
copied by the pentograph to the scale of 1 : 50,000 upon stone, and thus 
the 55 sheets of the topographic atlas (1821-44) were prepared. No pub- 
lication of the 189 original sheets has ever been made. 

A special topographic map (1:25,000 — 192 sheets) is to be executed 
by the Statistico-Topographic Bureau. The sheets are square (0'°.229 in 
size), representing a length of 5,729.8 meters. The water is printed in 
blue, the planimetry and lettering in black ; reliefs are shown in red (curves 
10 meters, with numbers). Numerous elevations in black are placed in the 
intervals between the curves. Each sheet is divided in five divisions num- 
bered outwardly from the meridian and parallel of Tubingen, dividing the 
sheets into 25 little rectangles.* 

This atlas (1821-44), scale 1:50,000, was deficient in the number 
of absolute altitudes, which deficiency was remedied by the trigonometric 
measurements executed from 1859 to 1881. 

A map on the scale of 1 : 200,000, with horizontal curves at intervals 
of 50 meters, was proposed and abandoned, and finally the scales above stated 
were adopted, conditioned largely upon the existence of the lithographed 
cadastral survey sheets, 1:2,500 and 1:1,250 (the latter for towns and 
villages), while those made at a former period at the scale 1 : 5,000 were 
reduced by pentograph to the scale 1 : 2,500, all contributing to the general 
topographic atlas scale, 1 : 50,000. 

* The above is taken from the list of maps and plans at the archives of the geographical service 
of the war department at Paris. 



250 



GOVEENMENT LAND AITD MARINE SUEVEYS. 



The following shows the divisions for the appropriation and estimate 
of the Statistico-Topographic Bureau : 



Salaries ; pay (pay per diem and waiting) 

Office expenses 

Collecting stalistical data 

Meteorological observations 

Topographical atlas 

Geognostic map 

Stat e and " Oberamts ' ' description 

Suatistical and historical annals 

Court and state manual and listof cities, towns, 
villages, i:c 



Total . 






Marks. 

34, 720 
5,946 

30, 360 
3,684 
6,126 
6,958 
3,095 
9,438 



I 



Marks. 
41,701 t 

3, 599 1 
16,800 

4, 500 I 
2, 160 I 
6, 600 
3, 300 I 
6, 000 

340 



99, 507 



So far as known, Wurtemberg is the only German state possessing 
lithographed detailed survey sheets on so large a scale. 

There are, approximately, 1,500 lithographic stones, which are pre- 
served and revised from time to time, and these constitute an excellent basis 
upon which to construct the curves, which in many instances may be done 
without additional field work. 

It is claimed that this survey is possessed of more established points per 
square kilometer than that of any other German state, having from 300 to 500, 
while Prussia and Baden have approximately 20 to the square kilometer. 

In 1878, 2,730 (of which 304 were villages and towns) of the 15,572 
plane-table sheets of the cadastral survey (1 : 2,500), or 18 per cent, had 
been surveyed after the manner stated, the balance being simply a matter 
of time and cost. All published sheets are purchasable at inexpensive rates 
fixed by the Government. 

BADEN. 
Topographic. 

Since 1875 there has been conducted within the grand duchy of Baden 
a special detailed topographic survey, at the scale of 1 : 25,000, to be pub- 
lished in 170 sheets. The area of Baden is approximately 5,822 square 
miles, its population in 1880, 1,570,189, or an average of 269 per square 
mile. The survey is made by a special Topographical Bureau located at 



BADEIS"— TOPOGRAPniC. 251 

Carlsruhe, under the Department of Commerce, with Lieut. Colonel Schnei- 
der of the royal Prussian General Staff at its head. The personnel, other 
than the director, consists of six topographers, four draughtsmen, and the 
necessary clerks. The topographers are engaged in the field six to eight 
months, remaining in the office during the winter. Trigonometric and topo- 
graphic works commenced in Baden (1812-14) soon after its consolidation 
into a state, under Colonel Tulla, chief of engineers (1770-1820). 

Subsequently, in 1824, the Military Topographical Bureau was estab- 
lished for the topographic survey of the country, and placed under the 
grand ducal General Staff. 

Its first duty was the compilation of a general map of Baden, scale 
1 : 50,000, in 55 sheets, which was executed from 1824 to 1849. The pri- 
mary triangulation of this survey served as the basis of the detailed trian- 
gulation of the cadastral survey. 

The greater part of the topographic personnel was assigned in 1852 
to the then recently begun cadastral survey, which moreover, together with 
the completed portions of the map and sundry cartographic works in 
course of preparation by the grand ducal General Staff, was ti-ansferred to 
Prussia on the conclusion of the military convention with the latter in 1871. 
The printing and issuing of the General Staff map of Baden (scale 1 : 50,000) 
has since 1871 taken place from the General Staff Bureau at Berlin. 

CADASTEAL SURVEY. 

The act of March 26, 1852, ordains "that all real estate of the grand 
duchy, piece b)^ piece, be surveyed." The usual scale employed has been 
1 : 1,500, while for small parcels the scales of 1 : 1,000, 1 : 750, and 1 : 500 
have been used, as well as the scales of 1 : 2,000 and 1 : 4,000 for larger 
fields. 

In 1855 a Cadastral Bureau (Kataster-Direction), full}^ organized, was 
established. 

In 1872 this Bureau was abolished and its duties transferred to the Rev- 
enue Bureau (Steuer- Direction). In 1877 the cadastral survey was trans- 
ferred from the Revenue Bureau and placed under the " chief direction of 
hydraulic works and road improvements " (Ober-Direction des Wasser- und 



252 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Strassenbaues), where it is managed by a "technical bureau of cadastral 
surveys," under the immediate charge of an " inspector of surveys." 

Subsequent to the military convention of 1871 — the preparation of the 
chart on the scale of 1:50,U00 having covered a considerable period, during 
which numerous changes had taken place in regard to means of communi- 
cation, stream and river courses, in the conditions of cultivation and resi- 
dence, and that the claims of science might be responded to as well as the 
many problems relative to river improvements, road making, and railroad 
building, &c.— it was decided to prepare a map on a larger scale, and that of 
1:25,000 was adopted, the contour of the ground being represented by 
horizontal curves, 10 meters apart. This map was undertaken solely upon 
the responsibility of the grand ducal government and from its own resources 
(with the consent of the house of deputies) and intrusted to the present 
director, formerly chief of the topographic section of the General Staff, dis- 
solved in 1871. 

The results of the survey of the forests, carried on since 1834 in con- 
nection with the general triangulation, and also the cadastral survey begun 
in 1852 (about three-fourths finished), with the improvement of property 
distribution inaugurated in 1856, are availed of in the map construction. 

The new map (1 : 25,000) will likewise serve as a basis for the sheets 
covering Baden of the German Empire map (1:100,000), being engraved 
at Berlin, the slight changes necessary being made. After the completion 
of the map (1:25,000) it is stated that a geological chart will be compiled 
under a commission, the present map being the basis, while each year a 
number of the sheets will be prepared for a new edition, constantly revised, 
and for which purpose copper-plate engraving has been chosen as the means 
of reproduction, and steel coatings are added when necessary. It has 
recently been determined to complete portions of sheets lapping into the 
adjoining territory of Alsatia, Bavaria, Hesse, Wurtemberg, Prussia, and 
Switzerland, the topographic material being gathered by special recon- 
naisance. A "people's edition" of the atlas is in course of preparation. 
The topographic reliefs are here shown by a brown tint under a com- 
bination of vertical and oblique hghts, by which a thorough understanding 
of the form of the ground is facilitated. ' 



BADEiiT— TOPOGRAPHIC. 253 

The survey of Baden has been considered as a mean between North 
and South German methods. Soldner's system of rectangular co-ordinates 
being of South German origin, while the preference for independent treat- 
ment of the topography in advance of cadastral surveys accords with the 
Prussian practice. 

The projection of the map (1 : 50,000) is constructed on the Flamsteed's 
modified mefliod, taking 1 : 308.64 as the value of the polar depression. The 
atlas remained for thirty years without changes, except ordinary revision, 
and was transferred in 1871. Much material had been collected since 1846. 
Independent of the revision and readjustment of the horizontal triangula- 
tion, the cadastral surveys (made since 1852 at scale of 1:1,500) necessi- 
tated a triangulation of the fourth order. 

This office has issued from 1824 to 1885 (other than those given in the 
list), "Oberamts maps" or district maps, for administrative purposes, in 64 
sheets, each embracing one district. 

These cadastral surveys furnished an excellent basis, but unfortunately 
have not yet covered fully one-fourth of the state. 

Since 1875 numerous trigonometric detailed height measurements 
for topographical purposes have been made. The Prussian plan of trape- 
zoidal sections is followed, the latitude and longitude of Mannheim being 
the initial point. The elevation of the spire of the cathedral at Strasburg 
is = 95.994 (Baden rods) =i 287.982 meters, and the zero-point at the tide- 
gauge of the Rhine 45.590 (Baden rods) = 136.77 meters above sea-level. 

The new map (1 : 25,000 — 170 sheets) is printed in three colors The 
topography, cultivated lands, and lettering are in black, water in blue, and 
the horizontal curves of a reddish-brown color. Fully half of the sheets 
have already been published. 

Scale 1 : 25,000. — The approximate area of a sheet (10' longitude by 
6' latitude— 49° 24' to 49° 30' N.) is 50 statute square miles. Each indi- 
vidual is known by its number and the name of the principal locality. 
Scale in kilometers. Special index of surrounding sheets outside the bor- 
der. The planimetry is printed in black, water in blue, curves in reddish 
brown, and cultivated ground, forests, &c., in gray (four colors). The 
elevations are written on each second contour, and each 10-second contour 



254 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

made heavier. The elevations of marked points are put down. For steep 
gradients near remarkable summits a broken style of hachuring is made. 
All routes of communication are clearly delineated. The usual conventional 
signs are followed. The area of topography on a sheet of the above alti- 
tude is 19 by 17^ inches, printed on paper of 23^ by 21^ inches. There 
is no division into parts of degrees for either latitude or longitude. The 
meridian of the Isle of Ferro is the original reference. 

There has been estimated and appropriated for the map : 

Marks. 

For field aud ofQce work 275, 810 

For engraviag, printing, &c 238, 425 

Total 514,235 

which gives for an area of 274 square German miles (last calculation) — 

Marks. 

Per square German mile for topographical work 1, 007 

Per square German mile for cartographic work 870 

Total , 1, 877 

or approximately $467. 

Up to 1818 the expenditures were small. The Topographical Bureau 
expended from 1828 to 1849 216,600 florins (annual mean, 14,500 florins) 

Florius. 
The map bureau " 36, 600 

The map bureau from 1852-'54 8, 280 

Grand total, 448,251 marks ; total 261, 480 

The publications known to me, other than maps, are a memorial in 
1873 entitled "Triangulation of the Grand Duchy of Baden, from 1823 to 
1852," * * * by W. Jordan, professor of geodesy at Carlsruhe, Feb- 
ruary, 1873, 4°, pp. 68, pi. 5, and "Report on the results of the trigonomet- 
ric measurements of the Grand Duchy of Baden," by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Dienger, February, 1853. 



GERMANY— GEOLOGIC. 255 

GERMANY. 

Geologic. 
ALSACE-LOKEAIIS^E. 

A commission for the geologic examination of Alsace-Lorraine was 
formed at Strasburg on May 13, 1873, under the name of "Commission fiir 
die Geologische Landes-Untersuchung und Kartirung von Elsass-Lothrin- 
gen," with E. Cohen as director of the work. 

Since March, 1885, Professor Cohen has been replaced as director by- 
Messrs. Von Albert and Van Worweke. 

There have already been published special geologic and paleontologic 
memoirs by Benecke, Rosenbusch, Branco, and others. Geologic maps, 
scale 1 : 25,000 (accompanied by text), based directly on the military topo- 
graphic staff maps embracing the whole Empire, constructed at Berlin on 
the same scale, have been printed, and may be purchased by the public. 

This is the only geologic work in Germany under the direction of the 
Imperial Government, all others belong to and are controlled by the various 
governments of the several German states. 

PKUSSIA. 

Geologic. 

The origin from which the present organization for the geological sur- 
vey of Prussia emanates dates to the early part of 1862. The administra- 
tion of mines, at that time the fifth division of the Ministry of Commerce, 
Trades, and Public Works (afterwards the first division of the department of 
public works), had proceeded with the execution of geological survey 
maps (Uebersichtskarten) of the Rhenish and Westphalian provinces (scale 
1:80,000) and of Lower and Upper Silesia (scale 1:100,000). It became 
evident during the prosecution of the work that the use of the larger scale 
(1:25,000) of the plane-table sheets of the General Staff Survey would in 



256 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

eveiy way enhance the scientific and practical value of the results, which 
proposition received the proper administrative approval December 12, 1866. 
A conference of geologists was called March 9 and 10, 1867, at which 
it was shown that the experiences gained in prosecuting the geognostic in- 
vestigation of the province of Saxony necessitated a modification of the 
plan, and it was decided to prepare a general geological map of the prov- 
ince of Saxony and the Thuringian Principalities in 8 sections (scale 
1 : 100,000). The field records for this map having been recorded on plane- 
table sheets of a scale 1:25,000, the advantages of this latter scale became 
so apparent that the original plan of publishing a general map at a scale of 
1: 100,000 was abandoned, substituting the reproduction of the original field 
sheets (1:25,000) for the time being, until such time as the accumulated 
material and data would warrant the publication of a general map at 
1:100,000. This scale (1:25,000) admits of representing every detail of 
importance concerning agriculture, mining, and the delineation of existing 
mineral indications, resources, quarries, &c. It is assumed that a skilltul 
observer can collect the data for 2 plane-table sheets (100 square miles) in 
a season of five to six months on average ground. With each plane table 
sheet there is to be published a short explanatory text of not more than 2 
sheets with more extensive reports as larger areas are mapped. The objects 
of the work seem to be based on a scientific examination of the highest order, 
utilizing "pari passu" the results therefrom as aids to the practical every 
da)'- problems of industrial life. The following statute of April 8, 1875, 
determines the functions of the gelogical establishment: 

§ I. The royal geological survey is charged with the prosecution and execution of 
a geological examination of Prussia, and to elaborate the results in such a manner that 
they shall be universally accessible and useful to science as well as to the economic 
interests of the country. 

§ II. Duties : 

(1) The production and publication of a geological special map of the entire 
country, based upou the original surveys of the general stafl' on a scale of 1 : 25,000. 
This special map shall coutaiu a complete representation of the geological relations, 
of the condition of the soil, and the occurrence of economically useful rocks and min- 
erals, accompanied Ijy exjilanatory notes. 

(2) Tlie production of a general geological map, based upou tlie general staff 
maps (1 : 100,000), in accordance with the progress of the special map. 



PRUSSIA-GEOLOGIC. 257 

(3) The elaboration of monographic geological representations of specially inter- 
esting portions of the country or mineral occurrences. 

(4) The i^ublication of reports of geological, paleontological, mountainistic, and 
kindred subjects, supplementary to the maps. 

(5) The collection and custody of documentary support to the maps and other 
works. 

(6) The collection and care of objects of geological interest and information 
relating thereto. 

§ III. The administration of the geological survey consists of two directors, ap- 
pointed by the King, of whom one is ex-ofQcio director of the Academy of Mines. Un- 
der their supervision and collaboration the work of the geological survey is executed 
by regularly-appointed geologists and a number of assistants. The duties of the geol- 
ogists and assistants are governed by special instructions. 

§ IV. The duties in common of the directors are: 

(1) Determination of yearly j)lan of operations. 

(2) Supervision as regards execution according to the plan. 

(3) The preparation and organization of meetings of collaborating geologists and 
the execution of measures adopted by them. 

(4) Eevision of yearly work of collaborators. 

(5) Direction of all publications of the survey. 
(G) Direction of the work of museum collections. 

(7) Submission of yearly i^rogress reports. 

The following was the organization in 1880 : 

I. Administration : 2 directors, one of whom, the director of the Academy of 
Mines (Bergakademie), is ex officio tirst director of the institute. 

II. Geologists : 8 regularly appointed. 

III. Assistants : 4 regularly appointed. 

IV. Collaborators : 17, not appointed, but temporarily employed at a per diem 
compensation and traveling expenses. 

The organization is well and substantially installed at Berlin (44 Inva- 
lidensti-asse), in a new building designed for the purpose, wherein is located 
also the geological museum, in which was particulai-ly noticed a series of 
specimens of the various natural building materials of the kingdom. 

Sheets. 

Up to and including 1880 there were published 76 

Printed but not issued 15 

In hand of printer 48 

Geologically elaborated, but not published, on accoun : of isolation or other reasons . 79 
In course of geological preparation 100 



Total 318 

An annual report containing notes on the jji'Ogress of the work and 
small monographs on special subjects are published since 1880 under the 
1366 WH 17 



258 GOVEGKMEKT LAND A?;D MARINE SURVErS. 



title of " Jahrbucli der Kongl. Preussisclien geologisclien Landesanstalt und 
Bergakademie zu Berlin," 8° ; besides six volumes in 4° with folio atlas of 
geologic and paleontologic memoirs, have already been published, under 
the "Abhandlungen zur geologisclien Specialkarte Preussensund derThiir- 
ingischen Fiirstenthumer." 

This well-organized geological work continues to prosecute its labors 
under the direction of Prof. W. Hauchecorne with vigor. 

SAXOJ^Y. 

Geologic. 

The geological examination of Saxony is carried on through a director 
(Dr. Hermann Credner, Leipzig,) with a number of assistants, the former 
being immediately responsible to the Ministry of Finance. The work was 
organized in 1872, by virtue of royal approval, under the title "Geologische 
Landesuntersuchung des Konig. Sachsen," the funds for the purpose having 
been granted by the house of deputies of the kingdom. The director, being 
a professor at the university at T^eipzig, has the opportunity of selection of 
assistants from a lai'ge number of students of that institution. The number 
of assistants is 7 geologists and 3 collaborators for special purposes. 

The object is to secure the most perfectly accurate examination of the 
geological structure, mineral wealth and character of the soil, useful in 
results to science, agriculture, forestry, mining and commerce, as well as 
other technical branches of industry. The following means of accomplish- 
ing this object have been proposed: 

1. The preparation and publication of a special geological chart and 
profiles, both with explanatory text. 

2. The publication of independent essays and larger treatises, con- 
cerning mineralogy, geology, and paleontology, as well as upon agriculture 
and mineral wealth. 

3. A comprehensive (final) publication of the scientific and technical 
branches. 

4. To make accessible to the scientific public all documents on car- 
tographic surveys, original copies of petrography and paleontologic de— 



SAXOFY— GEOLOGIC. 259 

scriptions, a collection of the original survey maps, &c., and a most com- 
plete collection of geological literature relating to Saxony. 

The special military topographic map (scale, 1:25,000— 156 sheets) 
serves as a basis for the geological representations. The variations of the 
ground conditions are noted at vertical distances of every ten meters. The 
resulting final chart, including the extension of marginal sheets into adjoin- 
ing countries, embraces a surface of 32.55 square meters. This map is also 
used as the groundwork of the new geological field examination. 

Formations that appear on the surface are shown only, as a rule, by 
dififerent colors, similar to those employed by the Prussian geological survey. 
Great weight is placed upon the examination of the alluvium and its com- 
prehensive cartographic representation. The railroad excavations and 
constructions assist materially and are availed of immediately as new lines 
are being built. It is proposed, among other matters, to subject the question 
of the fossil botany of Saxony to a new investigation. It is stated that the 
publication of the map is duplicated in the most level parts, one represent- 
ing the more superficial and modern formations, consisting of Quaternary 
and Tertiary, another the underlying permanent or more ancient strata. 
Each of the special maps (scale 1 : 25,000) has one or several marginal 
profiles, with an explanation of colors. The explanatory notes form from 
two to six separate sheets. 

After five years' preparatory work the first six sheets appeared in 1878. 
These sheets belonged for the greater part to the region of the Erzgebirge 
and Mittelgebirge. According to an index-map, furnished by Dr. Credner, 
34 sheets had already appeared, and 20 others, making 54 in all, were to 
have been issued at the close of 1882. 

No data is at hand regarding the cost of this special work or its dura- 
tion. The original geological examination of Saxony was conducted under 
the direction of Professors Naumann and Gotta, a map resulting therefrom 
having been produced at the scale of 1 : 150,000. 



260 GOVEENMEKT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

BAVARIA. 

Geologic. 

The geologic examination under the name of "Bureau der geognosti- 
scheu Untersuchung des Konigreichs Bay em" has existed since 1851. It is 
connected with the mining corps. Bergrath Prof. W. von Giimbel has been 
its director from the beginning and has as assistants von Ammon, Leppla, 
and others. 

In 1861, the first part of the geological map was issued; it contains 5 
sheets, scale 1 : 50,000, without topographic relief or contours. It is ac- 
companied by a large 8° volume of explanatory text under the title of 
" Geognostische Beschreibung des bayerischen Alpengebirgs und seines 
Vorlandes." The second part, composed also of five sheets, appeared in 1868, 
and a volume of accompanying text "Geognostische Beschreibung des ost- 
bayerischen Grenzgebiregs oder des bayerischen und Oberpfalzer Wald- 
gebirges." The third part was issued in 1879 in two sheets, accompanied 
by " Geognostische Beschreibung des Fichtelgebirges mit dem Franken- 
walde und dem westlichen Vorlande." The whole (12 sheets in all) were 
published at Gotha by Justus Perthes. 

The field observations are recorded on maps of the General Staff or 
cadastral survey varying in scale from 1 : 5,000 to 1 : 25,000. 

The maps of the Franconian Alps and Jura are now under press at 
Cassel, and examinations are carried on in the Palatimate and on the plains 
of the Danube. Director von Giimbel has published a general map under 
the title "Geognostische Uebersichtskarte des Konigreichs Bayern," in 1 
sheet, scale 1 : 500,000, Munich 1858. 

All geologic maps and reports are published under the director's name, 
and the assistants engage not to publish anything concerning the geology 
of Bavaria as long as they are employed on the examinations, under their 

own names. 

WURTEMBEKG. 

Geologic. 

This work was begun in 1863 and is now done by Professor Dr. 
Oscar Fraas, with the assistance of Prof F. Quenstedt, J. Hildebrand, &c. 



BADEX AND HESSE DAEMSTADT— GEOLOGIC. 261 

It forms a part of the Statistico-Topographic Bureau (Konigl. Statistisch- 
topographischen Bureau) at Stuttgart under the direction of Colonel H. 
Bach, Corps of Engineers. 

The scale of the map is 1:50,000; the first part, containing the sheets 
Stuttgart, Tubingen, Besigheim, and Maulbron, with 3 pamphlets of ex- 
planatory text, was issued in 1865. The second part, consisting of 4 sheets 
and 3 pamphlets, appeared in 1867, and so on until 46 of the 56 sheets com- 
posing the entire atlas have been published ; the last two sheets, issued 1885, 
are those of Friedrichshafen and Wilhelmsdorf on the Lake of Constance. 

Geologic. 

Geological investigations were begun in 1865 by Prof Dr. F. San- 
berger, of Carlsruhe, in connection with the Bureau of Statistics (Census), 
under the Ministry of the Interior. 

The first map was published in 1858 in the Seventh Part of Contribu- 
tions to the Statistics of the Grand-Duchy of Baden, with a description of 
the vicinity of Badenweiler. The title of the map is "Geologische Karte 
der Umgebung von Badenweiler (section Mtilheim der topographischen 
Karte des Groesherzogthums Baden) ;" scale 1:50,000, Carlsruhe. 

Fifteen sheets, scale 1 : 80,000, have been issued since by Platz, Schill, 
Vogelgesang, and Zittel. 

In 1879-81 Professors Benecke and Cohen have published at Strass- 
burg the 2 sheets of Heidelberg and Sinsheim, accompanied by text. 

The work is now suspended for want of funds. 

HESSE-DARMSTADT. 

Geologic. 

By an order of the Secretary of the Interior of the grand duchy, dated 
July 15, 1882, a Geological Institute, under the name of " Grossherzoglich 
Hessische Geologische Landesanstalt," was established in Darmstadt, whose 
duty it shall be to prepare and publish a new geological map of the grand 



262 GOVERMMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

duchy. The basis of this map will be the special topographic map of the 
general staff (scale 1 : 25,000), for each section of which a descriptive pam- 
phlet will be issued. The first pai't was issued in 1884. The Middle- 
Rhenish Geological Association (Mittelrheinnischer geologischer Verein), or- 
ganized in 1851, had already proceeded, with government aid, toward the 
compilation of a special geological chart (scale 1 : 50,000), of which 17 
sheets, of the 30 sheets composing the whole map, had been published. 

This association, it is stated, has now ceased its labors and turned over 
its library to the new State Institute. Independent of the 17 sheets above 
mentioned, this association, by and under Rudolph Ludwig, has issued a 
geological sketch of the grand duchy, by Dr. Gr. R. Lepsius, the director of 
the present institute. 



A USTRI A-H UNGARY. 

( Topographic.) 

The new general topographic map of Austria-Hungary (scale 1:75,000, 
720 sheets) has been in course of execution since 1872, and should be com- 
pleted in 1886. 

The total area embi'aced (the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy) is 241,553 
square miles, with a population of 37,869,954 in 1880, or an average of 
157 per square mile. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Fourteen of the nineteen provinces into which the monarchy is divided 
-are Cisleithan or German and five Transleithan or Hungarian. The provinces 
are subdivided into counties or "komitats" in Hungary and Transylvania, 
into quarters or "viertels" in Lower Austria, and into circles or "kreis" 
elsewhere. Communes or "gemeinde" are a further subdivision. 

3IILITART DIVISIONS. 

There are thirteen general and military commands, subdivided into 102 
regimental districts. The French metric system was legally introduced 
July 23, 1871, remaining permissive from January 1, 1873, to January 1, 
1876, when it was made compulsory. 

The above work is probably the most important of the current under- 
takings of the Imperial Royal Military Geographical Institute at Vienna, 

Note.— The folio wiug, found on p. 18, Vol. I, annual report of the Military Geog. Ins. at Vienna, 1881, 
bears on the formation of special corps organized for topographic work: Upon the decision of Ilia 
Majesty, the £uii>eror, of January 6, 1851, a special corps of Military Engineer Geographers was created, 
in order to cultivate and develop to the greatest extent the work of the Institute and to educate a num- 
ber of permanent officers, possessed of the qualifications and ability required for field and office work, 
scientific and practical, intended in time of peace for the execution of all geodetic and astronomic 
works, connected with the survey of the country, as well as for the collection of all the available map 
material for, and the construction of, maps. These were specially selected alone from officers of the 
Army. This corps was under the command of the director of the Institute, and consisted of 2 colonels, 
2 lieutenant-colonels, 4 majors, 16 captains, 12 first and 8 second lieutenants. A number of these officers 
were detailed on active service at the various army headquarters as field archivists for topographic or 
reconnaissance service, or as General Staff officers. Upon the reorganization of the General Staff (Jan- 
uary, 1861) this corps was dissolved. 
263 



264 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVETS. 

the director of which since 1879 has been Maj. Gen. Joseph Wanka von Len- 
zenheim. The post-office address of the Institute is Vienna (VIII), Austria 
(Vienne, VIII, Autriche). 

This service forms a part of the General Staff of the War Department, 
acting, however, as an independent whole, possessed of general as well as 
special functions, and established by royal decree of 1839 

The personnel consists of officers, miUtary officials, with an added 
technical force ; also non-commissioned officers and selected enlisted men. 

The Annual Reports of the Military Geographical Institute at Vienna 
(Mittheilungen des K. K. Militiir-Geographischen Institutes) are issued in 
pursuance of a Royal Decree, and include the "work done" each year from 
May 1 to the succeeding April 30. From these much of the data here- 
with has been obtained. 

The first volume (1881) contains a brief history of the cartography of 
the Austrian possessions from the earliest date to the present; also a descrip- 
tive history of the Institute, divided in sections. 

The first atlas of the German Austrian domain, under the name " Typi 
Chorografici Austrise," by Wolfgang Latz, imperial counselor and professor 
at the University of Vienna, appears to have been published in 1561 in 11 
wood-cuts, engraved bv Michael Zimmerman. 

These maps were wanting in methodical projection, graduation, and 
scale, not even having the distances between places given, that had been 
indicated on the so-called " Peutinger's Map," an old Roman road map sup- 
posed to be of the second or third century. 

The oldest maps of the Austrian Empire date from the seventeenth 
century. 

The first map of Upper Austria (scale 1:144,000, 6 sheets) appeared 
in 1667; in 1670 that of Lower Austria (scale 1:115,2^0, in 8 sheets), and 
in 1678 that of Styria (scale 1:167,760, 6 sheets). They were based on a 
geometrical survey, ordered by Leopold I. 

In 1688-89 maps of Carinthia and Carniola were published; and in 
1699 the so-called "Viscontis war map" of Transylvania, compiled from 
the land survey. 

Improvements in map-making date from the commencement of the 



AUSTRIA-HUNGAEY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 265 

eig'liteenth centuiy, and a map of the Bohemian land snrvey was copper 
engraved at Angsburg in 1726. About this time the survey of Moravia 
and Silesia was commenced, and maps therefrom published at Niirnberg. 

In 1720 the survey of Lombardy (scale 1:72,000, 21 sections) was 
commenced, the map therefrom (scale 1 : 90,000, 9 sheets) was copper 
engraved and published at Milan in 1717. Surveys for war maps were 
executed in Transylvania in 1733-34. 

Continuous war now intervened to suspend topographic surveying. 

The survey of the Tyrol was begun in 1760, and a map therefrom 
(scale 1 Vienna inch = ^ German mile) was published (1769 to 1774) in 23 
sheets. This was extended over Vorarlberg, completed and published in 
1783. Commencing in 1762, measurements were commenced in Austria 
and Northern Italy, intending to connect with France, looking to the deter- 
mination of the spheroidal figure of the earth and the length of a meridianal 
arc. 

Maps resulting (7 or 8 sheets) were pubhshed in Milan in 1796. 

The military surveys, during the last half of the eighteenth century, 
were conducted under the Quartermaster-Genei'al. 

On the ground that a lack of proper topographic maps may lead 
to serious disasters in time of war, surveys of Moravia, Silesia, and Bohemia 
were begun in 1764, since which time the land survey has been exclusively 
executed by officers of the army. Prior to this time army officers had also 
been detailed for geodetic operations in Bohemia, Hungary, Transylvania, 
&c. At the close of 1787, under Emperor Joseph II, every Austrian prov- 
ince had been mapped, but not with that accurate connection required for 
the compilation of the general map of the entire monarchy; Emperor 
Francis II, therefore, ordered a new survey. 

From 1792 to 1800 maps for military purposes only were issued by the 
General Staff, since which the surveys were made with a view to answer 
for all technical and scientific purposes as well. Upon the inauguration of 
the Cis-alpine Republic (1800) a Ministry of War (Dipartimento della guerra) 
was established at Milan, and connected with it an institution called " De- 
posito della guerra," similar to the " D^p6t de la Guerre" of France, to collect 
and preserve maps, plans, and all other topographic material. At the 



266 GOVEENMENT LAND AXD MAEINE SURVEYS. 

same time a Military Topographical Corps (called " Engineer Geographers)" 
was formed, to which were attached officers of the Engineer Corps (Corps 
du G^nie) of the Franco-Italian army. 

The duties of the corps, as ordained in the decree of July 8, 1800, 
consisted in the detailed topographic surveying of the Republic, in draw- 
ing plans, in reconnaissances and description of military positions and exami- 
nations of strategic lines of operation leading into surrounding States. 

In time of war this corps had to assist the General Staff of the Army 
in all topographic works. A few engravers were attached (March 15, 1802) 
when the "Cis-alpine" became the "Italian" Republic. 

The " Deposito della guerra" formed, in point of fact, a topographic 
institute at Milan until 1814, when Austria took possession of the country, 
up to which date the " Engineer Geographers " were intrusted with all trian- 
gulations, field-surveying, and reconnaissances, and the depot with the 
drawing and engraving of the maps. 

The trigonometric net of Lombardy was connected (1814) with the 
triangulation of Piedmont, and that of the Romagna, and extended to the 
Adriatic, upon which as a basis there were compiled and copper engraved 
the following maps: 

1. Administrative map of Italy (scale 1:500,000, 8 sheets). 

2. Administrative map of Illyria (scale 1:500,000, 9 sheets). 

3. Map of Etruria (scale 1:200,000, 6 sheets). 

4. Map of Upper Italy (scale 1:100,000, 1 sheet). 

5. Post-route map of Italy (scale 1:280,000, 4 sheets). 

Preparations had, also, advanced for a topographic map of Italy and a hydro- 
graphic chart of the Adriatic. 

There were drawn, engraved, and published from 1814 to 1839 — 

1. Special map, Lombardy and Venice (scale 1 : 86,400, 42 sheets). 

2. Topographic map of Milan and vicinity (scale 1 : 49,968, 4 sheets). 

3. Topographic map of Padua, Placenza,aDd Guostalla (scale 1 : 86,400, 9 sTieets). 

4. General maj) of Austria (scale 1 : 86,400, 9 sheets). 

5. General map of Italy (scale 1 : 1,800,000, 4 sheets). 

6. Road map of Western Alps (scale 1 : 720,000, 2 sheets). 

7. Atlas of the Adriatic (31 sheets). 

After the Austrian occupation the " Deposito della guerra" was con- 
tinued under the name " I. R. Istituto Geografico Militare," reorganized, 
placed under the quartermaster-general, and declared a permanent institu- 



A CJSTRIA- HUNG AEY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 267 

tion. The officers of tlie topographic corps were attached to the quarter- 
master-general's staff and their names placed on the army register. 

An annual dotation of 7,000 florins was settled on the institution, and 
it was also ordained that it should remain in Milan, until all topographic 
works in Lombardy, Venice, Parma, Modena, and Lucca, and the coast 
survey of the Adriatic were completed. 

At the close of the first quarter of the present century the general 
interest in geographical knowledge, incited by the writings of Humboldt, 
Ritter, and others, and particularly as the art of war had become more com- 
plicated, influenced the Government of Austria to concentrate all of this 
sort of available means into one institution. There had existed in Vienna 
since 1806 a topographic institute and a topo-lithographic office of the 
quartermaster-general's staff since 1818. 

By an imperial order (January 7, 1839,) of Ferdinand I, the "I. R. 
Istituto Geografico Militare" was transferred from Milan to Vienna, and 
consolidated with the institute of that place under the name of the " K. 
K. Militar Geographisches Institut." This order says "that this Institute 
shall constitute by itself an individual whole, answering the purposes which 
its name indicates, that it shall be located in a suitable building, and shall 
take among similar institutions of other countries a worthy place, and that 
sufficient means to insure its progress in art and science shall be provided for." 

Referring to its duties it says, " It shall be the duty of the Institute to 
produce and compile all data necessary for the construction of maps and 
sea charts by astronomic and geodetic operations, and also by military 
land surveys, which shall, in conformity with the requirements of the age, 
answer scientific as well as military, and, as much as possible, administra- 
tive, purposes"; further, "all military drawings and other similar works re- 
quired from time to time in the service, and finally the revision and correc- 
tion of the land surveys which may be caused by changes in roads, water- 
courses, bridges, &c., are to be executed by this Institute." 

The first map of Austria was published in 1G67 (scale 1:141,000, 6 
sheets), a copper engraved map (25 sheets) was constructed in 1726, under 
direction of Jordan Mliller, an engineer officer of the Austrian army, which 
was long held as a standard work. 



268, GOVERNMBIs^T LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

_. ;Tlie Empress Maria Theresa ordered May 3, 1764, the niihtary sur- 
vey of Bohemia. 

These surveys were made without a preceding triangulation, and based 
on Miiller'smap, enlarged to 1:28,800, the scale on which the military sur- 
veys were executed and which was retained until 1872, when it was changed 
to 1: 2.5,000. Scarcely had the survey been completed (1787) when anew 
and accurate survey (scale 1:28,800) was ordered by Emperor Joseph II. 

These surveys, referred to various initial meridians, could not be con- 
nected into one map of the country. 

A totally new survey was therefore ordered in 1807, and the military 
mapping was carried over the whole country. 

The old scale of 1 : 28,800 was adhered to. 

The astronomic and geodetic operations may be divided into four 
periods : 

1. From first triangulation in 1762 to end of century. 

2. From 1806 to 1829. 

3. Primary triangulation (Austria entire) from 1839-1860, with meas- 
urements of base lines for military and cadastral mapping. 

4 Those of later years, for the European degrees measurements and 
surveys with level curves for new special map of Austria-Hungary, scale 
1:75,000. 

First and Second Periods. — The first triangulation was commenced 
in 1762 (ordered by Empress Maria Theresa), and continued during the 
second period to the meridian of Ofen, and a chain of triangles carried over 
the Carpathians eastward to Transylvania and the triangulation of North 
Italy begun. In connection with the French degree measurements of 
1821-23, Austrian officers took a part in the geodetic operations in Upper 

Italy. 

Third Period. — The new primary triangulation of the entire empire 
was completed in 1860. The triangulation of Central Italy occurred in 
1841-43, and that of Wallachia during and after the occupation of 1855-57. 

Fourth Period. — At the instance of General Baeyer in 1861, a union 
of the Central European States for pui-poses of joint geodetic operations 
was efi"ected. This union originally called the (" Mittel Europiiische 



AUSTEIA-HUNGAEY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 2G9 

Gradmessung-") Central European degrees measurements, became in 1867 
what is now known as the (" Europiiische Gradmessung") European degrees 
measurements to which all the European States contribute, with the excep- 
tion of England (the astronomic geodetic operations of the United Kingdom 
being complete), Servia, Montenegro, Greece, and Turkey. 

MILITARY MAPPING. 

Since the seventeenth century surveys have been exclusively under- 
taken by the Imperial Government. 

Prior to this date both the general and provincial governments subsidized 
private individuals, who were afterwards employed regularly by the Gov- 
ernment. Soon, however, officers of the army were detailed for this work. 
Under Leopold I officers of the engineers (Corps du Gt^nie) executed 
geodetic operations. 

After the seven-years war the land survey was placed under the direc- 
tion of the General Staff. Silesia was surveyed in 1763, and the surveys 
of Bohemia and Moravia were begun in 1764. 

No triangulation was made; Miiller's special map, enlarged to 1:28,800, 
being used as the base. 

The instructions were "to enumerate all houses and cattle, to describe 
rivers and roads, to represent mountains according to their height, and to 
particularly indicate those which afford the greatest view of the surround- 
ing country." 

The collection of statistical data was intrusted to officers specially 
selected. The surveys of these provinces were completed in 1768. 

That of Marmaros was commenced in the same year, and Emperor 
Joseph II ordered those of Banate, Sclavonia, Banal, and Transylvania to 
be commenced in the following year after the same plan, and thus all the 
provinces, including Hungary, were to be surveyed in quick succession. 

Scarcely were these surveys completed than preparations for a more 
accurate survey (scale 1:28,800) were commenced. 

The chief fault of these so-called " Josephinian surveys " was the want 
of a general triangulation net-work as a basis, so that when, in 1792, it 
was attempted to complete them into a general map, the distortion along 
the borders rendered it impossible. 



270 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MAKINE SURVEYS. 

This fact iuduced Francis II to order an entirely new survey. War 
with Napoleon interrupted the work, which was taken up after each dec- 
laration of peace. 

This survey, covering the whole monarchy, was commenced in 1807,, 
and the maps were made partly from plane-table measurements (based on 
already completed triangulation) and partly by reductions from cadastral 
sheets, and to the scale of l:28,800zr:l Vienna inch — 400 Vienna Klafter. 

GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 

Upon the organization of the State Geological Institute, November 15, 
1849, it was found that the maps then being produced at the scales of 
1:86,400 and 1:144,000 had in forty years covered only about one-third of 
the entire area, thus requiring eighty years for completion at the rate and 
by the means then employed, while it was contemplated that the work of 
tbe Geological Institute should be completed in thirty years. 

A commission of experts from the Departments of Agriculture and Com- 
merce, Railroads and Telegraphs, General Staff; and Military Geographical 
Institute was formed, who recommended an additional appropriation to- 
the Geographical Institute and the formation of a separate corps of engineer- 
geographers; the military mapping to be executed at the scale of 1:28,800; 
the publication of the special map at 1:144,000; the general map at 1:288,000, 
and the cadastral survey at the usual scale of 1:2,880, and the work duly 
hastened. 

This recommendation was adopted and the organization of the " Engi- 
neer-Geographers" begun, which corps was afterward abolished in 1861. 

THE MAPPING OF WALLACHIA 

(1:57,600), executed in 1856-57, has been considered, as regards detail and 
execution, as one of the best pieces of workmanship. This was done at the 
request of the Wallachian Government by a corps of over one hundred 
engineers, and embraces 765 square myriameters. It furnished as well a. 
triangulation basis for the cadastral survey and a general map of the country 
engraved on copper. 

An entirely new resurvey of the Monarchy was ordered September 11, 
1872, which, withmuch improved methods of representation, is still inprogress 



AUSTEIA-HDXGARY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 271 

scale 1:75,000, 720 sheets), and to be completed in 1886. The scale of 
1:28,800 was changed to 1:25,000, and that of 1:14-4,000 was changed to 
1 : 75,000, while it is presumed that the cadastral survey remained at 1:2,880. 

The trigonometric basis of the cadastral surveys, begun in 1810, re- 
ferred to a system of different meridians, which, while possessing the advantage 
of local accuracy, were not adapted for compilation in a single connected map. 
This entered largely into the reason for the resurvey ordered in 1 8 72. Helio- 
gravure, in place of copper engraving, is being employed in its reproduction. 

The actual surface covered by the drawing will be 133 square meters, 
and the entire number of sheets arranged in a single tableau will embrace 
244 square meters, or 2,625 square feet. 

The diameter of a globe of corresponding scale would be 170 meters— 
(approximately) 558 feet. 

This new special map of Austria-Hungary (1:75,000) results from 
plane-table sheets of 1:25,000 reduced by photography to 1:60,000, then 
during the heliogravure process to 1:75,000. Five hundred and seventy- 
eight sheets of this map were completed (1885), and the balance of 142 
should be finished, say, in 1887. During the four years ending in 1876 204 
sheets were issued, or an average of 50 per annum. Independent of cadastral 
surveys, which for Austria are finished, and in Hungary and Bosnia and 
Herzegovina require one and two years longer, respectively, the only land 
instrumental survey in progress is that above mentioned for the general 
chart of scale 1:75,000. The work proceeds by virtue of an extraordinary 
or special annual appropriation of funds other than that delegated to the 
institute proper, sanctioned in amount by the legislative body both at the 
Vienna and Buda-pest sittings. 

This work may be termed a topographic areal survey based on trian- 
gulation. The establishment of the astronomic and geodetic points and 
of base lines is in pursuance of the requirements approved by the Interna- 
tional Geodetic Commission. 

The detail is secured principally by the plane-table process, while main 
lines of levels, appropriately run, form a part of the skeleton bases of the 
work. The main office is at the institute at Vienna, and the following is the- 
organization established April 17, 1881: 



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272 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



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AUSTRIAHUNGAEY— TOPOGliAPHIC. 273 

Note. — The, Ibllowing relating to the jiersoiinel a\>pea.Ta from a letter from the Director of the In- 
stitute, dated August 29, 1885 : 

" The personnel of the Military Geographical Institute consists of officers, military officials, and 
technical assistants. 

"The officei's belong jjartly to the General Staff, and partly to the army at large, the latter re- 
turning to their respective commands after having .served several years in the Institute, so as not to 
estrange them from their regular military vocation. Several positions of chiefs of groups are filled by 
army officers who are carried as supernumeraries in their regiments, to avoid too frequent changes. 
No officer of the army at large will be detailed in the Institute who has not served as such for three 
years with his command, and it never happens that civilians are commissioned as officers on account 
of special qualifications for service in the Institute. The technical personnel are only taken excep- 
tionally from civil life, being mostly former noncommissioned officers, whose fitness lor a given posi- 
tion in the Institute has been proven by long service and theoretical examination. The late Military 
Corps of Engineer Geographers (see p. 18 of the yearly Report of the Institute, 1881), obtained its 
officers alone from the army, never from civil life." 

Independent of the new special map (scale 1 : 75,000), the general chart 
(scale 1:300,000, 207 sheets), including 15 supplemental sheets, was com- 
pleted in 1881, and particular works of various sorts as required and which 
are set forth in the annual reports of the institute. 

Each of the sheets of the netv topographic map covers 30" in longi- 
tude and 15" in latitude, or an area, approximately of 391 square miles. 

They are of uniform size, in the form of symmetrical trapezoids, the 
horizontal sides being longest, the projection lines converging toward the 
pole. 

They are drawn and printed in black on sheets of the size of one plane- 
table sheet, at 1:25,000. 

Description of atlas sheet (1 : 75,000). — The right and left borders of each 
sheet are arcs of meridians 15' apart, and the borders above and below are 
arcs of parallels 30' apart. The entire surface of the Austrian possessions 
(from 42° to 51° north latitude, and 7° to 24° longitude east, from Paris) 
has been divided into 720 sheets. 

Each sheet bears, besides its name, a double numbering referring to the 
right and left zones, distinguished by Arabic letters and to the columns 
above and below by Roman letters. 

Each sheet of the superior zone represents a superficies of 97,325 hec- 
tares (approximating 374 square miles); that of the inferior zone 114,781 
liectares (approximating 443 square miles). 

The rehef is expressed in hachures and printed in black. Fine lines 
mark the contours between 50 and 100 meters, then between each 100- 
meter curve. Numerous elevations in meters are spread upon the map. 
1366 WH 18 



274 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The improvements particularly aimed at in these surveys, botli tor 
military and scientific purposes, were as follows : 

1. A more accurate and detailed representation of all means of commu- 
nication, as roads, canals, and particularly of points most important in 
military operations. 

2. The multiple determination of heights by barometric and trigono- 
metric measurements upon which to base the equidistant curves (100 meters 
apart) of the plane-table sheets. 

3. Detailed explanations of the topography, especiall}^ of those features 
to be availed of in military operations, representing the monarchy as a 
continuous whole instead of a number of special maps of the different 
provinces. 

The instructions issued in 1869 were in harmony with the above-men- 
tioned points. 

These instructions, changed and perfected during the first five years, 
were definitively adopted in 1875. They comprise three parts: 1, technic ; 
2, service; and 3, administrative. 

The decision to reproduce this new map by heliogravure, rather than 
by hand-engraving on copper, caused a material change in the drawing of 
the originals ; for in order that the heliographic repi esentation should be 
equal in artistic finish, clearness, and brilliancy to the copper-plate impres- 
sion, the draftsman must both fully conceive his subject and make a draw- 
ing equal to a fine copper engraving. 

Thus, by making the new special map an almost exact copy of the 
original plane-table sheets and the introduction of heliogravure, it was found 
practicable to execute the entire work in a comparatively short time, and as 
fast as the material for compilation could be produced by the annual field 
operations. 

As a result of the above decision, also, a school for draftsmen was 
organized, by order of the War Department, which consisted at first of H6 
members. The high standard of draftsmanship required to produce suit 
able originals for the heliogravure process rendered a constant change nec- 
essary before the proper number of competent delineators could be obtained. 
Hence, the work proceeded less rapidl)- in the earlier years, 10 sheets only 



AUSTKIA HUNGARY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 275 

having- been finished in 1873, while in 1876 the number had reached 82 
sheets for the year. The number of draftsmen employed has varied between 
58 and 72. 

The projection is made on the basis of a polyhedron coinciding approx- 
imately with the spheroidal figure of the earth, with border lines of meridi- 
ans and parallels. 

Lehnian's system is followed for the topography, equidistant horizontal 
curves 100 meters apart being introduced, and intermediate curves where 
the slope is at an angle less than 10°. 

The average working time on one sheet is, for lettering and line-work, 
4i months, and for topographical drawing, 7^ months. 

In order to produce the stated number of draftsmen employed during 
the several years (i. e., from 68 to 72), it was necessary to educate 170 per- 
sons. 

According to ministerial order of 1881, this division is designated as 
the "Special Map Drawing Division," forming a part of the topographic 
branch of the institute. 

While experiments have been made in most, if not all, of the later meth- 
ods of mechanical reproductions and in hand engraving (see "Die Technik 
des Reproductions von Militar Karten und Planer" method of reproduction 
of military maps and plans, by Major Volkmer), yet the institute has deci- 
ded to reproduce all the principal maps by the heliographic process. 

The present annual cost of the institute is 760,000 florins, which in- 
cludes cost of publishing all maps and charts; it was impracticable to learn 
of the total cost since date of commencement, or of the actual cost averaged 
according to area of the various surveys that afford the present state of 
knowledge of the terrain ; an estimate was obtained of the cost of obtaining 
the field-notes (1:25,000) for the new special map at approximately $400 
per square mile. 

This does not, of course, include the cost of any of the surveys prior to 
1872 that had then been in progress, with sundry interruptions, something 
like 100 years. No separate estimate appears of cost of triangulation and 
topography. 

So far as known, no other l)i'fincli of the Austrian Government issues 



276 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

topographic or orographic charts. The only known pvibHcations of the 
Institute other than maps and plans are the yearl}' report of operations (only 
begnn in 1881) and the list of topographical and geographical terms em- 
ployed upon the Austrian maps, with a translation in German, Croatian, 
French, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Roumanian, and Slavonic (Schrift-llrk- 
larung zur Special-Karte de OEsterr-Unga Monarchic), as also a catalogue 
of its maps, with a series of index charts. 

The accuracy of primal astronomic, geodetic and other positions is in 
keeping with the probable errors found to result from the use of the later 
improved field instruments, and the formulae employed in the reduction of 
the observations. 

The plane-table is now almost exclusively employed for securing de- 
tails. Special surveys are made also of the large cities and towns. 

The original archives form a part of the administrative possessions of 
the Ministry of War, and can thus be readily utilized for reproduction of 
maps of special locations on large scales in event of outbreaks or actual war. 

The geological survey of Austria, organized in 1850, avails itself of the 
topographic map of the Institute, both in their field work and in the rep- 
resentation of formations, &c., for the geological map of the kingdom. It 
is intended that so far as practicable the Institute shall furnish all the maps 
needed by the various administrative departments of the Government. 

The principal maps may be found for sale at Vienna and other large 
places at comparatively small cost. 

The instructions for the topographic part of the work proper appear 
in three small pamphlets issued by the Institute, while those for astronomy 
and triangulation follow the method prescribed by the International Degrees 
Measurements Commission. 

The instruments employed are mostly of modern date, manufactured 
either in Austria or Germany. 

Astronomic determinations, with meanders of routes, were made by 
Austrian officers in European Turkey in 1871-75. 

The material contributes to the map of Central Europe (scale 1:300,- 
000) embraced by Turkey. 



AUSTRIA HUNGARY. 277 



B0S:N^IA and IIERZEG0VI:N^A. (Cadaatral.) 

Shortly aftfti- the occupation of these countries by Austria, and after 
the most pressing administrative measures, such as the census and other 
enumerations, were completed, the cadastral survey was taken under con- 
sideration A commission was appointed in December, 1879, which com- 
mission adopted a series of instructions for the conduct of the work. 

That part of this map embracing the Balkan Mountains has been partly 
constructed and revised on the basis of reconnaissances executed by the 
General Staff (1871-74) and upon other official material in the vicinity of 
the border hues. 

The force employed in the cadastral survey of Bosnia and Herzego- 
vina consisted in 1882 of 1 director, 1 assistant director, 1 adjutant, 1 ac- 
countant, 6 subdirectors, 7 assistants, 8 clerks, 67 geometers, 134 assistants. 
Instruction division: 1 geometer instructor, 1 assistant instructor, 12 em- 
ployes to be instructed in field work. 

This corps, comprising 240 technical members, is assisted during sum- 
mer by a detail of 410 military and 36 civil laborers, and is under the chief 
direction of the Military Geographical Institute. 

The area of Bosnia and Herzegovina is 515.6 square myriameters 
(51,560 square kilometers, or, approximately, 18,562 square miles), of which 
149.2 square myriameters, or, approximately, 5,371 square miles had been 
surveyed at the close of 1881. 

The size of the plane-table sheets is the same as those for the special 
map (1:75,000). The usual field scale is 1:12,500, while that for culti- 
vated ground and settlements is 1:6,250 and 1: 3,125, one plane-table sheet, 
of which there are 743, is equal to one-sixteenth of a full sheet (1 : 75,000), 
and is called a cadaster section, of which 215 had been completed in 1881. 

The primary triangulation and that for the cadastral survey of the 
second, third, and fourth order is being continued in these provinces; about 
280 plane-table sheets were to be completed in 1882, in the country along 
the Servian and North Dalmatian frontiers, and the work should be com- 
pleted in 1883. The instructions for the cadastral survey of Bosnia were 



278 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

decided upon in 1880. No triangulatioii whatever had been executed in 
Bosnia prior to 1879. 

The map of the country i.ssued in 1876 (an extension of Central Eu- 
rope 1 : 300,000) was based on about 80 points, astronomically determined 
by officers of the Institute in 1868, hence the whole country had to be tri- 
angulated; as a basis both for the military and cadastral map. 

On the boundaries of the provinces certain base line and triangulation 
material existed, which was connected with and thus utilized. 

The plane-table sheets of the cadastral survey were executed at the 
scale of 1 : 12,500, observing the graduation of the degree sheets of the mili- 
tary map. 

A degree map sheet is divided into 16 sections, each of which repre- 
sents one plane-table sheet. Each sixteenth is called a cadastral section, 
which is again divided into 16 parts. Each cadastral section must contain 
at least '6 trigonometric points, or at the rate of 48 points for each degree 
map sheet (about 11 square myriameters). These surveys are nearing 
completion. 

In addition to the general map of Central Europe (scale 1:300,000), 
the Institute issues a skeleton map of Austria and Hungary, with parts of 
adjacent countries (scale 1:750,000). 

There is in course of preparation, based on the ("Carte de la Grfece") 
French map of Greece (scale 1:200,000), and on the latest English sea 
charts, a general map of Greece (scale 1:300,000), forming supplemental 
sheets of the map of Central Europe. 

A brief memoir on Austrian Surveys will be found in Chapter IV of 
Comstock's Notes on European Surveys. A more complete reference to 
important maps issued by this Institute will be found in the list of maps, in 
the introduction to Government Surveys. 

AUSTRIA. 

Geologic. 

Before the establishment of a geological institute in Austria, Professor 
W. von Haidinger, Superintendent of the Mineralogical Museum, belonging 



AUSTRIA— GEOLOGIC. 279 

to the Imperial Court, undertook the foundation of a musei'an for mountain 
production, assisted by private enterprise, and in 1847 the lirst sketch of the 
geological map of the Empire was published. 

A number of reports and notices by volunteer geologists had been 
published by the Academy of Sciences in 1846 from its own funds Fine 
geological and industrial maps and monographs of rich mineral districts, 
especially in certain parts of Hungary, the Banat, and of the Military 
Frontier, also existed at that date. 

The Institute — under the title of "Kaiserlich-Konigliche geologische 
Reich sanstalt" — charged with the geological examination of Austria, was 
sanctioned by imperial approval of November 15, 1849, of a project sub- 
mitted by the Minister of Agriculture and Mining, and an annual grant of 
31,900 florins, with 10,000 florins for preliminary expenses, was conceded. 
A handsome palace covering 5,000 square meters was leased as an office 
until 1872, when it was purchased at a cost of 640,000 florins (approxi- 
mating $320,000), which answers also the jnirpose of library and museum. 
The Institute has quite a large working library, and as early as I860 there 
were 35,000 specimens in the museum, carefully labeled and displayed by 
provinces. There is also a laboratory for the anal^^sis of minerals and 
rocks and for the assay of minerals and useful substances, with a special 
director. The public are permitted to have assays made, pursuant to a 
fixed tariff. 

•The examination is a purely geological one, including the branches of 
paleontology and mineralogy, with special investigations upon mining 
problems without any general plan relating to mining in its entirety. No 
topographic work is undertaken, the special topographic map of Austria 
(scale 1:75,000, 720 sheets), serving as the base for geological representa- 
tions, certain measurements of heights and local profiles sometimes being 
made. The field maps are those of the Military Geographical Institute on 
various scales, usually the old field minutes (scale 1:28,800), until the new 
map (scale 1 : 75,000) was inaugurated, when copies of the plane-table 
sheets (scale 1:2.5,000), with equidistant curves of 50 meters and elevations 
in meters, have been employed to the exclusion of all others. The field- 
notes having been taken on the scale of 1 : 25,000 are afterward transferred 



280 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

upon printed copies of the new tupc graphic, map (scale 1:75,000). An 
edition of 270 sheets of the topographic map (1 : 75,000), geologically col- 
ored, has been published. 

The first field work was undertaken in 1850, a general exploration 
concluded in 1857, since which date the work has proceeded at the rate of 
150 to 200 German square miles annually, each geologist accomplishing 
20 to 30 square miles in a field season. The completion of the work was 
originally contemplated in thirty years or during 1879, while the statement 
of the director, made in January, 1882, shows, approximately, 5,600 German 
square miles as completed, leaving unfinished areas in Moravia and Silesia, 
Styria, Dalmatia, and the western part of Galicia, to the extent of, approx- 
imately, 7,167 German square miles. The jurisdiction of this work extends 
over Austria alone, Hungary having a separate establishment. The per- 
sonnel of the Austrian Geological Institute in 1 882 was as follows: 1 director, 
1 vice-director (in charge of museum), 3 chief geologists, 2 assistant geolo- 
gists, 2 subassistant geologists, 1 chief of chemical laboratory, 1 assistant, 
1 draftsman, 2 clerks, 5 messengers and laborers, 3 to 4 volunteers. The 
expense of the personnel amounts per annum to 33,258 florins, equal,- ap- 
pi'oximately, $16,500. The total annual cost given in January, 1882, is 
53,811 florins, or, approximately, $26,900. There is a single central office 
at Vienna under Director F. R. von Hauer. In February, 1885, Dr. Hauer 
resigned, and his successor, Dr. Stur Dionys, formerlj^ Vice-Dii-ector, was 
promoted Director of the Survey. A small revenue from the sale of maps 
at the office of the Geological Institute is derived, which is returned to the 
Imperial Treasury. 

The final maps are colored by hand, as required, instead of being re- 
produced by chromolithography, thus admitting of frequent revisions. It is 
intended, however, to repi'oduce imprinted editions when the final detailed 
revisions are complete. Special publications have been made such as the 
geological map of the whole Empire on the scale of 1 : 576,000 in 12 sheets 
bv chromolithography. The printed publications consist of the annual 
reports (royal 8vo), quarto publications (monographs on special subjects), 
and the regular proceedings of the Institute in the form of transactions 
(royal 8vo). This office is empowered to call on the Military Geographical 



HUNGARY AND BOHEMIA— GEOLOGIC. 281 

Institute for special topographic details, sections, &c., when required. 
Each geologist works individually a given area, guided by his skill and 
experience. These men are regularly in the employ of the survey and are 
selected mostly from the university graduates, who are appointed upon the 
approval of the Minister of Agriculture, and upon the recommendation of the 
head of the Institute. The Institute at the expiration of thirty-three years 
prosecutes its labors with vigor, although in 1859 it was threatened with 
extinction from motives of economy. 

HTJIN^GAKY. 

Geologic. 

Geological examinations were organized in 1868 by the director of 
the Austrian Geologic "Reichsanstalt" (Institute), Hofrath F. R von Hauer, 
as a special branch of the above Austrian institution. Soon after, in 1870, 
it was reorganized and became a distinct organization under the title 
"Konigliche Ungarische Geologische Reichsanstalt" at Buda-Pest, under 
the direction of Max von Hantken. In 1882 Johann Bockh was appointed 
to that position, assisted by a corps of 11 geologists and chemists. 

The examinations are based upon the Austrian staff maps (scale 
1 : 76,000), and the geological colors are superposed by hand on the published 
maps. The maps are accompanied by explanatory text in Hungarian and 
German. The first publications were issued in 1871 under the title 
" Jahresbericht der Kciniglichen Ungarischen Geologischen Anstalt," and 
"Erlaiiterungen zur Geologischen Special-Karte der Lander der Ungari- 
schen Krone." Twenty -two sheets of the geological map have already been 
published. The geological bureau at Vienna publishes, in 8vo, a yearly 
abstract of the operations of this Institute. 

BOHEMIA. 

Geologic. 

The Austrian Geological Institute established three years ago a special 
branch for Bohemia, under the control of Professors Krejir and Laube, and 
Dr. A. Fritsch. The name of this special examination is "Comite zur. Uissen- 



282 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

schaftlichen Durchforschung von Bohmen." The maps used are tlioso of the 
MiHtary Geographical Institute of Vienna; scale I : 75,000. The explana- 
tory text appears in "Archiv fur die Naturwissenschaftliche Landes Durch- 
forschung von Bohmen; Geologische section," in 4to. 

SERVIA. 

Geologic. 

In 1882 the Servian Government gave the charge of a geologic re- 
connaissance of the Kingdom to Professor T. M Zujoric, of Belgrade. Three 
memoirs have already appeared during 1884 and 1885; and a general de- 
scription accompanied by a geologic map of the country is now in prepara- 
tion. 



FRANCE. 

Topographic. 

The field work for the general topographic map of the "fitat-Major" 
of the War Ministry of France (scale 1 : 80,000 — 273 sheets) was commenced 
in 1819, the fir.st publication made in 1833, and the last sheet printed in 
1881. 

The entire area of France, represented by this map, is 205,976 square 
miles, while the population in 1881 is given as 37,672,048, or an average of 
(approximately) 183 per square mile. The survey has been, since 1831, 
known as that of the "Etat- Major," the name of the central office in Paris 
having been "Ddp6t de la Guerre," for which the title "Service Geogra- 
phique" has been substituted since Colonel Perrier has been called to its 
head. 

This bureau of the War Department of France was organized in 1688, 
and has been in continuous existence ever since, its present field duties being 
the revision, once in five years, of the topographic map of France on the 
scale of 1:50,000, for which duty (approximately) 300 officers are almost 
constantly emploj'ed, also the new, original detailed trigonometric and topo- 
graphic map of Algeria (scale 1:50,000, approximating 327 sheets), as well 
as topographic works in Tunis.* 

The area of Algeria (now a department of France) is 166,023 square 
miles (approximately), with a population in 1881 of 3,310,412, or an aver- 
age of 20 per square mile. 

The following is foimd in Notes on Government Surveys, by the Eng- 
lish Intelligence Biu-eau, War Office, London : 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

France is divided into 87 departments, subdivided into 362 arrondisse- 
ments, again into 2,865 cantons, and again into 35,989 communes. 

* The various works of tliis Bureau can be better iiuderstood by reference to the catalogue of 
1884 and subsequent bulletins, which show the various works in progress and their state of advance- 
ment. 

283 



284 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVEYS. 

Algeria is divided into 3 provinces, aud subdivided into 15 depart- 
ments. 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

France is divided into 18 military districts (Corps d'Arm^e), each mil- 
itary district into 2 divisions, each division into 2 brigades, and each brig- 
ade into 2 regimental districts. 

Algeria consists of 1 military district (Corps d'Armde), divided into 3 
divisions of 5, 3, and 4 brigades, respectively. 

The following is a brief sketch of the establishment prior to 1800 : 

A corps, known as "Engineers of Camps and Armies," was established 
as early as 1696, the chief of which in 1717 had the rank of brigadier- 
general of infantry. This body asked in 1726 for the title of "Engineer 
G-eographers of Camps and Armies," but their functions in the following 
war were only adjunctive to the "Etat-Major,"and their results went to the 
"D^pSt des cartes et plans," which existed separately fi'om the "D(ip6t de 
la Guerre " 

In 1744 the "D(3p6t des cartes et plans" and that of fortifications hav- 
ing been united, the "Engineer Geographers" were given a stable exist- 
ence. Topography had then made but little progress, the map of Cassini 
being the finest in France. 

This map (scale 1 : 86,400 — 184 sheets, engraved on copper, and pub- 
lished from 1750 to 1793) was the first general map of France based on 
astronomical observations combined with a triangulation. This project was 
conceived about the year 1733, commenced some years later under the 
auspices of the Academy at the expense of the Government and under the 
special patronage of Louis XV, an amateur in geographical maps. 

In 1760 the Engineer Geographers were separated from the Bureau of 
Fortifications. In 1761, the "Engineer Geographers" and "Dcjpot des 
cartes et plans" were consolidated. 

The personnel of Engineer Geographers was constituted by royal de- 
cree of April 1, 1769. By ordinance of 1776 they were associated in service 

Note. — The "Metric" system -was instituted in 179.") to supersede the "Ancient" system. The 
"Systiime Usael " was introduced in 1812 as a sort of compromise with tho.se jieophi who showed an 
irreconcilable aversion to the Metric system, upon which, however, the former was based. The old 
measures were iuterdicted by law in 1840. 



FRANCE— TOPOGRAPHIC. 285 

with the Militiiry Engineers, and by that of 1777 the title of "Geograph- 
ical Military Engineers" was conferred. 

In 1791 the "Ddpot des Fortifications" was separated from the "Ddp6t 
de la Guerre," and the functions of the Engineer Geographers merged with 
those of the Militarj' Engineers. 

Regulations of 1792 gave a new organization. The director and his 
assistants were dispersed in 1793. 

The Engineer Geographers, attached to the Etat-Major, were again 
organized, but with a fragile tenure. 

In 1793 the Depot de la Marine was united to the "Depot de la Guerre." 

At this period MM. Delambre and Mechain measured and verified the 
arc of the meridian between Dunkerque and Barcelona. 

The Committee of Public Safet}^ ordered (1795) several works of mil- 
itary topography, hydrography, and geodesy, for the uses of the armies, 
upon the coast of the Gulf of Gascony, upon the northern frontiers, those 
of the Alps, Italy, and Spain, which were made through the "Depot" by 
means of the Geographical Engineers. The "D^pot" was newly organized 
(1795 and 1796) and perfected in 1797. 

This decree pronounced the reunion with the Topographical Cabinet, 
near the Committee of Public Safety, and placed the map of France in the 
Ministry of the Interior. 

Correspondence with the Etat-Major was now re-established. 

The library was established in 1798. 

The map of France was returned to the " Depot" revised and retouched. 

The results during this period were not highly satisfactory, the Engi- 
neers being poorly trained. 

A final organization was perfected in 1799, and a special topographical 
bureau established near the First Consul. 

The catalogue of the library was finished (1800). 

In 1801 a map of France, in 9 sheets, was issued and much informa- 
tion obtained from Milan. The Engineer Geographers, under General-in- 
Chief Moreau, in 1801 undertook the military maps of Suabia and Bavaria, 
and after the Vienna treaty of peace the latter was continued in common 
with the electorate. 



286 GOVERNMENT LAND AND M A.EINE SURVEYS. 

Officers of Engineers in Italy had undertaken the survey of the coun- 
try between the Adig-e and Adda. 

The surveys of Helvetia and Piedmont were also begun. 

A new organization was now proposed, based on the increasing impor- 
tance of the functions of the "Depot." About this date similar establish- 
ments were organized in Vienna and Madrid. 

The present military chart of France (1:80,000) being revised and 
issued (1:50,000) was conceived by Napoleon I in 1808, a project then 
made and finally put in execution in 1818.. 

The scales of tlie field minutes and final map were decided upon in 
1824, the method of hachuring in 1828. 

The primary triangulation was completed in 1845, and the secondary 
in 1854; the topography was finished some years later, and the last engra- 
ving in 1881. 

The Engineer Greographers carried on the work until their disband- 
ment in 1831, when it was taken up and completed by the " fitat-Major." 

This office is intrusted with the preparation and publication of the 
extended series of military topographical maps, required in War Adminis- 
tration, a list of which will be given further on, which comprises all those 
issued by the War Department, except a general map (1:500,000) of the 
fortification branch and special contour maps of the sites of and approaches 
to, works of defense, interior frontier and coastwise. (The latter are held 
for the confidential uses of the war arm of the Government.) 

The personnel u\i to 1881 had been principally officers of the Corps 
of Engineer Geographers and of the Etat-Major (a branch of the un"litary 
service, that has now been disbanded as a permanency, but to the func- 
tions of which officers of the line are appointed by selection, for a term of 
5'ears), aided by selected enlisted men. This force is naturally, as in all 
such cases, supplemented by assistants drawn from civil life to aid in ob- 
serving, computation, and the more technical duties. The office forms a 
part of the " Etat-Major Gdne'ral," the chief of which reports direct to the 
Secretary of War, but with somewhat independent functions and powers 
of self-control. The following are the principal map publications in course 
of execution by the " Service Geographique de I'Arm^e," viz: 



FEANOE— TOPOGRAPHIC. 287 

WAE DEPARTMENT. 

1. Topograpliic map of France (scale 1:50,000, approximating 1,01)2 
sheets) engraved on zinc, in 6 colors. 

This map is intended to supersede the " Etat-Major" map (scale 
1 : 80,000 — 273 sheets), engraved on copper and printed in black. The re- 
sults of the revisionary surveys are incorporated with the new map, the 
engravings being made on zinc plates, comparatively inexpensive, that 
become the (" planchesmferes") mother plates, that may be preserved and 
perpetuated indefinitel)^, while the colors render the map intelligible to a 
greater number, it having also been found possible to publish them at a 
cost which renders them accessible to the public. 

Twenty of these sheets (each corresponding to one quarter sheet at 
1:80,000) had been issued in 1885. 

The scale of 1 : 50,000 was chosen for the new map because of its 
bearing more simple relations to the metrical divisions than the old scale 
of 1 : 80,000, and because the reduction from the field minutes of 1 ; 40,000 
(demanded by engineers in projects of extensive works), can be made with 
more facility. Horizontal curves are shown at equidistances of 10 meters. 

2. Chorographic map of France (scale 1:200,000,) engraved on zinc 
in 6 colors. 

This map (to be completed in 1889) is purely a reduction of the pre- 
ceding and executed b}' the same method.* 

* Under date of August 1, 1885, Colonel Perrier remarks as lollops regardiug the new toito- 
graphlo map of Frauce iu colors. 

Military maps mast satisfy many couditions: among them the greatest accuracy in projection 
and construction, iu classificatiou and laying dowu of routes of communications, with a clrarness aud 
facility for reading, available even for jioor eyes. The map iu colors upon zinc peruiitsthe " Di5p6t dela 
Guerre" to solve this problem. Ziuc gives rapidity in execution and allows the plates eai^ily to he cor- 
rected. As to the couliguration of the terrain, hachures have been suijerseded by contours,! relieved by 
stumped drawing of a bluish-gray shade, with light a trifle oblique, to facilitate the underst.iuding of all 
forms of the soil. The stumped drawiug is executed upou a stippled ziuc surface. The results are 
satisfactory for the map of Algeria, at 1 : 50,000, and for that of Frauce (1 : 200,000). 

As regards the map of France (1 : 50,000), for certain sheets of which surveys of great precision 
have been utilized, very satisfactory results have been obtaiued. The general leveling of Frauce, 
admitted in principle but retarded by considerations germane to the budget, will warrant the realiza- 
tion of the project of the " Service G(Sographique" to give to France plane table sheets at 1 : 25,000, and a 
map in colors (1 : 50,000). 

t It may here be slated that credit is due to General Noizet, an officer of French Military Engi- 
neers (Corps du Genie Militaire), for having lirst introduced the use if horizontal curves to represent 
ground reliefs in connection with coustructious ou a large .scale (see foot-note, page 242). 



288 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The production of sheets proceeds in common and these maps bear 
the same relation to each other as have formerly those of 1 : 80,000 and 
1 : 320,000. The entire map will consist of 81 sheets, eight of which had 
appeared in June, 1885. 

3. Topographic map of France (scale 1 : 80,000 — ^273 sheets), engraved 
on copper and published in black, known as the " 111 tat Major" map and 
from which a reduction to scale 1 : 320,000 (33 sheets published also in 
black), has been made (see also scales of 1 : 50,000 and 1 : 200,000). 

4. Topographic map of Algeria (scale 1 : 50,000), engraved on zinc 
in 7 colors. The surveys of Algeria were only commenced in 1866, after 
completing entire the field work of the general topographic map of France. 
They were interrupted by the war of 1870 and again undertaken in 1879. 

The methods adopted are quite in keeping with those for the new map 

of France (scale 1 : 50,000), and 23 sheets were completed in June, 1885. 

Equidistant curves of 1 meters form one of the features of this map. 

5. Map of the Department of the Seine (scale 1 : 20,000 in 36 sheets), 
engraved on zinc in 5 colors. This map is the amplification of the map of 
the same area from the field minutes (1 : 40,000), in 9 sheets made first by 
heliogravure, then engraved upon zinc by substituting horizontal curves 
for the hachures and accommodating the size of the lettering and line work 
to the new scale. 

6. Map of the railroads of France (scale 1 : 800,000 — 9 sheets), en- 
graved on zinc, in 8 colors. This map has been enlarged from the earlier 
one prepared and published on the scale of 1 : 1,600,000, (engraved on cop- 
per), first amplified by photolithography and chromo-lithography with a 
view of indicating the line or lines of each company by a special color. It 
entirely replaces all other editions and was (September 1883) issued to the 
public. 

7. General map of levels of France (scale 1 : 800,000 in 6 sheets), en- 
graved on stone in 3 colors. The following is a part of the legend explan- 
atory of the map and the end proposed by its publication. 

" La Carte du uivellement gdndral de la France a pour objet la re- 
prdsentation exacte des formes d'ensemble du sol fran(jai.s; elle met en (Evi- 
dence les rapports intimes existant entre I'orographie et I'hydrographie." 



FEANCE— TOPOGRAPHIC. 289 

[Translation.] 

The map showing the general levels of France has for its object the 
exact representation of the forms entire of French soil ; it shows the intimate 
relations existing between the orography and hydrography. 

The level curves are traced at an equidistance of 100 meters. Each 
curve representing 400 meters equidistance is made heavier than the others. 

In one corner is placed a "carton" of Paris and its environs (scale 
1:20,000) to a distance of 12 to 15 kilometers The equidistant curves of 
10 meters are shown. 

8. Chorographic map of France (scale 1 : 600,000), engraved on copper. 

This comprises, in 6 sheets, France entire and adjacent country border- 
ing its frontiers, and will become later the basis of a map in 9 sheets of 
western Europe, extending eastward even as far as Berlin and Vienna. 

This is one of the studies made looking to the reduction of existing 
data and the establishment of the most perfect generalized chart for France 
and its political neighbors. 

9. Miscellaneous: A map of the Department of the Seine on the scale 
of 1:80,000 (planimetric), engraved on stone, in 4 colors, has been executed. 
This map is transferred from the same part of the map of France executed 
on copper (scale 1 : 80,000). Also medical statistical charts and special pub- 
lications, as of the environs of Rouen (scale 1:20,000). Africa (scale 
1:2,000,000), environs of Orleansville (scale 1:40,000), environs of Alger 
(scale 1:200,000), and various geographical and topographical sketches. 

FORTIFICATION BRANCH. 

(Ddp6t des Fortifications.) 

1. Engineer map of France (scale 1 : 500,000), prepared at the " Ddp6t 
des Fortifications." This map is based upon the " fitat-Major" map (scale 
1:80,000), and from the most recent atlases of the countries bordering 
France, together with the aid of several special maps, as that of Spain (scale 
1:200,000) by Colonel Coello, &c. 

It is engraved on stone, then transferred to copper, printed in 4 colors, 
and is composed of 15 sheets ; the height of each equals 0'°.511, the width 
0".682, and when joined a height of 2°'.55 and width of 2'°.05. 
1366 WH 19 



290 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

It covers not alone France, but portions of the bordering countries, 
and it rests upon a groundwork, as nearly accurate as possible of horizontal 
curves, at equidistances of 100 meters. A proof of one of the sheets pro- 
duced by the heliogravure process was exposed at Venice. 

This map is published in 3 forms : 

1. Complete in hachures with drainage, settlements, means of commu- 
nication, administrative limits, forests, &c. 

2. Route map, including the same elements, dropping the hachures. 

3. As an oro-hydrographic map. The latter is the same as the first 
above, with the settlements and means of communication suppressed. 

Maps of the Engineer Topographical Brigade. The Topographical 
Brigade of the Military Engineers of France survey on a large scale, with 
close contours, the ground upon which permanent fortifications are to be 
constructed, and to the scale of 1:10,000 the environment of fortified places 
or isolated forts to a distance of 10 kilometers (6.8 miles), in order to pro- 
vide a ("plan-directeur") directing plan for each of the works of defense.* 

Surveys (scale 1:10,000). These surveys are executed by the perma- 
nent personnel of the brigade, composed of officers and assistants of the 
engineers and by officers of all arms detailed for 6 months of each year to 
the diff'erent sections. 

The minute route measurements are executed by the " tach^omfeter," 
and are based, for the planimetry, upon the trigonometric points established 
by the " D^pot de la Guerre," and for the levels the datum plaues of the 
general leveling of France by the Public Works Department are used. 

Together with these route measurements are incorporated the reduced 
cadaster plans, the whole furnishing the data for the construction of the 
plane-table sheet of the required scale. 

These plane-table sheets are transferred at the Central Office upon 
transparent paper, in the form intended for publication, and the requisite 
number of copies printed in the atelier of the Bureau of Fortification. 

* A letter t'lora Colonel Perrier of August 1, 188.5, states : That the Engineer Brigade, charged 
with surveys of precision at rahn; and yuoTti of the vicinities of fortified places, was attached to the 
" D(5p6t de la Guerre" by decree of March Iti, iBH.^i. The personnel of this brigade comprises a director 
of works, having under his orders 4 otBcera, commandants of sections, 28 engineer assistants, 48 
detached ofBeevs, and 18 draughtsmen, i>rintcrs, photographers, or zincograjihers. 



FRANCE— TOPOGRAPHIC. 291 

The cultivated areas are shown by colors, stenciled upon the sheets. 
These same plans are reduced to 1 : 20,000, and reproduced for more general 
studies. These two publications are issued, confidentially only, for the uses 
of the war service, and distributed to the Archives of Artillery and Engi- 
neers, and to each general officer, in turn, commanding at the place repre- 
sented. 

PUBLIC WORKS. 

(Travaux Publiques.) 

Public Works Ministry: 1. "National chart" of France (scale 1:200,000, 
in 141 sheets, with " Tableau d'Assemblage" or Index Map). This map is 
authorized by ministerial decree of February 23, 1879, is engraved in 3 
colors on copper, and prepared under the direction of M. Cheysson (Direc- 
teur des cartes et plans, Ingenieur en chef des Fonts et Chaussees). Each 
sheet is 0'".426 by O^.SO, and represents, relatively, sheet for sheet, twice 
the area of the military staff map of 1 : 80,000. The boundaries are marked 
by straight lines at right angles to each other, one system parallel and the 
other perpendicular to the meridian of Paris. This atlas is prepared with 
a special view to the execution of public works, indicating with great pre- 
cision all kinds of means of communication; also all physical, agricultural, 
industrial, or administrative features influencing in any way interior trans- 
portation. It shows mineral workings, the population of villages of 1,000 
and upward, hydraulic works, exceeding 50 hectares in area, equidistant 
horizontal curves of 100 meters, and altitudes of remarkable points above 
the Mediterranean at Marseilles. 

The most recent surveys and corrections made by engineers " des 
Fonts et Chaussees" have been utilized, as well as the revision work under 
the " Etat-Major," that of Military Engineers, Engineers of Mines, and 
Road Trustees. The same projection as that employed for the map, of 
1 : 80,000, has been adopted, i. e., that of " Bonne" or the " Flamsteed modi- 
fied." 

The " Etat-Major" map of 1 : 80,000 (273 sheets) is the " mfere nour- 
rice" of this and all the other general topographic or orographic maps (as 
well as all other planimetric and generalized maps compiled and constructed 
for various purposes) of France of every description. 



292 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVEYS. 

The railroad details are taken from tracings on a large scale, indicat- 
ing culverts, bridges, tunnels, station structures, with single or double 
track. The routes in construction are so shown that by an additional con- 
ventional notation, so that the line when finished may be easily added. As to 
the canals and rivers, their trace is accompanied by indications of dams, sum- 
mit levels, feeding reservoirs, weirs, ferries, and fords. Routes of commu- 
nication of every nature are shown. 

In the vicinity of each meteorological observatory very valuable data 
are noted concerning questions of inundation, feeding reservoirs, manage- 
ment of waters, &c. Under the name of each " commune" is stated its 
population, if more than 500, and an indication of the metallurgical works, 
and the mineral and oil exploitations ; for the former there being conven- 
tional signs for iron, copper, lead, &c., and the latter showing the area of 
the concession and of the basin so far as known. 

In turn, the light-houses, beacons, &c., are noted, as well as the sources 
of mineral waters and all forests exceeding an area of 400 hectares. All 
places of 5,000 inhabitants and upwards are figured with an actual plan to 
the 1 : 200,000 scale. 

The orographical details consist of hatched lines of ridges, numbers of 
altitudes, and level curves. The number of altitudes is something like 300 
to 400 for each sheet. 

The horizontal curves are at equidistances of 100 meters, every fifth 
curve made more prominent. 

The graphic equidistance between 2 curves upon a gradient of 45° is 
one-half millimeter (0.02 inch). 

Black is employed for lettering roads, railroads and tramways, forests 
and territorial limits ; blue for drainage, ferries, hydraulic works, amount 
of rainfall, &c., " bistre" (a brown) to the strictly topographical part (alti- 
tudes, ridges, and level curves). 

A " tableau d'assemblage" or index sheet indicates each separate sheet 
by a number and the name of the principal locality it contains. Nine 
sheets with a "tableau d'assemblage" were exhibited, and 25 sheets had 
been issued at end of 1882. 



FEANCE— TOPOGRAPHIC. 293 

It was stated (in 1881) that 60 more sheets were then in course of prep- 
aration. 

Special publications are made aiid to be made of conjoined sheets, em- 
bracing each a " department" entire. These latter maps, as adjunctive to the 
general sheets as a basis, form, with the addition of details (" L'Atlas sta- 
tisque des cours d'eau, des usines et des irrigations"), the " statistical atlas 
of water-courses, manufacturing establishments, and irrigation works." 

2. Maps showing means of communication. 

A. Chart of principal French lines of communication (scale 1 : 500,000 
— 6 sheets). This map comprises national and departmental roads, com- 
pleted railways, forest and agricultural roads, and the hydrographic survey. 

B. Chart of principal lines of communication (scale 1 : 1,250,000 — 2 
sheets). Reduction of the preceding, giving in addition the hydrographic 
basins and the relief of the principal mountains. 

C. Chart of French railways (scale 1 : 1,250,000), in 8 colors. 

This map shows by colors all the railway systems, finished or in course, 
belonging to the great or secondary companies and foreign railways, indi- 
cating stations, &c. 

D. Chart of internal navigation (scale 1 .-1,250,000), in 8 colors. 
This chart shows the hydrographic survey, basins, mountains, existing 

canals, summit lines of principal basins, and that portion of rivers naviga- 
ble for vessels and rafts. The navigable ways administered by the state 
or granted to private parties, the canalized rivers, together with the fluvial 
and maritime navigation at the mouths of rivers, are shown by special tints. 
The luminous range of the light-houses has also been added to this chart. 

E. Chart of national roads (scale (1 : 1,390,000), in 4 colors. With 
the exception of the two first this series of maps has been executed by 
chromolithography. These charts are sold b}^ difi"ei'ent booksellers at 
very moderate prices, and are thus within the reach of the general public. 
The plates and sterotypes belong to the Government and are undergoing 
constant revision. 

Albums of graphic statistics (1879 and 1880). The system of graphic 
statistics is of comparatively recent date, but the scope of its application is 



294 GOViiRNMENT LAICD AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

becoming daily extended, as it meets the twofold want of accuracy and 
expedition, in supplying required information. 

The first album of 1879 contains 12 plates referring to the tonnage of 
rivers, canals, and ports; natural roads and railways; railway receipts; 
financial history of various railroad companies ; ai'rivals and departures of 
vessels, and the general and special commerce of France. 

The album of 1880, containing 16 plates, relates to the following sub- 
jects in addition to much of the above : Gross and net receipts of i-ailways ; 
gross receipts of stations; conditions of navigabihty of water-ways; receipts 
of Paris omnibusses, tramways, passenger steamers, and suburban railways; 
technical conditions of establishment of railroads ; cost of construction of 
railroads ; cost of first establishment of navigable ways; maintenance of com- 
munications of all descriptions; development of railways, &c. 

Atlas of Canals. — This work was initiated by ministerial circular of 
November 29, 1854 

The plan of each canal is on the scale of 1:200,000, with longitudinal 
section, on the same scale for lengths, and with heights to the 1:1,000 
scale ; the plan and section corresponding on each sheet. The size is 
O^.eO by 0".90, and 89 plates compose the collection, which are engraved 
on stone, and an edition of 300 copies printed. 

The total expense has been 60,000 francs, or 674 francs per plate, mak- 
ing the cost of a single copy of the collection 200 francs, or 2 francs and 
2h centimes for each sheet. 

Two indexes are found at the beginning of the atlas; the first giving 
the canals arranged by a series; the second containing the names arranged 
alphabetically. 

Annexed to the atlas is found a chart of internal navigation, with 
figured maps representing tonnage, &c. This atlas (an inventory of the 
system of navigation) will be enlarged as further navigable ways are de- 
veloped. 

Atlas of the Ports of France. — This will consist of a portfolio of charts 
and plans (scale 0'".0075 or 1:133,333) of 163 plates (0'".0002 or 1:5,000) 
and eight volumes of notices. 



FEANCE— TOPOGRAPHIC. 295 

This publication was ordered by ministerial decision of October 24, 
1868, and a commission appointed to direct its execution. 

In addition to the plans are the charts, at once hydrographic and terri- 
torial, representing the land-fall of principal harbors and their communica- 
tion with the interior, and notices respecting approaches, nautical conditions, 
the successive development, present state, and statistics of each of the ports. 
Four volumes of text have been published and plans of ports from Dun- 
kirk to mouth of the Loire, with isolated notices of the ports of Boulogne, 
Dieppe, Havre, Rouen, Hontleur, Cherbourg, Granville, Saint Malo, Mor- 
lai, Brest, and L'Orient. Tlie engraving of plans of other ocean and Mediter- 
ranean ports is advancing to completion. 

The charts, plans, and notices of the atlas may be purchased at Paris 
and the principal ports, at prices fixed by the Administration. There were 
exhibited at Venice 4 special charts of alluvial river basins (the Loire, 
Rhone, Saone, and Garonne). The former, 1 : 20,00(1 ; the others, 1 : 10,000. 
These special charts, based on the trigonometrical net of the " l^tat-Major" 
survey are intended to illustrate the additional details of: The different 
works undertaken ; distance and level boundaries ; manner of water obser- 
vations ; inundation levels and limits ; ruptures of levees, &c. 

MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR. 

Map of France. — (Scale 1:100,000.) Engraved on stone, transferred 
to copper, and printed in 5 colors (prepared under the direction of Mr. E. 
Anthoine, Directeur de la Carte de France et du Statistique Graphique). 

This map, based upon the topographic map of the " Etat- Major," has 
added details obtained by the Parish Road Service of the Ministry of the 
Interior, the number of agents aggregating 5,000, being spread over the entire 
territor}' of France. This work was begun in 1879 to be terminated in 
1889 (10 years). The cost to May, 1882, had been about 300,000 francs 
($60,000), with an annual expenditure of 150,000 francs ($30,000), taken 
from the appropriation for parish roads, allotted by the Minister of the In- 
terior and the " Conseil d'fitat." 

This map has been the outgrowth of the construction of parish roads 
begun in 1868, and endowed by the state in 1879 and 1880, with 



296 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

380,000,000 francs, admitting of the construction of 12,000 kilometers of 
new roads annually. 

The charts of the various administrative departments created under 
existing laws, when reunited at the Exposition of 1878, showed so many- 
varying scales and methods of representation that a plan was subsequently 
adopted for the unification of these woi'ks. 

It is claimed- that the scale of 1:100,000 (1 centimeter to 1 kilom- 
eter) has the advantage of allowing a perfectly clear grouping of the most 
complete data, and lends itself to a rapid estimate of distances, for which 
purpose a scale of kilometers supplemented by one of marine miles for the 
coast regions is given on each sheet. 

Blue is employed for water and altitudes; green for woods and forests; 
red for routes, roads, and population ; black for all other parts of the planim- 
etry and lettering; the color "mine de plomb" for the reliefs. 

When the map was established the principal aim seems to have been 
to produce a sort of dictionary of routes and roads, which called only for 
planimetric representation, to which was added in 1881 the relief of the 
"terrain," with numerous indications of altitudes. 

Different designations indicate administration limits, the letters of differ- 
ent kinds of localities, R. R. of public utility (simple or double track), with 
all the artificial constructions, viaducts, passages superior, inferior, or level, 
their tunnels and stations, the tramways, routes national and departmental, 
parish roads of large and ordinary interest, rural roads, the woods and 
forests with forest paths and wastes, altitudes, water- courses, lakes, and 
ponds, marshes, turf-pits, &c. The number of population, post and tele- 
graph offices, churches, farms, wind and water mills, forges, foundries, and 
other manufactories, light-houses and beacons, mineral and thermal waters, 
are indicated by special signs. Each sheet bears a legend complete. The 
polycentric projection is employed. Each sheet embraces 30' in longitude 
and 1 5' in latitude. The lengths of the meridians and parallels forming the 
borders are inscribed on the face of each sheet. 

The size of the sheets, vertically, varies between 0'".349 and 0°'.419, and 
horizontally between 0".278 and 0".277, and is found convenient. The 



FRANCE— TOPUGEAPHIC. 297 

cost of each sheet ready to print has been found to be (approximately) 1,000 
francs. It is found that as liigh as 16 to 24 sheets can be united to form a 
departmental map. The enumeration of the sheets is made by a double 
table, with Roman figures in the vertical and Arabic in the horizontal col- 
umns. 

The total number of sheets will be 590. In May, 1882, 90 sheets were 
issued and for sale by Hachette & Co., Paris, and 77 were being engraved. 

The year of the printing is stamped on each sheet, and a little diagram 
in the upper right-hand corner gives the parts of the departments of which 
the map is composed as a sub-index. 

MINISTEY OF AGRICULTURE. 

Detailed colored charts based on the " Etat-Major" field minutes of 
1:40,000 were exposed at Venice, showing the disposition of woods and 
forests and their rehabilitation, being types of originals prepared for the 
uses of the Forest Department. 

' MINISTRY OF POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

General maps, showing the network of post routes and telegraph lines 
in France and Algeria, prepared for the uses of this administrative branch 
of the Government, were also displayed at Venice. 

Proposed plan for Map of France, scale 1:10,000: By decrees of Octo- 
ber 5 and December 20, 1878, there was appointed, under the Presidency 
of the Minister of Public Works, a central commission, composed of dele- 
gates of this Ministry and that of the War and Interior, for determining the 
bases of a general unified and detailed trigonometrically based topographic 
survey. This commission drew up a plan for a new general survey of 
France, intended to be of greater precision, with systematic leveling suffi- 
ciently in detail for a map of 1:10,000. This work was to result from the 
joint action of the above ministries, assisted with funds from the "Depart- 
ment," requiring in addition an estimated sum from the General Budget 
of France of 3,500,000 francs. So far as known, the Chambers have not 
yet granted an appropriation. In the whole, it would appear that the Gov- 
ernment of France has more map makers than material for maps, yet one 



298 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

cannot be but interested in the development to which cartographical labors 
have been carried in this highly interesting country; and the systematic 
and detailed basis of the primal topographic map having been secured by 
a single branch, charts devoted to special subjects needed in other admin- 
istrative branches are readily compiled and constructed therefrom 

To return to the " Etat-Major" Topographic Chart, or the mother 
map of France, it appears that the field revision work for the 1:50,000 
scale is to be completed in 1882. There are 250 to 300 officers engaged on 
this work in the several militarj^ departments. A re-revision, each succeed- 
ing 5 years, is contemplated. There are also 5 geodesists and from 50 to 
60 officers employed in the current Algerian work, the Paris office haying 
cognizance of all. 

•The Algerian work costs about 60,000 francs ($12,000) annually, inde- 
pendent of salaries of officers and pay of enlisted men. 

The total budget (annual) is now 684,800 francs for the entire " Service 
Geographique," the importance of which is again being better recognized, 
and growing in utility since the Franco-Prussian war. Other than the Paris 
office, which has 5 subdivisions — (1) Geodesy, (2) Topography, (3) Carto- 
graphy, (4) History and Statistics, (5) Accountability — there are none 
others except field offices of the most temporary chai-acter.* 

* There have beeu added since January 1, 1883, the following : 

(a) School of design. 

This school was created at the "D^p6t de la Guerre" by ministerial decision of April 29, 1883 ; 
the admission of pupils to the number of 10 for 1884 and 5 for the following years, has been decided by 
competitive examination. 

The pupils are exercised in the reduction and reproduction of topographic designs of all scales, 
after models and reliefs. These works are executed in curves, iu stippled hachures, or tinted shading. 

In view of heliographic reproduction, the scholars are particularly drilled in uniformity of design 
for all species of writing (capitals, roman, italics, &c.). 

A course of elementary mathematics, geography, and topography is taught by an officer; the 
latter is made perfect by a series of surveys, in dilferent scales, executed upon the ground. This school 
has produced good results. 

(6) Heliogravure. 

An atelier of heliogravure was organized during 1884 ; the reproductions are very satisfactory 
and economical. 

(c) Section of control. 

This section, established in 1884, is under the immediate direction of the Director, and charged 
with the examination of proofs before going to press, and indicating the final changes, comparisons, and 
perfection of the whole. 

The Historic section has been transferred to the second bureau of the General Etas' of the War 
Ministry. 



FRANCE— TOPOGRAPHIC. 299 

In the revision the cost of drawing and engraving has been found to 
be 500 francs for 1 decimeter square. No exact figures, so far as is known, 
are available to show the cost of the entire original survey, 1 : 80,000. 

The Director states the field cost of the survey of Algeria (I : 50,000) 
to be 20 francs per square kilometer ; with a cost for reproduction of 40 
francs, making a total of 60 francs per square kilometer (approximately $31 
per square mile). The surveys of precision of the Engineer Brigade (1 : 10,000 
and 1 : 20,000) are stated to cost about 100 francs per square kilometer 
(approximately $52 per square mile). 

The area of four of the new sheets (1:50,000) is equivalent to that of 
one sheet 1 : 80,000. 

The publications of this service other than maps are the "Memorial du 
Ddpot G^n^ral de la Guerre," of which eleven 4° volumes have been issued 
to date. 

All maps issued by the "Ddpdt de la Guerre" are sold at a uniform cost 
(reduced to a minimum), to citizens as well as soldiers The sale is eflfected 
directly by accredited booksellers at Paris and in the Provinces, who are 
allowed 2o per cent, of the sale price. 

The accuracy of the main positions has been of the highest order, and 
this country adheres to tlie International Commission for " degree measure- 
ment," as well as conducting a rigid basic trianguiation by methods uni- 
form with those required by the instructions approved by the above Com- 
mission. 

The original archives are all held in the custody of the War Depart- 
ment, in the hands of a skilled personnel, ready for all emergencies and for 
service in any fresh graphic compilation that the exigencies of war or peace 
may demand. 

The projection is that known as the "Bonne" or "Flamsteeds" mod- 
ified. 

The geological map of France is based on the topographic chart of the 
"fitat-Major" at the scale of 1:80,000 (see geological map of France). 

As has been stated the Departments of Public Works and Interior, es- 
pecially, also those of Agriculture and Post Routes, make use of the mate- 
rial originally gathered by the Military D^pot. 



300 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

Special instructions govern the revisional work in France, as well as 
the initial and original geodetic and topographic "work in Algeria, and blank 
forms for all the requisite observations and computations, have been pre- 
pared as the result of the long experience of this branch. 

The instruments are of excellent quality and high finish, both portable 
and durable, it being specially noticed that the horizontal and vertical arcs 
have been reduced in diameter over old forms, resort being had to read- 
ing microscopes of correspondingly high power. The measm-ement of 
an arc of the great circle, passing sensibly through the meridian of Paris, 
has been continued well beyond the coast, southward into the interior of 
Algeria. 

As a d^pot for the collection of topographic material outside of French 
territory, this branch of the war service of France ranks high with similar 
institutions of the kind at Berlin, Vienna, and Madrid. It may here be 
mentioned that a Bureau of International Exchanges has lately been estab- 
lished within the Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts for the pur- 
pose of facilitating the interchange of official documents and publications 
of all foreign countries adhering to the regulations proposed. 

{Geologic.) 

Excluding the first attempts at mapping the minerals of France by 
Coulon in 1664, by Guettard in 174G, and by Monnet in 1780, the first 
geologolical examination of France was undertaken by d'Omalius d'Halloy, 
from 1803 to 1814. The latter worked privately until 1810, when he was 
commissioned by the Bureau of Statistics, under the direction of the Mining 
Engineer Coquebert de Montbret, to make a mineralogical map of the 
Empire, which then extended from the Germanic Sea and the Rhine to 
Eome and Illyria. 

The political changes of 1814 stopped this work, and it was not until 
1822 that the first geological map of France was published under the title, 
Essai cfune carle geologique de la France, des Fays-Bos et de qiielques contrees 
voisines, par J. J. d'Omalius d'Halloy. A reproduction of this map was 
issued by the "D^pot de la Guerre Belgique" in 1878. As soon as it was 



FRANCE— GEOLOGIC. 301 

published (1822) the French Government took measures to inaugurate a 
geological examination on a larger scale. The Minister of Public Works 
placed the work under the direction of Brochant de Villiers, Inspector- 
General of Mines and Professor of Geology at the School of Mines. It 
was not until 1825 that the two Mining Engineers, Dufrdnoy and filie de 
Beaumont, commenced to gather field data, and after 15 years of labor 
they were able to present, in 1840, the " Carte geologique de la France," scale 
1 : 500,000, accompanied by a first quarto volume of explanatory text, issued in 
1841, containing a reduced map (Tableau d'assemblage), scale 1 : 2,000,000. 
A second volume of explanatory text was published in 1848; the fourth 
volume on Paleontology appeared in 1 878, but the third volume has not 
yet been issued. 

This map, in 6 sheets, was undertaken for the purpose of serving as a 
guide for those engaged in the study and exploitation of mines. The exploit- 
ation of mines had been conducted heretofore at a venture ; since which it 
is stated that tliey have been made with discernment and more frequently 
crowned with success. The labors of these engineers appear to have given 
a new direction to geolog5^ This science has in consequence acquired a 
degree of certainty hitherto unknown in France. Agriculture has been also 
benefited by the relations which they have established between the .soil 
and subsoil and the geological constitution of the difterent parts of France. 
It was only found possible to trace the distinct geological formations under 
the name of "terrains." To render it equally applicable to agricultural and 
mineral industry it was necessary that it should illustrate the diff'erent rocks 
as well as the difi"erent "terrains" or formations. 

It was thought, after the fii'st geological examination had been com- 
pleted, that departmental geological maps should be made. This jjrovision 
has been realized in great part, and later maps, executed at the expense of 
the General Council of each department, have been confided to Engineers 
of Mines and to other competent persons. But their authoi'S, having been 
placed at separate points of view, there resulted various scales and distinc- 
tions as to conventional tints without sufficient analogy or uniformity as to 
systems of classification. Messrs. Dufr^noy and Beaumont thought to unite 
upon a single map all these isolated works, and chose for the execution of 



302 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

the detailed geological map of France, the new topographic map of the 
Etat-Major (1 : 80,000 — 273 sheets). They commenced with the actual por- 
tion comprising the seven departments in the north of France. The work 
of co-ordination was found very diiBcult. A new system of division had to 
be adopted. The unpublished notes of the authors were consulted, and 
new explorations when necessary made. 

This map, composed of "20 sheets, was colored geologically in manu- 
script, and exhibited at the Paris International Exhibition of 1855. At the 
Paris Exhibition of 1867 other sheets were added, amounting in all to 62, 
representing the north and northeast of France, or what is commonly 
called the '^Bassin de Paris" 

The value of such geological maps on a large scale being admitted, 
the French Government ordered, October 1, 1868, the execution of "Za 
carte geologique detaiUee de la France,^'' with Elie de Beaumont as Director. 
At his death the Service de la carte geologique detaillee was entirely remodeled 
and organized on a different basis. On January 21, 1875, a commission 
was appointed to advise the Director. 

There has resulted a partial publication of the detailed geological map 
of France (scale 1 : 80,000), of which 75 sheets were issued during the 11 years 
commencing in 1873. The work is engraved on stone and printed chro- 
molithographically (until 1876 the coloring was made by hand), the copper 
engraved topographic plates of the geographical service of the War De- 
partment serving as a base. The average number of sheets hereafter should 
be 14 each year. The work proceeds under the directorship of Monsieur 
Jacquot, Inspector-General of Mines, and is known as the " Service de la 
carte Geologique," the director reporting directly to the Minister of Public 
Works. 

The personnel consists of 11 professional geologists and others at the 
main office at Paris, with 42 collaborators, serving without salary, an al- 
lowance being made for traveling expenses. All of these persons take the 
field annuall3^ returning to Paris to work up their notes, which, when laid 
down upon printed copies of the " liltat-Major" map, are turned over to the 
engraver, who prepares the originals ready for printing in colors, the latter 
work being done at the extensive establishment of Lemercier at Paris. 



FEANCE— GEOLOGIC. 303 

The present annual cost is 80,000 francs (approximating $16,000), 
for field and office and lor the map. The total present cost has approxi- 
mated 900,000 francs, with a probable cost in all for France entire of 
2,000,000 francs, approximating $400,000. The only instruments em- 
ployed, other than those for the simple measurements for dip and strike, are 
barometers for levels of special points. The usual edition of maps is 500 
copies, which are sold at the rate of about 6 francs each. There were sold 
in 8 years of the Paris map 400 copies, and a larger number of that em- 
bracing Bologne, on account of the projected submarine railway. 

The publications, other than the special ones on the subjects of Pale- 
ontology and Petrography, are the monographs of the several districts into 
which France has been geologically divided, one volume for each. In ac- 
cordance with the decree of January 21, 187.3, advantage was taken of the 
advice of a commission, aiming at possible reforms in the service. A con- 
sulting commission of 12 members was subsequently established, to give 
its opinion on questions concerning the execution of the map. The direc- 
tor is obliged to submit a report of operations for the year just past and a 
project for the incoming year. 

The organization of the service was in the main preserved, and the 
door opened to talented geologists from all parts of the country. 

Assistants (volunteers) were chosen in the various counties, and a 
personnel as above stated resulted. New instructions govern the taking of 
field-notes for the new map (1:80,000), in which the general disposition 
and scale of colors, already adopted, has been maintained, and the number 
of conventional signs employed reduced to 100. The notes are usually 
taken at the scale of 1 : 80,000, but in more interesting or intricate districts, 
at the scale of 1:40,000 (upon the war-service maps with curves), or even 
at a larger scale. The number of copies issued has increased from two to 
five hundred. 

Various special maps have been issued, as the Hydrologic Map of the 
Department of the Seine (scale 1:25,000), Map of the Subterranean Hy- 
di-ology of Beauve ; also Agronomical Map of the Environs of Paris, scale 
1 : 40,000; also the Departments of Seine and Marne from 1864-78. There 
are also several geologico-agronomical maps of various "arrondissements," 



304 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAIJINE SURVEYS. 

issued, and in the course of execution by various authors, and especially of 
the Department of the Isfere, 4 maps, showing as follows: (1) Geological 
formations. (2) Agricultural lands. (3) Agricultural regions. (4) Classes 
of cultivation. This work, on a modest appropriation, is being carried on 
with vigor. 

AXaERIA. 

Geologic. 

The geological examination is directed by the Corps of Mines, its actual 
director being M. Pouyanne, Engineer-in-Chief of Mines. Several impor- 
tant memoii's, with detailed geological maps, were published between 1850 
and 1880. Recently has appeared a geologic map at the scale of 1 : 800,000, 
in 5 sheets, under the title of "Carte G^ologique pi'ovisoire des provinces 
d' Alger, d'Oran, et de Constantine," par MM. Pomel, Pouyanne, et Tissot. 
Alger, 1881 ; with " texte explicatif," in 2 memoirs. 8°. Algiers, 1881 and 
1882. 

SWITZEELAND. 

Topographic. 

The Confederation of Switzerland, with an area of 15,978 square miles 
and population of 2,846,102 in 1880 (average per square mile 178), is pro- 
ceeding with the preparation of a topographic map of the territory in 561 
sheets, 442 at tlie scale of 1:25,000 for the valley parts, and 119 at 1:50,000 
for the mountain region. 

The publication of this atlas is intrusted to the (Bureau Topographique 
F^d^i-ale) Federal Topographic Bureau of the General Staff at Berne, with 
a Colonel of the Corps of Military Engineers at its head, according to the 
authority of the following act of the Confederacy of December 18, 1868: 

Aetiole 1. The Confederation undertakes the publication of the topographical 
surveys at the original scale, and makes appropriations for defraying their cost ac- 
cording to the following provisions. 

Akt. 2. The publication must proceed upon a common plan. The issue of each 
sheet must proceed by a revision or reworking of the original survey sheet. 

Art. 3. Thepublicatiou of the atlas shall only take cfi'ect when public depart- 
ments, societies, or private parties legally bind themselves to pay half of the first cost 
of engraving and printing. 



SWITZEELAED— TOPOGEAPHIC. 305 

Art. 4. The succession in the publication of the sheets will be governed accord- 
ing to the contracts (Art. 3) made. 

Art. 5. The federal council is charged with the execution of this act. 

The following act was also passed the same day.- 

An Act regulating the continuation of the topographical survey. 

Article 1. The topographical survey and mapping of the territory of the Con- 
federacy, shall be proceeded with in all Cantons in which there has been no regular 
topographical survey hitherto made. 

Art. 2. The survey is to be made on a scale of 1:25,000. The cost of the work 
shall be borne in equal parts, by the Confederacy and Cantons. 

Art. 3. The federal council determines the succession and extent of the sur- 
vey annually to be executed, and is generally charged with the execution of this law. 

The following is taken from the law of December 20, 1878, regarding 
the completion and security of triangulation in the Swiss forest domain : 

Article I. The federal council charges the Staff Bureau with the completion and 
protection of the triangulation of the first, second, and third orders in the Swiss forests. 

Art. II. For this work the amount of 15,000 francs (approximately $3,000) is 
annually appropriated. 

Art. III. The Cantons furnish the timber for, and cost of erection of, sig- 
nals upon requisition of the federal engineers. 

Article V. The Cantons are held responsible for the care and protection of 
these triangulation stations. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Switzerland is divided into 22 cantons, 3 of them being subdivided 
into half cantons. The cantons are divided into communes. 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

Switzerland is divided into 8 territorial military divisions, which are 
subdivided into 32 regimental districts, and these again into battalion dis- 
tricts, of which there are 96. 

There is another division into recruiting circles, which correspond 
either with regimental districts or Avith from 1 to 3 battalion districts. 
There are 75 recruiting circles. 

Switzerland adopted the French metric system of measures January 1, 
1873, which has been in full legal force since January 1, 1877. 

The jyersonnel of the topographic division in 1875 was as follows: 

1. The engineers. 

2. The topographers and draughtsmen of the oflice. 
1366 WH 20 



306 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

3. The eugi-avers on copper and the lithographers. 

4. The printers. 

The engineers* comprise — 

(«) One verification engineer. 

(6) One trianguiation engineer. 

(c) A number of engineers for the revision; and 

{d) A number of engineers for new surveys. 

The office topographers and draughtsmen (regularly appointed) com- 
prise — 

One topographer as draughtsman. 
One topographer as engineer. 

A number of contract topographers and draughtsmen, who are paid from tho 
survey and publication fund as well as from cantonal contributions. 

Generally the engineers executing new surveys are paid by the square 
stundef of v^^ork done, and by special agreement. The other engineers- 
receive either yearly salaries or are paid by the day. 

Scale. — The topographic survey of the territory comprising the Alps 
is made at a scale of 1 : 50,000, and that of the country outside of the high 
mountain regions at 1:25,000. These same scales are adhered to in tho 
publication of the atlas. 

On the index map (Uebersicht der Blatter) the extent of the surveys, 
made at scales of 1 : 25,000 and 1 : 50,000, are indicated respectively by 
small and large rectangles. 

The sheets of the topographic atlas (1:25,000 and 1:50,000) are 
adjusted to the sheets of the topographical atlas (Dufour atlas), as follows: 
One sheet of the latter (1 : 100,000) is equal to 16 sheets of the 1 : 50,000 
and 64 sheets of the 1 : 25,000 atlas sheets of the new publication. 

Each sheet of the Dufour map is composed of 16 survey sections. In 
the new publication one section, scale 1 : 50,000, forms a sheet of like 
shape and dimensions, whereas at a scale of 1:25,000 the sections ar3 
divided into 4 subsections, each one forming one sheet. 

By this arrangement, uniformity in shape and size of the sheets at 
1 : 50,000 and 1 : 25,000 is obtained, viz : 0'".35 by 0".24, corresponding to 
an area of 17,500 meters from west to east and 12,000 meters from south. 

' Not regularly and permanently appointed, the number depending on the means at disposal. 
One square stunde is cqnal to 8.sy6 square miles. 



SWITZERLAND— TOrOGRAPHIC. 307 

to north at a scale of 1 : 50,000, and 8,750 meters from west to east and 
6,000 meters from south to north at a scale of 1 : 25,000. 

The numeration of the sheets is twofold. On the left hand of the tipper 
margin of the new map the sections and subsections of the Dufour map 
corresponding to the sheet are indicated. Each sheet receives a number 
which is placed to the right on the upper margin, and these consecutive 
numbers correspond again with the sheets and sections of the Dufour map. 

In the rectangle on the right hand of the upper margin the number of 
the connecting sheets, according to their respective positions, are given. 
Finally each sheet receives as a heading the name of the most important 
place it contains. 

Surveys. — The primary and secondary triangulation net, covering all 
of Switzerland and connected with those of the adjacent countries, fur- 
nishes the base for the tertiary triangulation of the several Cantons, from 
which again the detailed topographic measurements proceed. 

The instruments used in the surveys are : at 1 : 25,000, the common 
plane-table and Alidade, with a vertical circle, orienting compass and 
stadia. For measurements (1 : 50,000) in the high mountain regions, a 
small plane-table is used and as a rule no stadia. 

Since the beginning of the topographic surveys, in 1837, the method 
of equidistant level curves has been exclusively adopted for the representa- 
tion of the relief of the terrestrial formations. 

The vertical distance between the level curves is 30° for the scale of 
1:50,000, and 10°" for that at 1:25,000, and in a few exceptions 8° and 4", 
respectively. 

The meter measure was adopted from the beginning, and all heights 
refer to sea level. 

Drawing. — The sheets of the topographic atlas are almost an exact 
copy of the original surveys. The lettering, the figures denoting the 
heights (bench-marks), roads, towns, and isolated buildings, border-Hnes, 
forests, and rocky prominences are printed in black; the horizontal curves 
in bronze, and the water in blue colors. The small slopes and passes, nar- 
row cuts and defiles, the forms of which cannot very well be indicated by 
curves of the adopted equidistances, are delineated by brown hachures. 



308 GOVEENMBNT LAND AND MARINE SUEVEYS. 

Rocky surfaces, bare of earth and vegetation, are represented by black hori- 
zontal curves; that is, as far as the degree of inclination of such surfaces 
permits. Masses of rock and precipices, which on account of their steep- 
ness cannot be delineated by curves at equidistances as used in this map, 
are drawn by black hachures, and in such a manner that the outline of the 
rocky formations, which have been previously determined by measure- 
ments, is expressed pictorially by the aid of oblique illumination. 

In the general representation of the topography every tenth curve is 
a dotted line, and the height is indicated by figures in brown ; Idotted curves 
are also tised to mark the beginning and end of slopes, and as interspace 
curves, to express easy surface undulations. 

The black figures give the height in meters of the points whereon they 
are marked, above sea level. 

Net of co-ordinates. — The points of the geographical longitude and lat- 
itude degree net are computed according to Flamsteed's modified projection. 
The longitude and latitude degrees, the former reckoned from the meridian 
of Paris, are indicated from 10 to 10 seconds on the margin of the sheets 
(1:25,000) and from 30 to 30 seconds on the sheets (1:50,000). The sheets 
are also divided into sections by rectangular co-ordinates, referring to the 
meridian of the observator}^ at Berne; the rectangular sections are 6 by 6 
centimeters, each side corresponduig to a length of 1,500™ on the larger and 
3,000™ on the smaller scale. 

Print. — The sheets (1:25,000) are copper engraved, and those of the 
high mountain districts (1:50,000) are lithographed. 

The well-known, complete, and artistic chart of Switzerland, commenced 
in 1830 by General Dufour (the first sheet published in 1842), and finished 
in 18G4, is on the scale of 1:100,000, in 25 sheets. This map is still revised 
from time to time, and the plane-table sheets then executed are the basis of 
the present detailed map. The materials available for the new map were 
either the field topographic sheets made under General Dufour or by the Can- 
tons subsequent to 1837. Where these were of the scale of 1:100,000, 
and without level curves, an entire reworking became necessary, and all 
the old sheets are revised and corrected. The price fixed in 1873 was 
from 700 to 800 francs per square stunde on the 1:25,000 scale, depending 



SWITZERLAND— TOPOGRAPHIC. 309 

on the character of the field work, and about one-half of the above of the 
1:50,000 scale. The co-ordinates of the trio-onometric points are furnished 
the engineers, who add the topograph}^ The engraving and printing is 
done partly in the office, but principally by contract with private ])arties. 
For instructions for the topographical work at the scales of 1:50,000 and 
1:25,000, also for the revision of the survey sheets, see Comstock: "Notes 
on European Surveys." 

Of the 561 sheets of the topographical atlas there had been issued to 
July 1, 1885^95 sheets, scale 1:50,000, and 355, scale 1:25,000, or 4£0 
in all. Independent of this special topographic series, there are also being 
issued at the Federal Topographic Bureau a General Topographic Map 
of Switzerland, scale 1:250,000, in 4 sheets, and the famous Dufour Atlas 
(being, on account of the high merit of field work and artistic representa- 
tion, especially of the Alps, a model), comprising 25 sheets, scale 1 : 100,000.* 

The detailed topographic sheets, 1:50,000 and 1:25,000, serve as a 
basis for the geological chart of Switzerland. 

Experiments in methods of reproduction have been made for special 
maps. Cadastral surveys have been undertaken by several of the cantons, 
at 1:200, 1:500, and various other scales, as follows; Berne, 1845, 1867, 
1874; Fribourg, 1841; Solotheurn, 1823, 1857, 1864; Schaffhausen, 1846 ; 
Waadt, 1804, 1812, 1841, 1863, 1883; Neuenburg, 1864; Geneva, 1711, 
1778, 1841. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Geologic. 

The geological examination of Switzerland is conducted under a Com- 
mission of the Helvetic Natural History Society, over which Prof. B. Studer, 
at the age of ninety, presides.f This work is carried on without an office 
furnished by the Government, or a paid secretary, the president even being 
charged with the correspondence. 

The Commission consists of 5 members selected by the Society, Avhich 
number may be increased. In a printed statement, submitted by Professor 

" lu addition to the miscellaneous maps given on page 128, may be noted an oro-hydrographic 
map of Switzerland, scale 1:500,000, lithographed, 7 colors, with curves at 100'" interval, in brown 
shading. 

t Professor Studer resigned this year, 1885, at the age of ninety-two. His successor has not yet 
been appointed. 



310 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Studer at the Venice Congress, he remarks that "the geological study of a 
country is only possible upon the condition that one possesses good topo- 
graphic maps of it." 

The Commission is accountable to the Government for moneys received, 
reporting annual progress to the Society. The basis of the Geological 
Map is the Dufour Topographic Map of Switzerland (scale 1 : 100,000, 
25 sheets). The collection of the data is intrusted to geologists, selected 
by the Commission, who are furnished with field maps on an increased 
scale, existing publications, &c. The Commission is also authorized to pur- 
chase, pay for, accept and publish results of private examination, if deemed 
appropriate, and is charged with the i^ublication of the Geological Maps, 
profiles, explanatory text, fossil illustrations, &c., and to make them known 
in scientific circles. The maps available for field use are of scales from 
1:100,000 to 1 to 25,000, a topographic base for Alpine work being 
sometimes still wanting. 

The Helvetic Society essayed the investigations necessary for a map of 
Switzerland in 1828, but were hindered by want of funds, whei'eas, com- 
mencing in 1830, Colonel (afterwards General) Dufour commenced the 
Topographical Survey of Switzerland, finishing the work and publishing 
the results in 34 years. 

The appropriation for the geological examination pays for but little 
more than the cost of publications, and for traveling expenses of the geol- 
ogists, and even till now the studies and travels of the geologists were 
participated in by volunteers, who pay their own expenses. The result has 
been a number of good maps of the Jura Region, but in the Alps the want 
of good topographic preliminary maps had opposed almost insurmount- 
able difficulties in fixing the limits of formations, until the excellent maps 
of Dufour were produced. In 1859 the Federal Government ofl^ered to the 
Society an annual grant of francs 3,000 ($600), to be employed in useful re- 
searches, with which it was proposed to publish a General Geological Map 
based upon the atlas of Dufour. This proposition was agreed to by the So- 
ciety and by the Federal Council, and the Commission above mentioned 
organized. This sum did not permit of a complete organization, and 
volunteer geologists (for whose professional work tlie Commission is not 
responsible) have of necessity been employed. 



SWITZERLAND— GEOLOGIC. 311 

Even in the modest limits practiced the sum granted has been found 
insufficient, often being exhausted by the pubHcations of a single sheet. 
According as new publications have appeared, the grant has been aug- 
mented until it now reaches five times the original sum. It has been im- 
possible to follow a logical order in publications, since the limited funds and 
conveniences of observers directed them to the Jura and lower levels, while 
the Alps required moi'e time and effort. The results thus obtained by a 
number of independent observers, it appears, are to be reviewed and har- 
monized, in which some districts consume more time than others. 

The publications are 20 volumes, quarto, of text and plates and maps 
issued between 1862 and 1880. 

Of 25 topographic sheets of Dufour's Atlas, 19 geologically colored, 
have appeared, and the three most difficult sheets, numbered XIII, XIV, 
and XVIII, comprehending the Central Alps, will be issued at the beginning 
of 1886. Then the three last sheets are occupied by the titles, and very 
large parts of Savoy and Lombardy. The resulting works prepared partly 
by amateurs, as well as experienced geologists, require revision and unifi- 
cation, while in the Alps more detailed examinations are yet required, 
which it is understood will be taken up as fast as the present detailed to- 
pographic maps of the War Service become available.* 

HOLLAND. 

Topographic. 

Since the completion in 1864 of the General Topographic Map of 
Holland (scale 1:50,000 — 62 sheets) the War Department of Holland has 
been engaged in the production of a map (scale 1:25,000 — 776 sheets) by 
titilizing the old field minutes (taken at a scale of 1 : 25,000 since 1854), and 
by a new detailed reconnaissance where necessary. This map is produced 
by chromolithography (process Eckstein), and kept solely for the confi- 
dential use of the war branch of the Government. The area of Holland 
is 555 square German miles, or 13,740 square statute miles, with 4,323,647 
population in 1880, or an average of 315 per square mile. 

" The maps and profiles are en2;ravcd and piiutcd in cbromolitliography by J. Wnrster, of Zurich 
and Winterthuu, tlie publisher of the two editions of the " Geological map of the World," in 8 sheets, 
by Jules Marcou. 



312 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The length of the coast line from the Helder to Flushing is given at 
250 kilometers, and that of the coast of Friesland and Groningen at 1 25 kilom- 
eters. There are 8 ports on the North Sea, Rotterdam the most impor- 
tant, and 8 on the Zuyder Zee, Amsterdam being the largest. There are 5 
outlying islands of small size, the largest, Texel, being 25 kilometers long. 
The lakes are few in number and small. There are 10 principal streams, 
the length of the Rhine within Holland's territory being about 300 kilom- 
eters (approximately 185 miles). 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Holland is divided into 11 provinces, exclusive of the Grand Duchy 
of Luxembourg (a constitutional government, personally joined to the 
Kingdom of Holland.) 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

For military purposes, Holland is divided into three military districts 
(Afdulingen). The French metric system was adopted in Holland in 1821, 
and since 187-0 has been in use. 

Officers of the General Staff, under the Chief of that Bureau, condact 
•the topographic work in the field and prepare the results for publication. 
The Topographic Institute, with Mr. Eckstein as director, "subject to the 
control of the Chief of the General Staff, is charged with the reproduction 
of all the military maps of the country as well as those of the " Waterstaat" 
(1:50,000), Public Works Department, and those of the rivers (1:10,000), 
the Marine and Geological Maps, and the Topographical Charts of the Dutch 
East Indian possessions. The process of obtaining an almost endless 
number of shades of color in 3 to 5 impressions by the combination of 3 
basic colors, has been invented by the director, Mr. Eckstein, and will be 
again mentioned under the head of reproduction processes. 

The works of survey now actually being carried out in Holland are : 

1. Fresh reconnaissances and measurements of height for the new 
detailed chart, scale 1:25,000, by the General Staff. 

2. Collections of new field data for the "Waterstaat" chart, scale 
1:50,000, and for the chart of the rivers, scale 1:10,000, by the Civil Engi- 
neers of the Department of the "Waterstaat," Commerce, and Industry. 



HOLLAND— TOPOGRAPHIC. 313 

3. The revision of the marine charts by the Hyclrographic Office. The 
geological maps, based on the topographic map (scale of 1:50,000 reduced 
to 1:200,000), have been completed and issued. 

The work of gathenng the new data for the special topographic 
chart (1:25,000) was begun in 1862-63 and should be concluded about 
1892-93 (30 years), at a total expense for field and office of 500,000 florins 
(approximately $250,000), or at an average cost of about $23.75 per square 
statute mile. The above expense is in addition to the cost of the original 
triangulation and topographic work for the scale of 1 : 50,000, as well as 
also the amount paid for the special cadastral surveys (scales 1 : 2,000, 
1:3,000, 1:4,000), the "Waterstaat" map, scale 1 : 50,000, that of the 
rivers (1 : 10,000), and the cost of the geological survey. It has not 
been practicable to obtain an average of cost for all grades of Govern- 
ment surveys in any country of Europe, because apparently very little, 
if any, carefully prepared data covering the entire cost exists, and detailed 
surveys, begun in many instances 100 years ago, with wars intervening, 
changes of personnel and scales, with frequent alterations ; the progress of 
works of public improvements have made calls of varying proportions, 
and above all, there has been apparently no requirement that details 
of the expenses for the different grades or portions of the work should 
be kept. Enough has been learned, however, from official documents to 
show that the survey of a given area may vary from a sum as small as $1 
to fully $7,000 per square mile, depending upon the nature of the ground, 
its mode of occupation, and the scale and detail of the work.* The present 
annual cost of the reconnaissance of the new special map (which work is 
done by 5 or 6 army officers) is 4,000 florins (approximately $2,000), 
besides salaries and other expenses. This sum comes from the expenses for 
the Topographical Institute, which has annually between 50,000 and 60,000 
florins for its support. 

It has been estimated that the cost of the detailed topographic revis- 
ion work is about $16.50 per square mile. 

* To arrive at the true or actual cost of producing finally a complete detailed topographic map 
of a given scale of a given area, there must be added to the lield and office cost of the current survey 
the prior cost of all surveys made for a like purpose within the same area. All the accurate mathe- 
matical or measurement parts of the survey, at least, live and are perpetuated indefinitely. 



314 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The Topographical Institute reproduces all maps for the War Depart- 
ment, also the "Waterstaat" and river charts, the marine charts, and also 
those of the East Indian possessions, and occasionally certain cadastral 
sheets, which as a rule are produced, however, only as manuscript originals 
and traced copies. 

Description of Maps. 

Scale 1 : 50,000. — This map, constructed after Flamsteed's modified pro- 
jection, consists of 62 sheets (graduated into 30 second divisions, sexagesi- 
mally), one title sheet, one of conventional signs, and index and triangula- 
tion sheets. Each sheet is 0™.8 by O^.S, and numbered from east to west 
and from north to south. They were drawn by officers of the (fitat- 
Major) General Staff", lithographed at the Topographical Institute of the 
War Department, the fii'st sheet having appeared in 1850 and the last in 
1864. 

This map was begun about the year 1830; the field minutes were 
drawn to the scale of 1 : 25,000. The cadastral surveys of the communes, 
reduced to the above scale, were taken advantage of on the ground as 
the field work proceeded, the whole being based on a connected principal 
and secondary triangulation. The triangulations were first made by the 
use of the " Borda" repeating circle and an English sextant, a special theodolite 
replacing the foi-mer instrument. The average area covered by a topog- 
rapher, for this class of field minutes, was, for a season, of five to six months, 
on plain ground, 140 sq. miles (25 sq. miles approximately per month), and 
for broken ground 96 square miles (17.5 square miles approximately per 
month). For the topographic relief a modification of the Lehmann system 
was adopted, on account of the very gentle slopes. A level compass served 
to obtain the angles of elevation to the highest points ; the levels of the 
engineers-of the "Waterstaat" were used as well as barometric observations. 
The plane of comparison passed through a point on the large sluice of the 
Amsterdam Canal, the zero being nearly the mean height of sea level at 
this place. Absolute heights above the plane of comparison are expressed 
in meters. In the plains ("polders") the mean height of the summer low 
water above and below this plane is indicated. The boundaries of the state 



HOLLAND— TOPOGRAPHIC. 315 

•and provinces alone are shown. The names of the cities, villages, hamlets, 
chateaux, canals, &c., are expressed in Roman characters, other objects of less 
importance in italics. The river charts, 1 : 10,000, as well as the hydrographic 
maps, were consulted and compared, while for the areas outside the limit of 
the state, needed to complete the full atlas sheets, the best existing maps 
were taken, as, for instance, forPi'ussia the Etat-Major map (scale 1:80,000) 
^nd for Belgium the military map (scale 1 : 20,000). 

The principal meridian passes through the west tower ("Westerto- 
ren") of the West church of Amsterdam. The parallel of latitude 51° 30' 
N. was adopted as the mean, many computations having been based upon 
it instead of the parallel of 52° 10' N, more nearl}' the actual middle par- 
allel, dividing the territory equally. The origin of co-ordinates is the in- 
tersection of the above meridian and parallel. Each sheet is known by its 
number, and the name of the principal place within it. Along the middle 
of tlie border, the names of the adjacent sheets are indicated. A small in- 
dex of 9 rectangles is found in the upper left-hand corner, showing the 
position of the eight surrounding sheets. There is stated below the lower 
border of the later sheets the year of field work and of the engraving. 
Two scales are given, one for 10,000 meters and another for 10 meters. 
The map has been found to be of great and increasing use, in construction 
of railroads, canals, roads, and all other public works of every extent, car- 
ried on by the Government or as a private industry. 

The index chart is a reduction of the 62 topographic sheets, and is 
finely executed. 

Scale 1 : 25,000. — This map is produced by chromolithography (pro- 
cess Eckstein) in the colors of black, blue, red, green, and pink of varying 
tints. 

No latitudes or longitudes are shown; the area of each of the 776 sheets 
is about 20 square miles; the area of the sheet covered by topography, 
comprising Schiedam as its principal localitj^, is 151 inches by 9f inches, 
and is without curves. 

This is the new detailed topographic map of Holland, held alone for 
the use of the Government through its War Department. It is considered 
a confidential publication, although copies were displayed for the first time 



316 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

at Venice. The planimetry is in black; rivers, canals, and waters in blue ; 
settlements and lines of communication in red, cultivated parts in various 
shades of green, every foot-path even, and all objects of any importance 
either natural or artificial are represented. 

The sheets are known by name and number, and follow a special 
system of conventional signs. 

They are excellently produced, extremely clear and agreeable to the 
eye, and the best specimens of map chromolithography yet seen by me. 

^^Waterstaat" Map, scale 1:50,000. — This map, upon which the areas 
of the several " polders" are shown in colors, is based upon the General 
Topographic Map, scale 1 : 50,000. Four " polder" sheets, or Waterstaat 
charts, constitute one of the regular topographic sheets, scale 1 : 50,000. 
Polders discharging their waters into the same gulf are shown by the same 
tint; those surrounded by a small stripe of a darker tint do not discharge 
their waters direct into a gulf or basin except through another polder, while 
those conjoining have the same color and gulfs, and flooded lands are 
uncolored. 

The areas of polders are expressed in hectares and printed in red figures 
within the polder, the heights being given in meters above or below Amster- 
dam gauge. The dikes surrounding the polder, that serve also as a means of 
communication, either as roads or paths, are denoted in red. The sea and 
river dikes that require special protection have a separate conventional sign. 

The discharge sluices are given in red, and the water, wind, or steam 
mills for discharging polders are specially shown. The low-water line is 
given in blue, as also the land that is dry at that stage. Each sheet has 
printed upon its border a detailed description of the hydrographic pecu- 
liarities of the area delineated thereon. 

Map of Principal Bivers, 1:10,000. — After the great floods in 1822, 
a commission was formed to determine the best means of controling the 
waters in time of flood, winter and summer, which led, upon the recom- 
mendation of this commission, to a Royal decree in 1829, ordering a com- 
plete hydrographic description of all the rivers traversing the territory 
exposed to inundation, and the formation of a collection of special maps of 
the principal rivers of the Kingdom. Special geodetic and topographic 



HOLLAND— TOPOGRAPHIC. 317 

operations were earned on, in order that there should be the fullest confi- 
dence in the exactness of the results. 

This work was commenced in 1829, and terminated in 1864, by the 
engineers of the " Waterstaat," and there resulted six series of maps which 
are described in an official report issued in 1855, followed by a supple- 
ment in 1860. 

The projection is the Flamsteed modified, the borders of the sheet 
being parallels and perpendiculars to the meridian, passing through the 
clock of the West church (" Westerkerk") of Amsterdam. 

The origin of co-ordinates is the intersection of the above meridian by 
the parallel of 51° 30' N. The field survey has been made at the scale of 
1:5,000 and the engraved map (in black) at that of 1:10,000. The main 
triangulation of the war service was taken as a base to which was added a 
secondary and tertiary triangulation, with special topographic and hydro- 
graphic observations, along the course of each stream. Use was also made 
of the field notes of the cadastral survey. The meander i-oute along the 
valley of each stream (" thalweg"), indicated by a dotted line, gives the 
mean depth of water in decimeters, referred to the level of mean summer 
routes at each point. 

The form of the bed of the rivers has been determined by means of 
cross-sections, one kilometer apart, numbered from the direction of the stream 
downward, shown by a dotted line and Roman figures. The point at which 
each of the cross-sections is made, is connected with a network of special 
cords, to which the levels within which the perimeters of the overflowed 
areas are referred, and connection is made also with a special register of 
soundings referred to mean low water in summer, made simultaneously 
with the cross-section. The register also contains the description of all ar- 
tificial objects, as revetments, levees, dikes, sluices, bridges, &c. These 
registers are later on supplemented by a collection of hydrographic data, 
disseminated here and there in manuscript form. These charts have pro- 
ven of great benefit, and are specially a necessity in a country, the pros- 
perity of which depends so much upon an active and incessant supervision 
and control of the principal water-courses traversing its territory. The fol- 
lowing are the 6 series: (a) Map of the " Haute Meuse" from Visd to Won- 



318 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

drichem, in 34 sheets, from 1849 to 1855; (h) Map of the Upper and 
Lower Rhine, from the Leek, and of the New Meuse fromLobithto Brielle, 
also of the ancient Rhine and of the " Noord," in 20 sheets, from 1830 to 
1835; (c) Map of the Upper Rhine, of the Wahal, of the Merwede, of the 
Old and part of the New Meuse, from Lobith to Brielle, &c., in 14 sheets, 
1830 to 1833 ; (d) Map of the Yssel, from Westerwoort to Kampen, in 20- 
sheets, 1840 to 1844; (e) Map of the Yssel Hollandaise, from Gonda to 
Ijsselmond, in 3 sheets, 1856 to 1860; (/) Map of the Old and New Mer- 
wede, &c., in 9 sheets, 1857 to 1858. The above gives the number issued, 
in 1865 (see Repertoire de Cartes, huitifeme livraison, pp. 59-63). 

The Cadastral Survey originally completed at the scale before men- 
tioned and now undergoing simple revision and repartition, is executed 
under the Finance Depai'tment, but the sheets (the total number of which 
was not learned) are not usually reproduced except in such small numbers 
as are actually required by the Government. Elaborate and carefully ex- 
ecuted legends of conventional signs for the maps, both in black and colors,, 
are prepared and printed at the Topographical Institute, as well as studies 
in the art of topographical representation, with specimens at various scales 
from 1 : 5,000 to 1 : 50,000. 

The Topographical Institute, "Waterstaat" organization and Hydro- 
graphic Survey are considered permanent works. They are established by 
Royal decree and cannot be changed by legislative act. In the topographic 
office about half of the employes are permanent, the balance temporary. 
No reports of current observations are published, an annual report in man- 
uscript only being submitted to the War Minister, through the Chief of the 
General Staff. The only publication of the Topographical Institute, other 
than maps, so far as known, is a volume entitled ("Meet Kunstige beschry- 
ving van het Koningryk der Neederlanden,") Geometrical Account of the 
Kingdom of the Netherlands, relating to General Triangulation of the King- 
dom, vipon which all the maps are based. 



HOLLAND— GEOLOGIC. 319^ 



HOLLAND. 

Geologic. 

A geological map of Holland (scale 1 : 200,000 — 28 sheets), based on the 
military map (scale 1 : 50,000 — 62 sheets), reduced, has been prepared and 
published, and the labors connected with it closed. The publication of this 
map is due to the efforts of a commission appointed in 1852 for the investi- 
gation, and principally to the late Dr. W. C. H. Staring, who carried the work 
to completion, after the dissolution of the commission. The borders of the 
sheets (each of which embraces four times the area of a full topographical 
sheet, scale 1 : 50,000) are divided to 5' in arc, both latitudinally and 
longitudinally, and are of the size 0".4 by 0™.25, being numbered from. 
west to east and north to south. 

These maps were prepared and published at the Topographical Bureau 
of the War Department at The Hague, by Messrs. Weelden and Mingelen, 
at the rate of 1 florin per sheet. The geological signs are printed in colors 
upon the original engraving. The primary, secondary, and tertiary for- 
mations are distinguished, the diluvian earths, such as those of the Meuse, 
of the Rhine, as well as the alluvium of diverse origin, the dunes, the coast, 
the banks, marshes, peat-bogs and cultivated valleys are comprised in the 
subdivisions. The geological signs are clear and one can easily distin- 
guish the various soils, &c. This map, although purely a geological one, 
enjoys a high rank as a cartographic production. 

The title of this geological map is "Geologische Kaart van Nederland." 
The title of the geological work was "Commissie voor de Geologische 
Kaart van Nederland." 

Finally, a reduced map of Holland has been officially published, in six 
small sheets, under the title of "Geologische Kaart van het Koninkrijk der 
Nederlanden," by C. A. C. Kruijder, in 1880. It is used by all the bureaux 
of the Dutch Government and in schools and colleges. 



320 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



LUXEMBOUEG. 

Geologic. 

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is situated between north latitude 
49° 35' and 50° 16' and longitude 23° 20' and 24° 05' east of meridian of 
Isle of Ferro. Its area is 2,587 square kilometers, approximately 724 
square miles ; population, 209,570 in 1880, or an average of 275 inhabitants 
per square mile. 

From the geological point of view, it is composed of two parts of an 
entirely different nature, the (Oesling) Ardennes and the "Gutland" (good- 
land). 

The Society of Natural Sciences of the Grand Duchy, founded in 1850, 
imposed upon itself as a principal task the study of the natural history of 
the country from a purely scientific standpoint, assuming that the solution 
of this problem depends in a great measure upon the compilation of a 
detailed geological map of the country. The initiative was mainly due to 
His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Holland. 

A commission of 9 persons (geologists and engineers) was named for 
this purpose. It was decided at first to prepare the field minutes of each 
commune separately on the scale of 1:10,000, or at smallest 1:20,000, and 
leaving the fixing of the scale for the final map to a later date. The divis- 
ion into formations at this time laid down provisionally was adhered to, 
and appears in the second volume of the publications of the Society of 
Natural Sciences (1854, p. 192). The alluvium and other Quaternary 
deposits were not at first delineated for fear of losing clearness and scien- 
tific merit. 

The field work commenced in the autumn of 1855. Four maps were 
definitely colored at the end of the first year. Only little progress was 
made during the autumn of 1856, there being but two observers. At the 
end of 1862 the maps of 25 communes had been completed and 9 others 
begun. In 1862 Professor Wies remained as the only active member. He 
continued to work during seasons of 1862-63 in the valley of the Moselle. 
Meanwhile the geographical map of Liesch (scale 1:40,000) had appeared, 



LUXEMBOURG— GEOLOGIC. 321 

which was finally adopted as the base and scale foi* the Geological Chart. 
To this were added details acquired in the vicinity of mining districts, and 
the work was accelerated by abandoning the plan of limiting areas of 
investigation to communes, making it in a direct line to cover the remainder 
of the country. The Ardennes were examined during 1864, and the work 
pushed with great activity in 1865. The field work was completed in 1869, 
and revisions consumed the three following years. 

The maps were finally ready for publication in 1874, and upon the 
request of the Government the "Chamber" granted for this purpose the sum 
of 10,000 francs (approximately $2,000), the balance being made up by sub- 
scription. The publication was engraved by Erhard, of Paris, and printed at 
the establishment of Lemercier. As far as possible a single color has been 
employed for a single formation, the subdivisions being indicated by different 
shades. For each division, as near as may be, the choice of the color has 
been made approaching the tint of the ground represented. The diluvium 
of the Quaternary formations have been indicated by hachures alone. 

The chart is issued in 8 sheets (scale 1 : 40,000), with a title and explan- 
atory page, so that it can be mounted as a wall map. The interior size is 
22 by 26^ inches (without latitude or longitude lines or border divisions), 
and printed on paper 25 by 31 inches, in 25 shades of color. 

By an agreement with Germany, the southern portion of the Grand 
Duchy of Luxembourg has lately been added to the Geological investiga- 
tion of Alsace-Lorraine; and an examination based on the provisional topo- 
graphic map, originally made by the French General Staff, scale 1:80,000, 
is now going on under the direction of Mr. Van Werweke. The geological 
maps and explanatory text will be issued at Strasburg. 

DUTCH EAST INDIES (JAVA, &C.). 

Topographic 

Nothing official having been received from the Topographic Bureau 

of the General Staff at Batavia, it is only possible to state that examples of 

topographical maps of Java and Madura (scale 1:100,000), produced in 

chromolithography (process Eckstein) were exhibited at Venice. The 

1366 WH 21 



322 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

field minutes of the surveys of the different residences are gathered at the 
scale of 1:20,000, then colored by hand, at the Batavia office, before being 
transmitted to the Topographic Institute at The Hague for reproduction. 

A photolithographic copy (in black) of the field minutes (scale 1 : 20,000) 
of one of these residences (Passeroean) was also exhibited at Venice. 

Apparently a preliminary or first edition of such maps as may be 
required are published at Batavia. 

The map of Java, in 5 impressions, shows 20 different tints, obtained 
by the combination of 3 primitive colors — blue, yellow, and red. The let- 
tering is by typography (see Plate No. 10). 

Fourteen residences have been published, 3 are in course of execution, 
and 8 have not yet been commenced. 

The topographic work of the East Indian possessions of the Dutch 
Government is being prosecuted vigorously under the Military Topographic 
Bureau at Batavia, with Major Meyer at its head. A brief reference to 
cei'tain of the Government maps issued at Batavia, and to others printed at 
the Military Topographic Institute at The Hague, will be found on p. 129, 
"List of Government maps.'' 

Mr. C A. Eckstein, director of the latter Bureau, has kindly furnished 
a full list of 61 maps or series of maps published at Batavia, which is omit- 
ted for want of space. 

DUTCH EAST INDIES (JAVA, &C.). 
Geologic. 
The Government of Holland has instituted a geologic examination of its 
possessions in the Malay or East Indian Archipelago, commenced in 1871 by 
the Corps of Mines. This geological work publishes each year 2 volumes of 
reports, with maps, geologic, jjaleontologic plates, &c., under the title " Jaar- 
boek van het Mijnwezen in Nederlandsch Oost-Indie." Already 27 volumes 
have appeared. Local geological maps at variable scales, between 1 : 10,000 
and 1:60,000, give the most important regions from a mineral point of 
view. Already general maps of Central Sumatra (scale 1 : 250,000), of the 
Isle of Banca (scale 1 : 300,000), and of Java (scale 1 : 700,000) have been 
exhibited at Melbourne (Victoria) in 1880; but these maps are yet in man- 
uscript. The actual director is the Engineer of Mines, R D. M. Verbeek. 



DUTCH EAST INDIES— GEOLOGIC. 



323 



A small geological map, at the scale of 1 : 23,000,000, showing all the 
area surveyed and published until 1883, has been issued with the catalogue 
of the Secretary of the Colonies, at the International Exhibition of Amster- 
dam, in May, 1883. The map is by Chief Engineer of Mines, R. D. M. 
Verbeek. Seventy-four sheets or part of sheets, have already been issued 
as results of this vi^ork. 

The following is a list of geologic maps of the Dutch East Indian 
Archipelago : 



Description or name 
of map. 


Scale. 


Total 
issued. 


1 
By whom issued. 


Administra- 
tion. 


Kemarks. 




Toooo 

25000 
TDD0U3 
450^)00 

buoo 
tiOOOO 

aooimo 
Foinro 

200^)00 

SOttOO 
60000 

tbdoo 

EinJ055 

mo scale. 

rooijinj 

BOOOO 

tbAoo 

23000000 


12 
1 

1 
2 
9 
1 
4 

10 

12 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
5 
1 
2 
1 

1 
1 

1 


Geologic Bnrean 
....do 


. Department 
Ton Kolo- 
nien, o r 
Secretary 
of the Col- 
onies. 

do 


Oidy the central part of the western coast of 
Sumatra and the Nias Islands are embraced. 


Sumatra < 


... do 




... do 


- - 










....do 








This island is the only one which has been 


Banca 


....do 


do 


wholly examined and pnblished. 




... do 




f 


...do 


Only a small part of Western Java has been 
examined. 


Java < 


...do 

... do 














...do 








....do 


Do 


Borneo 






Do 








Soutliem and western coast. 










...do 


do 


South and eastern part. 

A map of the whole island has been Issued in 
1883, by Van Groot. 


laleofBilliton 


.. do 


Timor 5 






....do 


::::;:;;:;: 1 


Districts of Hamenno, Joniho, and Atapapti. 


General geological 


..do 


... do . .. 


The parts which have not been geologically 
examined arc left in white. 


map of Dntch Eaat 
Indian Archipelago. 







324 GOVEimMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

SFAIN. 

Topographic. 

The geodetic and topographic operations essential for obtaining the 
field data and the subsequent preparation of the General Topographic Map 
of Spain (scale 1 : 50,000 — 1,080 sheets) are conducted by the Geograph- 
ical Statistical Institute, under the " Ministfero de Fomento " or Ministry of 
Public Instruction, Public Works, Agriculture, and Commerce, where it 
was placed by decree of his highness the Regent of the Kingdom, January 
4, 1870. This office, located at Madrid, is under the direction of Field 
Marshal General Charles Ibanez, Corps of Engineers, who is assisted in all 
the labors referring to the map by officers of Engineei's, Artillery, and General 
Staff, Engineers of the " Ponts et Chauss^es," of Mines, and of Waters and 
Forests, and a Corps of Topographical Engineers.* 

All military officers and civil engineers while employed on this duty 
receive an emolument of 1,500 francs (approximately $300) per annum 
above their actual pay, and are appointed at the request of the Director- 
Oeneral. The Corps of Topographers is divided in two classes, viz, 
"Officials" and "Topographers." The nominations to fill vacancies follows 
an examination, after practical experience. The "Officials" (Topographers) 
receive from $500 to $1,500 per annum, and the Topographers at the rate 
of from $300 to $500. 

Meanwhile the General Staff of the War Department are engaged in 
the preparation of military maps, containing itineraries of all routes of 

* The following is translated from a letter dated September 14, 1885, from Field Marshal General 
Ibanez, Corps of Engineers, in charge of the Geographical and Statistical Institute at Madrid : 

"As to the organization of the Institute, which I have the honor to direct, it is neither all mili- 
tary nor all civil, but mixed ; and the Institute itself is under a Civil Department (Ministry of Public 
"Works, Public Instruction, Agriculture, &c.). 

" As to the personnel, the astronomic part is accomplished by officers of Artillery, of Engineers, 
and of the General Staff, as well as by Engineers of the ' Ponts et Chauss^es,' of Mining and Forestry. 

" The geodetic works of the first order have been executed by officers of Artillery, Engineers, and 
General Staff. Triangulations of the second and third orders are confided to certain officials chosen 
from a special civil corps, named Corps of Topographers, which cannot be entered except by competi- 
tion, after being subject to an examination before a comi)etent tribunal. The topographic works are 
-executed by this same Corps of Topographers." 



SPAIN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 325 

communication, surveys of principal cities, theaters of operations, fields of 
battle, in making reconnaissances, &c., having completed in 1866 the itine- 
rary map of Spain, in 20 sheets, scale 1 : 500,000. 

This Bureau also is engaged in the publication of special itineraries of 
certain military districts, of a map of the Isle of Luzon (Phillipines) and 
maps and plans for military historic works. The Geographical Institute 
also publishes a general map of Spain (1 : 500,000), showing division of ter- 
ritory for assigning to the reserves and depots of the army the respective 
zones which furnish their contingents. 

The area of the Kingdom of Spain is approximately 193,286 square 
miles and the actual population in 1877 is stated at 16,625,860, thus giving 
an average of 86 to the square mile. 

There are two cities exceeding 200,000 inhabitants, three with more 
than 100,000, four above 70,000, five larger than 50,000, four exceeding 
35,000, and seven greater than 30,000 people. Spain has no great lakes. 
The most important rivers are the Ebro, Guadiana, Duero, and Guadal- 
quivir. 

The length of the Atlantic sea coast of Spain is approximately 600 miles ; 
that along the Mediterranean approximately 710 miles. The Balearic Isles 
are at a minimum distance of 52 miles from the European, and the Cana- 
ries are at a distance of about 62 miles from the African coast. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

For administrative purposes, Spain is divided into 49 provinces, includ- 
ing the two provinces of the Balearic Islands and the Canaries. The prov- 
inces are divided into districts (pardido judicial) 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

For military purposes, Spain is divided into 14 military districts (cap- 
itanias generales), of which the Balearic Islands and the Canaries form one. 
These districts are subdivided into 49 provinces (general commands), which 
are identical with the civil divisions. There is a further subdivision into 
recruiting districts. 

The measures of length and surface are exactly the same as for France; 
the "metrico decimal" system having been adopted by law in 1848. 



326 GOVERNMENT LANt) AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

ludependent of statistics, the principal labors of this Institute are 
directed to the production of the General Topographic Map aforementioned, 
.scale 1:50,000. Notes on the geodetic and topographic work, translated 
from "Descripcion Geodesica de las Islas Baleares," will be found in Corn- 
stock's' " Notes on European Surveys," and fi'Om which the following, relat- 
ing to the present functions of this service, is quoted : 

It was proposed and approved by the Government — 

1. That the observations ia the fundamental series should be continued prefera- 
bly, following strictly the method which conduces to the compensation of errors by 
the formulas of Bessel and Baeyer, according to special instructions. 

2. That in addition to the central base, already measured, three others should be 
selected and measured, one of which should be situated, as already projected, in the 
most southern part of the Peninsula, and the other two as far north as possible, and 
near the eastern and western coasts. 

3. That the astronomical observatory of Madrid, concui-rently with the Geograph- 
ical Institute, and with due regard to the position of this scientific establishment, 
should commence the determination of latitudes, longitudes, and azimuths at vertices 
of the fundamental series conveniently chosen. 

4. That in the special leveling of precision the system agreed upon in the confer- 
ences of the International Geodetic Association for the measurement of degrees in 
Europe should be adopted, and that this new work should be begun immediately. 

5. That considering the fundamental series as a single system, the general com- 
pensation of errors should be commenced, solving the second group of equations which 
arise from the observations at each station considered independently. 

6. That the triangulations of the first order in the interior of the quadrilaterals, 
and those of the second and third orders, should be commenced in each district ac- 
cording as they may be needed to support other trigonometrical net- works. To secure 
the surest execution of this plan and a convenient uniformity in all the work, the fol- 
lowing measures were adopted: Four commissions, composed of chiefs and officers of 
the corps of artillery, engineers, and general staff, who are detailed to the section of 
geodetic works of the Geographical Institute, were charged with compiling jjrojects 
of instructions ; the first commission for the observation of angles in the geodetic tri- 
aiigulations of the first order, the second for the execution of the first computations 
which are to be made in the same triangulations, with all the necessary models, the 
thii'd for the assistants charged with the construction of the signals of the first order, 
and the last for the service of the heliotrope sections. These projects of instructions 
being presented, they were approved and printed immediately. 

Another commission, similarly formed, proposed the forms of computation to 
solve the equations and substitute the values of the unknown quantities, after they 
were determined, in the work which had been commenced for the general compensa- 
tion; and these, having been approved, were also printed. 

The office work of all field leveling is performed at Madrid, while, for 
the topographical parties, reduction offices are established in the chief 



SPAIN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 327 

places of the region or province under survey, with final revision at the 
central or Madrid office. The distribution for field topographic work is 
first by provinces, subsequently by regions and communes. 

The scale is fixed at 1 : 50,000, each sheet embracing 20' in longitude, 
by 10' in latitude, the surface being considered as a plane. For example, 
the sheet which contains Madrid is bounded by parallels of 40° 20' and 
40° 30' N. latitude and the meridians of 0° 10' E. and 0° 10' W. longi- 
tude from the asti'onomical observatory, constituting an area for this as for 
all other sheets in the form of a trapezium. 

The value of the arcs of meridian and latitude corresponding to each 
belt of sheets is specially calculated. The belts commence at 36° N. lat- 
itude and end at 43° 40' N. latitude, while the greatest difference of the 
northern and southern lines of the trapezium for any sheet is O^'.OG, and for 
the eastern and western, that of 0™.00048. 

The map is engraved on stone in 5 colors — black for arable ground 
and lettering; blue for water-courses, &c. ; red for buildings, constructions, 
and ordinary routes ; green for forests, horticultural tracts, and grazing 
lands ; and sienna for the level curves at equidistances of 20 meters, with 
intermediate altitudes of 10 meters interval. Prior to the establishment 
of this map, the atlas of Colonel Coello, of the Engineers, was the standard 
publication for Spain, which atlas is now possessed by the Government. 

The errors, admissible for triangulation of the first order, are the limits 
adopted for each class of operations by the International Geodetic Commis- 
sion ; however, in the actual operations the probable error has been kept 
smaller than this limit, and the description of the base-measuring, geodetic, 
and levehng operations, with results given in the volumes already published 
by the Institute, show a rigid accuracy, comprehensiveness, and utility, 
which places the triangulation of Spain in the front rank. 

Insti-uments of the liighest order of precision are employed for the 
astronomic, geodetic, and topographic work; among them are construc- 
tions by Brunner Frdres, of Paris. 

The annual cost defrayed from appropriations made in accordance with 
the General Budget is for the personnel 1,379,438 francs, or approximately 
$275,875, and for material, comprising the statistical service and that of 



328 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

weights and measures, the sum of 993,475 francs, or approximately $198,695. 
Total, $474,950 approximately. 

The observations for the principal triangulation commenced in 1855, 
and are at pi-esent nearly terminated, as well as the computations, except 
for compensation of errors. The date of completion is not known, while 
29 sheets of the atlas had been issued in September 1885. 

The publications other than maps consists of " Memoirs," refeiTed to in 
list of publications, special publications bearing on base measurements and 
levelings, as well as volumes of instructions for "Geodetic" and "Topo- 
graphic" work, making in all 19 volumes and 7 pamphlets, exhibited at 
Venice. 

The officers of this Institute* have participated in the measurement of 
the large arc of the meridian from Shetland Islands to Lagbout, and have 
co-operated with the French in joining the geodetic net of Spain with that 
of Algeria. Established among the later European institutions of this char- 
acter, it is enabled to profit by the experience ah-eady acquired in the use 
of the most perfect instruments, and the adoption of new methods, to the 
end that full advantage of all known scientific appliances may be taken, 
with the fixed object of producing a detailed topographic map of the 
highest order of excellence. The relative precision with which bases have 
been measured maybe seen at a glance by reference to page 162 of descrip- 
tion of new base-measuring apparatus (" Nuevo apparatode medir Bases 
Geodesicas"j, by General Ibanez, where errors are given varying from 
.1:200,000 to 1:5,800,000 of the total length. 

It is to these publications, especially the " Memoirs," that reference 
should be had for a correct understanding of the magnitude and precision 
of this work. 

The Cadastral Survey of Spain has not yet been organized, while from 
the same Ministry there are special commissions for the study of the Geology, 
Botany, and Hydrology of the Peninsula, with works well advanced, but 
not as yet published. 

The geology of certain provinces has, however, been published. (See 
"Spain," "Geologic") 

• For details concerning organization of this Institute (.Instituto Geografico y Estadistico) see p. 
C6 Comstook's Notes on European Surveys. 



SPAIN— GEOLOGIC. 329 

SPAIN. 

Geologic. 

In 1831 Spain established a geological examination under the name of 
" Comision del Piano Geologico de Espana." 

Angel Vallejo was appointed director, and in 1832 Guillerao Schulz, 
Mining Engineer, undertook the work in the province of Galicia, which was 
completed in 1834, and published under the title of "Mapa Petrografico de 
Galicia." Six other Mining Engineers were employed between 1831 and 
1835, when civil war interrupted the work. 

A sort of revival of the "Comision" was inaugurated on July 11, 1849, 
by a royal decree, to "formar la carta geologica del terreno de Madrid," 
and to co-ordinate all the data for a general map of the whole Kingdom. 
Francisco Luxan was the chief of this new work until 1852, when he was 
succeeded by Casiano de Prado. In June, 1859, "la formacion del Mapa 
Geologico" was placed under the "Junta General de Estadistica," where it 
remained until April, 1870, when it was entirely reorganized, and trans- 
ferred to the Corps of Mining Engineers, under the title of "Comision del 
Mapa Geologico de Espana." 

In 1873, Don Manuel Fernandez de Castro was appointed director. 
The personnel is composed of eight Mining Engineers, besides the director, 
a secretary, and four professors from the School of Mines, which are added 
as "agregados" or "adjunctos," making fourteen in all. The field notes are 
laid down on a topographic map at the scale of 1 : 200,000, and those issued 
with reports are at the scale of 1 : 400,000. 

A volume of Bulletins (Boletin) is published every year since 1874, 
and the " Memoirias," dating from 1875, appear irregularly as often as the 
description of a whole province is ready. Eighteen provinces have been 
examined and published, as follows: Oviedo, Madrid, Santander, Castellon, 
Albacete, Murcia, Ternel, Cadiz, Laragoza, Cuenca, Caceres, Valladolid, 
Huesca, Avila, Salamanca, Guadalajara, Barcelona, and Valencia. Twenty- 
three provinces are now ready for the press and shortly to be issued, as 
follows: Caruna, Lugo, Oreme, Pontevedra, Segovia, Palenica, Baleares, 



330 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Alicante, Burgos, Loorofio, Socia, Alva, Guipuziva, Vizcaya, TarragoQa, 
Huelva, Toledo, Badajoz, Cordoba, Ciudad-Real, Granada, Navarre, and 
Almeka. 

Of the forty-eight provinces, seven only remain to be examined. In 
March, 1883, Don Manuel Fernandez de Castro, Inspector-General of the 
Corps of Mining Engineers, and director of the geological in-\'estigation, 
published in the "Boletin, tomo X," an index map showing the actual con- 
dition of the work. (See "Comision del Mapa Geologico de Espana, su 
viegen, vicisitudes y circunstancias actuales," Madrid, 1883.) 

The first geological map of Spain is the " Geognostische Uebersichts- 
karte von Spanien," by J. Ezquerra del Bayo, published in Stuttgart, in 
1850 ; of which a revised edition appeared in 1858, at Moscow (Russia). 
It is a very small map without scale. In 1864, de Verneuil and Collomb 
published, in Paris, a larger geological map of the whole Iberian peninsula, 
under the title of "Cai'te G^ologique de I'Espagne et du Portugal," one 
sheet, scale 1:1,500,000. A second edition, revised and improved, with a 
small explanatory summary, was issued in 1868. 

Another general map was published in 1879 by Don Federico de Bo- 
tella y de Hornos, Mining Engineer, and a member of the geological organ- 
ization, under the title of "Mapa Geologico de Espana y Portugal," Mad- 
rid, scale 1:200,000, one sheet. This is a well executed map in chromo- 
lithography, and may be considered as the official geological map. The 
Secretary of the Intei'ior and Public Works (Ministro de Fomento), under 
which the Corps of Mines and the geological investigation are placed, has 
just issued (August, 1885) the first sheet of the complete geological map of 
Spain (scale 1:400,000) as it will finally appear. When finished it will 
comprise 16 sheets. 

CUBA AND POBTO RICO. 

Geologic. 

The "Comision del Mapa Geologico de Espana" has extended its exam- 
inations to the Spanish West Indies. Don Pedro Salterain y Legarra, Chief 
Engineer of the Corps of Mines, is the director at Havana. 



ITALY— TOPOGRAPHIC. • 331 

Several memoirs and geological maps have already appeared in the 
"Boletin de la Comision del Mapa Geologico de Espana;" the last one, 
Tomo XI, No. 1, 1884, contains a geological map of the whole island of 
Cuba (scale 1:2,000,000), by de Castro and Salterain, 1869-1883. 

For Porto Rico, the examination is made by Angel Vasconi, Mining 
Engineer, and a geological map of the island will soon be issued. 

THE CANARIES A1^T> PHTLIPPINE ISIiA3!^DS. 

Geologic. 

The director, de Castro, has divided the geological examination into six 
great divisions or groups, and has placed the colonies in the sixth group 
(sexto grupo), after the 48 provinces of Spain. No. 49 comprehends the 
"Islas Canarias," No. 50 is for the "Isla de Cuba," No. 51 "Puerto Rico," 
and No. 52 "Islas Filipinas." The island of Teneriffe is the first to be 
examined, and already some preparatory work and preliminary memoirs 
have been published on the Canaries and the PhiHppine Islands by the 
Mining Engineers, Casiano de Prado, Jos^ Centeno, and Enrique Abella 
■ y Casariego. But no general or final reports have been yet issued on either 
of the four numbers above, except the "Croquis Geologico de la Isla de 
Cuba," by de Castro and Salterain. 

ITALY. 

Topographic 

The General Topographic Map of the entire Kingdom of Italy, on a 
scale of 1 : 100,000, in 277 sheets, has been in progress since 1862. 

The approximate area of Italy is 111,405 square statute miles, with a 
population in 1879 of 28,459,451, or an average of approximately 255 per 
square mile. The number of large cities aggregating 2,130,595 inhabitants 
is 16 ; 8 of them with a population of more than 100,000 each, 5 with from 
60,000 to 100,000, and 3 from 40,000 to 60,000. There are 155 rivers and 
streams directly discharging into the sea, having an average width at mouth 
of 90 meters, and a length of 74 kilometers, with an average discharge of 



332 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

788 cubic meters— 2,783 cubic feet per second, but none being large enough 
to admit of steam navigation 

The surfaces of Lakes Garda, Iseo, Como, Lugano, and Maggiore, aggre- 
gate 824 square kilometers. There are other lakes, but none of them are 
utilized for steam navigation. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

For administrative purposes Italy is divided into 69 provinces, which 
are subdivided into communes. 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

For military purposes Italy is divided into 10 army corps commands, 
which are subdivided into 20 divisional commands. 

These comprise 88 military districts (distretto militare) each of which 
consists of from 1 to 5 political districts (bezirk, mundamenti.) 

Italy has adopted the metric measurement system. 

The work of the Greneral Topographic Survey is carried on under the 
War Department by the Militar)^ Topographical Institute (Istituto Topo- 
graphico Militare),* a branch of the General Staff of the Ai'my, but with 
power of independent action and self-control, located at Florence, with a 
major-general at its head. 

The Institute was constituted in pursuance of Royal decree of October 
27, 1872, and entered upon its functions January 1, 1873, being one among 
the youngest of any, at the same time possessed of much vitality, having 
profited by the experience of older similar establishments. 

The duties of this Institute embrace the following objects : * 

[Translation from official pamphlet in Italian.] 

I. The executioa of all geodetic and topographic works necessary to obtain the 
data for the construction of the topographic and corographic maps of Italy, and 
those for military and other public services. 

II. The custody of geodetic documents and of the original maps, keeping the 
latter constantly revised. 

III. To cultivate the studies of geodesy, topography, and drawing for the pur- 
pose of creating a skilled personnel of officers of Geographical and Topographical 
Engineers, to perfect the chemico-mecbanical process of reproduction of maps with 
the greatest swiftness, clearness, and precision. 

'Designation now changed to Military Geographical Institute (Istituto Geograflco Militare). 



ITALY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 333 

IV. To join in the works of higher geodesy iuhercDt to the measurement of ter- 
restrial arcs, assuming the part assigned to Italy by the International Commission for 
the European degree measurement. 

For effecting the objects named, the Institute employs a certain number 
of officers and technical employes, and is organized as follows : 

A. The Office of Directiou : (Secretaryship, foreign map archives, administration, 
and accounts.)* 

B. First Division : (Trigonometric reconnaissance, measurement of bases, level- 
ings of precision ; triangulation, geodetic and astronomic publications relative to the 
results of the Institute as well as also to those of the degree-commission.) 

O. Second Division: (Topographic surveys, reconnaissances, and revision of 
maps.) 

D. Third Division : (Preparation of originals of the map, afterwards reproduced 
by means of various chemicomechanical processes, copper-incision, lithography, and 
caleography.) 

E. Fourth Division: (Reproduction of all maps published by the Institute by 
photography, photolithography, photozincography, jihototype, and photoincisiou.) 

The officers are selected from the (fitat-Major) General Staff, Mihtary 
Engineers, Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry. A certain number of selected 
enlisted men are also employed. The principal business of the Institute 
has been that of completing the work already commenced by the Technical 
Bureau of Turin, the survey of Sicily begun in 1862 (scale 1:50,000), and 
of extending that survey also to the southern provinces, gradually perfect- 
ing methods. These works having been pushed with great energy, there 
had been obtained prior to 1881 much material for the general map of all 
Italy (scale 1:100,000 — 277 sheets), and 56 sheets had been actually pub- 
lished by General Avet's process of photoincisiou. At the same time there 
has been in process of preparation a corographic map of the entire King- 
dom (scale 1:500,000 — 24 sheets), of which 5 had been published, in addi- 
tion to the publications on the scales of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000. To these 
labors are added, besides the triangulation charts and the astronomic-geo- 
detic publications, the preparation of the maps of the environs of the prin- 
cipal cities, of military circumscription, of railways and lines of navigation, 
and miscellaneous works, as noted in the Catalogue of the publications of 
the Institute. 

* Under the superior authority of the chief of the General Staff (a Lleutenant-General), the 
Director of the Institute has full and direct executive control of all its works. 



334 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Upon the accession of the present Italian Grovernment, the followiug 
general topographic maps were in existence of separate states, viz: 

1. Map of provinces of the Kiugdom of Sardinia (scale 1:50,000) in progress of 
publication, with reduction to scale 1:250,000. 

2. Map of Island of Sardinia (scale 1:250,000). 

3. Austrian maps of Veneto-Lombardy, Duchies of Parma and Modena and Cen- 
tral Italy (scale 1 : 86,400). 

4. Inghirami's Map of Tuscany (scale 1:200,000). 

5. Map of Kingdom of Naples, by Rizzi-Zanoni (scale 1:114,942). 

6. Map of Island of Sicily (scale 1:200,000). 

These maps of different scales and methods of representation were 
found inadequate, and in 1861 the Government proceeded to the construc- 
tion of a new map of the Neapolitan provinces and, the Island of Sicily. 
New. trigonometric operations were begun, and, by association with the 
International Commission for degree measurement, a modulus as early as 
1865 was given to the astronomic and geodetic features of a comprehen- 
sive topographic work. (See notes on European Survej^s, Comstock, pp. 
54, 55, 56.) The survey of Sicily commenced in 1862 and was finished in 
1868 (scale 1:50,000). The map was reproduced in 1871 by photozinc- 
ography, in 48 sheets, on a scale of 1:100,000. 

The triangulatiou work of the present unified survey is constantly two 
years in advance of the topography. The very best German and Austrian 
triangulatiou and leveling instruments are used. The triangles are very 
nearly equilateral. The personnel consists principally of officers and en- 
listed men of the general service, with the exception of certain technical 
officials, such as computers, engravers, &c. 

The field sheets (scale 1 : 50,000, as also those scale 1 : 25,000) from the 
hands of the topographer are reduced and drawn on the scale of 1 : 75,000 
for the production of the final sheets, scale 1 : 100,000. 

The topographical and drawing divisions are both divided into 4 sec- 
tions, based upon skill and proficiency, with increase of pay according to 
term of service. The officers receive commutation of rations while in the 
field, and have their traveling expenses paid. 

The field work is entirely done by means of the plane-table. A field 
party consists of a captain of the (Etat-Major) General Staff in charge, 
with from five to eight topographers (divided among lieutenants of infantry 



ITALY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 335 

and general service men). Each topographer has two assistants, with stadia 
rods, by aid of which all horizontal measurements are made. The plane-table 
sheets, carefully prepared and mounted in advance, are inked in and practi- 
cally finished in the field. All determined triangulation points are plotted 
and altitudes marked also in advance. These triangulation points as laid down 
on the sheet are first checked and the magnetic meridian is then laid down. 

A very complete instrument is used with the plane-table; the differences 
in elevation are computed at the station, the distances obtained by stadia 
measurements, and the contours drawn at 10 meters apart for the 1:50,000 
scale. 

Field minutes in the Valley of the Po, vicinity of Florence, Rome, 
and Naples, are drawn to the scale of 1:25,000, and certain sea ports at the 
scale of 1:10,0^.0. Several topographers may work upon a single sheet. 
A skilled topographer is expected to cover 50 to 60 kilometers square per 
month (scale 1:50,000) and 20 kilometers square per month on the scale 
of 1:25,000. Each hundredth meter curve is drawn heavy, and on the 
map (scale 1:100,000) the contours, 50 feet apart, alone are expressed. 
Very little engraving is done. Photography is applied to photogravure 
(heliogravure), photozincography, and photolithography. Finished sheets 
are sold to the trade at i lire zr 10 cents. 

Each plane-table sheet (scale 1:25,000) represents about eight months 
work, and is overhauled, revised, and perfected at the Central Office at 
Florence. 

The finishing of the original field minutes is done both by technical 
civil assistants and officers. These finished field minutes are converted into 
finished originals by more skillful draughtsmen, the line work transferred, 
the lettering, hachuring, and curves added. 

Description of maps, scale 1 : 100,000. — Each sheet embraces 30' in longi- 
tude and 20' in latitude, or an area (latitude 41° 40' to 42°) of approxi- 
mately 625 square miles. The surface covered by topography at this 
latitude is 16 inches by 14.25 inches, printed in black, without tint, on paper 
25.5 inches by 23.5 inches. The borders are divided into minutesand foreach 
degree, and each 5 minutes of latitude and longitude is given in figures. The 
topographic reliefs shown by a combination of hachures and contours, 



336 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVEYS. 

the latter at an equidistance of 50 meters and other features in conformity 
to regular conventional signs. Elevations of prominent points in meters 
are given, but none are wi'itten on contours 

The initial meridian is the Observatory (Monte Mario) at Rome. The 
sheet is recognized by name and number. A scale of 10 kilometers is given. 
The reproduction is by the photoincision process of Colonel Avet, reduced 
from scale 1 : 75,000. Nine small rectangles in upper left-hand corner denote 
adjoining sheets. The names and number of the four adjoining sheets 
appear along the respective borders. (The sample sheet examined was No. 
150, issued 1880.) 

Scale 1 : 50,000. — This series is reproduced at once as the field minutes 
on the same scale are completed. The same index as that for the 1:100,000 
map applies, four sheets of the former being equal to one of the latter. 
The area embraced is 15' in longitude by 10' in latitude, or approximately 
156 square miles. The balance of the territory of Italy, excluding the plain 
of the Valley of the Po, the lower Valley of the Arno, the environs of large 
cities, parts of mining regions, and districts of special importance, for which 
field minutes are taken on a scale of 1:25,000, is reproduced upon the field 
notes or minutes to the scale of 1:50,000. In advance of the preparation 
and issue of the general topographic map of scale 1 : 100,000, the field min- 
utes or preliminary sheets are rapidly issued by photogravui-e for army and 
general administrative purposes, and especially for the use of engineers. Top- 
ographic reliefs are shown by curves, with broken hachures for steep summits, 
and printed in black without tint. The meridian of reference is that of the 
Observatory of Monte Mario at Rome. The elevations of prominent points 
are expressed in meters. The contours (unnumbered) are at equidistances 
of 10 meters. 

Degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude are stated at the 4 
corners. The sheet is marked by name and number, and its position as one- 
quarter of corresponding full sheet, scale of 1:100,000. 

Scale 1; 25, 000. — The field minutes of special portions of Italy (see 
description 1:50,000) are taken at the scale of 1:25,000, and rapidly re- 
produced upon receiving revision as to accuracy, without regard to artistic 
effect, for immediate use. Each sheet embraces 7' 5" in longitude by 5' 



ITALY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 337 

in latitude, or an area of approximately 39 square miles. The space cov- 
ered by the topography (sheet 25.75 by 18.75 inches) is 15.5 by 14.25 
inches at 44° 50' to 44° 55'. The border lines are divided to minutes, and 
each 5' in latitude and 7' in longitude stated in figures. Contours are drawn 
at equidistances of five meters, each fifth curve being drawn heavier. Repro- 
duction is by photozincography in black without tint, ordinary topography 
following the system of conventional signs. The initial reference meridian 
is the same as for the above -described sheets. Each sheet is designated 
by name, number, and its relation to the series of scale 1 : 100,000. Scale 
given in kilometers (16 small rectangles, equivalent of 1 sheet of 1:100,000) 
in upper left-hand corner. These sheets are also issued in colors, with black 
as a basis, waters in blue, cultivation in buflP, vineyards in a pinkish red, 
woods in green, and settlements in deep red. 

PROJECTION OF SHEETS. 

Scale 1:100,000. — On this scale meridians and parallels may be consid- 
ered as right lines, within the limits of a single sheet, in consequence of 
which it is desirable to divide up the sheets (each 30' in longitude by 20' 
latitude) into 5' rectangles. It is sufficient to divide the upper and lower 
margins into six equal parts, and the lateral margins into four equal parts. 
The initial longitude is the meridian of the Villa Barberini Observatory on 
Monte Mario near Rome. This observatory was demolished when the for- 
tifications of Rome were destroyed, but the exact location of the old trigo- 
nometric center has been preserved and marked within the works. East 
longitude is considered positive, and western negative ; northern latitude 
positive, and southern negative, and the center of each sheet is taken as 
the origin of co-ordinates for every point contained in it. 

Scale 1:25,000. — The co-ordinates of the points contained in the four 
sheets surrounding the center are obtained the same as those of the sheets, 
1 : 100,000. For the 12 other sheets the co-ordinates of the vertex nearest 
the center must be taken from the co-ordinates, scale 1 : 100,000. 

The map of the Sardinian States (scale 1 : 50,000) has as its center of 
development the Royal Observatory of Turin, whose latitude, according to 
1366 WH 22 



338 GOVEENMENT LA:ND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

the old astronomical determination, is 45° 04' 08".06, and longitude west of 
Monte Mario 4° 46' 02".22. 

The same geographical co-ordinates, calculated geodetically from the 
meridian of Monte Mario, gives : Latitude 45° 04' 14".74, and longitude 4° 
46' 02".63 west. 

The Austrian map of the Lombardo- Venetian territory and of Central 
Italy, on the scale of 1:86,400, has for its origin of co-ordinates the cupola, 
of the cathedral of Milan, whose latit ude was retained, 45° 27' 34".5. The 
origin of the longitude of this map is the meridian of the Island of Ferro, 
with respect to which the center was calculated to be 26° 51' 16". 6. The 
•difFerence of longitude between Monte Mario and Milan is 3° 15' 42". 11. 

The map of the Southern Provinces, on the scale of 1:50,000, has for 
its central point the intersection of the meridian that passes through the 
Royal Observatory of Capo di Monte, with the parallel of 40°. The differ- 
ence of longitude between Monte Mario and the Observatory of Capo di 
Monte is 1° 48' 13".91. 

The map of the environs of Florence, on the scale of 1 : 25,000, has as 
its center of development the Observatory of San Griovannino, the latitude 
of which is calculated to be 43° 46' 26".92. 

The difference of longitude between Monte Mario and San Giovan- 
nino in 1° 11' 60".36. The map of Sardinia of General Lamarmora, on the 
scale of 1 : 250,000, has for its center of development the intersection of the 
meridian that passes through Cagliari (tower of San Pancrazio) with the 
parallel of latitude 39° 13' 14".44. The longitude of this map is con-ected 
from the meridian of Cagliari (tower of San Pancrazio). The difference 
of longitude between Cagliari and Monte Mario is 3° 20' 03".25. In ad- 
dition to the systematic series of maps now being prepared and issued as- 
above, on scales 1:100,000, 1:50,000, 1 : 25,000, the following, supple- 
mented by special marine and cadastral maps, are among the most impor- 
tant of those published and' sold by the Military Topographical Institute at 
comparatively nominal rates. 

1. Ex. Sardinian States, 1:50,000, 89 sheets, finished. 

2. Environs of Naples, 1 : L'5,000, 15 .sheets, 1870. 

3. Environs of Rome, 1:25,000, 9 sheets, 1878. 



ITALY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 339 

4. Environs of Florence, 1:25,000, 9 sheets, 1876. 

5. Environs of Turin, 1:25,000, 4 sheets, 1876. 

6. Neapolitan Provinces, 1:250,000, 25 sheets, 1871-'74. 

7. General railroad map, 1:500,000, 1 sheet, 187G. 

8. Chorographic map, 1:500,000, 24 sheets, in progress. 

9. Lombardy, Venice, &c., 1:75,000, from originals, 88 sheets, scale 1:86,400. 
10. Mount Vesuvius, 1:10,000, G sheets, 1876. 

In Italy as elsewhere the mechanical methods of reproduction are grad- 
ually replacing the slow and costly engraving process, Photozincography 
has been well developed under Colonel Avet, and found to be most useful. 
The heliographic process has nearly passed its stage of probation. Here as 
elsewhere the advantage of securing imperishable originals, cut upon zinc 
or copper, has great weight, since, for periods to come, the finished maps of 
the present century must answer the wants of the Government and public, 
particularly as engravings, hand or mechanical, on stone, will in time dete- 
riorate, as well as paper originals, while the surface of zinc or copper admits 
more readily of the changes inherent to revision. 

The publications of the Institute, other than maps, consisted in 1881 
of 45 volumes and pamphlets (quarto and royal octavo) on astronomic, 
geodetic, topographic, and other results of the survey. 

The work of completing a general topogi'aphic map on the scale of 
1:100,000 from field minutes 1:50,000 and 1:25,000, taking advantage of 
the topographic data hitherto collected, was begun in 1862, and it is esti- 
mated that it may be finished in 1892 (30 years), at a total cost of about 
16,000,000 lire (or approximately $3,333,333) ; of which 8,000,000 lire are 
placed on the extraordinary or special budget, in addition to the regular or 
usual annual fund for the cost of the Institute proper as an ofiice of the Gov- 
ernment. An estimate, obtained by Lieutenant Birnie, U. S. Ordnance, while 
in Florence in 1880, was 25,000,000 lire as the outside limit of cost of the 
preparation and completion of the map (scale 1:100,000 — 277 sheets) from 
field minutes of scales 1:25,000 and 1:50,000. 

The average cost of this special work is 30 lire per square mile, all 
salaries and labor being less than in any country of Europe. Too much 
praise cannot be bestowed upon the Italian Government for meeting the 
call for general as well as detailed maps of its entire tei'ritory in a spirit of 



340 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

equity, substantiating thereby the certainty of uniform results, and a con- 
stant improvement in the "esprit du corps" of the personnel engaged, and 
bringing this section of the globe once more toward the front in the geo- 
graphical undertakings of the Avorld. 

The annual expense, independent of the vaWiX&rj personnel, is 350,000 
lire, which is increased by the cost of the latter to 393,019 lire.* An inde- 
pendent calculation, based on yearly expenditures, by the office of accounts 
at Florence, gives 27 lire as the total cost of triangulation and topog- 
raphy per square mile, an exceedingly modest sum, but it must be borne in 
mind that a large share of the topographic work required had been obtained 
by older surveys. It is expected that the triangulation will be completed 
by January 1, 1890. No other departments of the Government are per- 
mitted to issue general topographical maps, while in turn the detailed maps 
of the Institute become directly available for the geological observers in 
the field, and for the representation of the formations in colors, &c. 

The accuracy of the main and other triangulation is of the first order, 
and follows the plan proposed and adopted by the International Degree 
Measurement Commission, the computations being made in accordance 
with the method of least squai-es. 

The field work of triangulation, topography, and leveling proceeds in 
pursuance of special printed instructions for each branch, and is recorded 
upon blank forms specially prepared to meet the wants of the work in hand. 
The original archives rest with this branch of the War Office, and are 
systematically arranged so as to be permanently available for future refer- 
ence. 



* The Director, under date of September 2, 1885, states that the average cost for feach sheet sca'o 
1: 100,000 (625 square miles), is 5,000 fiancs, for the triangulation, and 12,000 francs for the topography, 
scale 1:50,000, and 36,000 francs for scale l:-.'5,000: or an average of Sl:^. 12 per square mile, at 1:25,000, 
for field-work, triangulation and topography. Ten sheets of the principal map are annually pro- 
<luced, and the above current sum covers the cost of field, office, and publication expenses of the maps 
at scale of the field ujiuutes at 1:100,000 and 1 :.500,000. While the Institute has for its essential aim 
the production of maps for military needs, at the same time maps are supplied to the civil admrnis- 
tration,to which are added explanations and information specially valuable to the officers requiring 
them. 



ITALY— GEOLOGIC. 341 

ITALY. 

Geologic. 

The preparation of the Geological Map of Italy was intrusted by Royal 
decree of 1867 and 1868 to a committee (12 in number), composed of several 
distinguished geologists, named by the King, with a president, who is elected 
annually. Among the other members is the Director of the Military Geo- 
graphical Institute at Florence. Sufficient funds were not at first granted, 
and upon the removal of the capital to Rome a new committee was formed 
by Royal decree of 1873. This committee was composed for the greater 
part of distinguished professors of geology, appointed by the King, with the 
Minister of Agriculture as a member, and also, among others, the Director of 
the Military Geographical Institute at Florence. Regulations require that 
each of the members should have supervision of the various belts of survey. 
The execution of the field work is intrusted to a section of Geological Engi- 
neers, serving in the Royal Corps of Mines, under the direction of one of 
the inspectors of the corps (now Inspector-General F. Giordano), a member 
of the committee, and responsible directly to the Minister, the functions 
of the committee being principally consultive and directed to the exami- 
nations and approval of projects and determination of special scientific 
questions arising during progress of the work. This section, with the local 
and scientific material of which they make use (including a library and 
collection of rocks and fossils), constitute the Geological Bureau for the 
preparation of the chart. The director makes a report at commencement 
of each year to the committee, which is by them transmitted through the 
Minister toTarliament. The observers must be selected from among youug 
men (engineer graduates), who have taken a course in a school of mines, 
if not in one of the best foreign geological institutes. Nevertheless, a 
Ro5'al decree admits of the employment of geologists not members of the 
Corps of Mines, but professors and naturalists, who may have given proof 
of special aptitude for the work. Proper specialists are supplied also for 
the stud}^ of rock and fossil remains. The duties of the committee and 
the Geological Bureau consist (1) in the compilation of a general chart of 



342 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Italy (scale 1:500,000), placing upon it the known studies of the various 
gfeologists, (2) a systematic examination to obtain data for a detailed 
chart, based upon the new topographic map of the Military Institute (scale 
1:100,000 in part, 1:50,000 in part, and 1:25,000 in part). This work has 
been directed to districts where detailed topographic maps were available, 
and which presented at the time special scientific and economic interests, 
as Sicily for sulphurs, the Apuan Alps for marble, the Silurian metal-bearing 
basin of the Inglesiente in Sardinia and the Roman Campagna. The survey 
of Sicily is complete, and that of the other mentioned regions nearly so. It 
is stated that the personnel of operators (of which at present there are 25 in 
all, 14 of whom are engineers of mines) was not completed until the year 
1877-78, at which date the new topographic map with curves embraced 
a larger area of the more interesting regions of the Kingdom. The funds 
assigned annually at the commencement were 25,000 liras (approximately 
$5,001)), which amount was afterwards increased to the annual sum of 60,000 
liras. The sum of 80,000 liras is the largest yet granted, although it is 
understood that a proposed project of operations estimates for 200,000 liras 
($40,000) per annum. It is also estimated that the work of obtaining the 
field data and compihng the same may be accomplished in about the year 
1910, at a total cost of 5,000,000 liras (approximately $1,000,000). The 
funds are appropriated on the regular budget, submitted to and approved 
"by the Italian Parliament. The central ofiice is at Rome, with only one 
field office (temporary) at Pisa. 

The instruments used are chnometers and aneroids; the latter for ob- 
taining special profiles and for comparing on the ground elevations given 
on the curve map. Independent of the map publications, of vvhich there 
should be 956 sheets in all, on the scale of 1 : 50,000, there have been issued 
geological bulletins since 1870, which are still in progress, and memoirs, 
containing articles on various professional subjects, suspended after 3 vol- 
umes had been issued, but which it is understood are soon to be resumed. 

At the Geological Congress at Bologna in 1881, 85 sheets of the Island 
of Sicily (scale 1:50,000), the result of observations begun 1862-63, were 
displayed. It was estimated in February, 1882, that about 33,500 square 
kilometers had been examined systematically in detail. The series of colors 



ITALY— GEOLOGIC. 343 

employed has been chosen to conform to the latest studies of the Interna- 
tional Commission for the unification of the colors of geological charts. 
Various special charts have also been issued, as of the Gulf of Spezzia 
(1:50,000) and the Appenines in the vicinity of Bologna (scale 1:100,000). 

The systematic publication of the geological maps is based on the topo- 
graphic map at 1: 100,000, in 277 sheets, of which 14 sheets of Sicily have 
already been issued — July, 1885. 

Districts of special importance will be published on the scale of 1: 25,000. 
Elba Island, in 2 sheets, appeared in July, 1885, and also Elba again, in 1 
sheet, scale 1 : 50,000, 1885. 

A general map, in 2 sheets, entitled "Carta Geologica d' Italia," scale 
1:1,111,111, was published in 1881, without topography, and also with the 
topography indicated, making in fact two separate maps. 

Another general map, on the scale of 1: 500,000, as previously stated, 
is in course of publication. The first sheet was issued in 1883, under the 
title of "Carta geologica della Sicilia." Several other sheets are on the 
point of being distributed. 

All these charts are chromolithographed at Rome, and well executed. 

The first geological map of Italy appeared in 1846, at Paris, under the 
title of "Esquisse d'une Carte G^ologique d'ltalie," by 11. de Collegno, in 1 
large sheet ; and the government of the Kingdom of Sardinia has had a 
geological examination, made by Angelo Sismunda, which published a gen- 
eral map, entitled "Carta Geologica di Savoja, Piemont e Liguria," 1866. 
The Austrian Geological Institute also, when the provinces of Lombardy 
and Venice belonged to Austria, published several geological maps of those 
provinces, the most important being " Karte der Nordlichen Lombardie," 
by F. R von Hauer, scale 1:432,000, Vienna, 1858. 

The Geological Bureau of Italy, one of the latest established in Eu- 
rope, appears to be quite analogous to that of France in its manner of 
organization, execution of its duties, selection of personnel, and in the sys- 
tem of supervision of the work of individual observers. 



344 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEENE SURVEYS. 

Topographic. 

The Kingdom of Sweden carries on through the Topographical Section 
of the General-Staff branch of the War Ministry, a topographic survey 
of its territory, from which results a general topographic map, scale 
1 : 100,000. 

The area of Sweden is approximately 173,967 square miles, with a 
population in 1883 of 4,603,595, or an average of approximately 26 to the 
square mile. Naturally, the population of the southern and middle parts 
is much larger than the above average. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Sweden is divided into 3 regions, viz, Svea-land, Gothland, and Norr- 
land. 

The Kingdom is also divided into 24 "Lans" (counties) each presided 
over by a governor, the "Lans" are subdivided into 117 " Fogder" or dis- 
tricts, each comprising one or more " Harads" or cantons, of which there are 
264. The " Harads" are again subdivided into " Socken" (parishes). 

A "Hemman" is a part of a "Socken" and is of 3 descriptions, viz, 
"Fralse" (tax free), " Krona" (crown), and " Skatte" (tax paying), " Hem- 
man." 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

For administrative purposes the Kingdom is divided into 6 military 
divisional districts, subdivided into 49 battalion conscription districts, each 
of which again into 4 company districts. The French metric system in- 
troduced in 1875 is to be used exclusively in Sweden, after January 1, 
1889. Prior to that date, it is being used concurrently with the old system. 

The importance of exact and detailed maps, not alone from a purely 
scientific standpoint, but as a response to legislative, administrative, and 
military requirements, has been recognized for more than two hundred 
years in Sweden. King Gustavo Wasa was the fii"st who caused to be 
prepared a statistical register of the parishes, the sketches accompanying 



SWEDEN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 345 

which were executed by his private secretary. Ohins Magni, archbishop 
of Upsala, made a small-scale map of Scandinavia (quite erroneous), which 
appeared at Venice in 1539, and a new edition in Basle in 1567. 

Charles IX, son of Gustave Wasa, interested himself greatly in these 
matters, and, after the peace of Tensina, caused to be run with care the 
boundary on the Russian side, maps resulting from which are still to be 
found in the state archives. Andrew Bure published a map of Lapland in 
1611, the first engraved map in Sweden. In 1626 he produced the first 
map of Sweden, in 6 sheets, royal folio. 

The corps of Surveyoi'-Geometers (of whom one was employed to each 
province) was organized in 1 634-'35, under the direction of Bure, named 
in 1628 " General Mathematician," and who was charged with the prepara- 
tion of -maps of the provinces, making plans of ports, of mines, and towns, 
and inspection of public edifices. Nine maps, the results of this organiza- 
tion, were published by authority of the Government, by the Bleau Brothers, 
of Amsterdam, from 1650 to 1660. 

The Bureau of Land Surveying received a more independent position 
in 1683. 

Several revised provincial, and a new general map, were issued, as 
well as a nautical chart of the Malar and the Stockholm Archipelago, the 
latter being used as a type for half a century. There was prepared in 1675 
a map of Scandinavia, remarkable as indicating the extent of the forests of 
that epoch. During the reign of Charles XII great activity prevailed in 
nautical surveys, a collection of nautical charts appearing in 1737. In 
1734 this Bureau received funds for the construction of a new map, and 
several were published from 1739 to 1745, and in 1747 a new general map 
of Sweden appeared. A special commission was organized at this period 
for the geological examination of Finland. About the close of the eighteenth 
century the execution of a complete cartographic work of the whole coun- 
try was undertaken There had been issued in 1810 by the Geographic 
Institute, founded by Hermelin, the maps of all except three provinces. 

Rather comprehensive Swedish military maps were in course of prep- 
aration as early as the beginning of 1770, in the neighboring country of 
Finland, under the direction of Major-General Sprengporten and Colonel 



346 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Klercker. There are in existence also earlier Pomeranian and Norwegian 
boundary maps prepared by the Royal Fortification Corps, which are a 
■credit to those who executed them. The oldest trigonometic extension 
known in Sweden, was laid out and measured between 1758 and 1761, from 
Cimbrishamn along tlie coast to the Norway boundary. An entirely new 
epoch in Swedish topographic operations was introducedin 1805, when, at the 
suggestion of Maj. Gen. G. W. af Tibell, the Swedish Field Survey Corps was 
established.* By the royal letter of April 16, 1 805, and instructions of 1806, 
the object of this corps was declared to be to compile in time of peace com- 
plete military maps of the Kingdom based on trigonometric and asti'onomic 
observations, accompanied by topographic, statistical, and nrUitary descrip- 
tions. Necessary instructions for the execution of this work were given, 
among which were, that the scale for the field-work and the preliminary 
map should be 1:20,000, and for the so-called sjiecial maps which were to 
be compiled from them 1:100,000, and that the corps in time of war, in 
co-operation with the general staff of the army, should perform such duties 
as in most countries belong to the staff of a quartermaster-general. In con- 
formity with this, by royal order of 1806, the title of "quartermaster-gen- 
eral," which subsequently has been applied to the chief of the fortification 
corps, was conferred on the chief of the field-survey corps. The balance 
of the force consisted of one lieutenant-general quartermaster, one major, 
one professor, four captains (of whom two were adjutants), six first lieu- 
tenants, six second lieutenants, one clei'k, and two draughtsmen. To the 
corps was joined a bureau, called " archives of war," where all Government 
collections of domestic and foi'eign military maps, &c., formerly scattered 
in various places, were deposited, and funds were appropriated to increase 
the collections of the archives by yearly purchases of maps, books, and 
instruments. 

At the time of the Diet of 1809 the idea seems to have gan.cd ground 
that the field survey had been wrongly separated from the fortification 
corps and ought to be reunited with it, economy being held forth as the 
motive for this union. The result was not entirely satisfactory. The 
Government declared in 1811 that both corps should be placed under one 

" General Tibell was of the school of Napoleon I, and had labored under the direction of the 
Emperor ipon the completion of a map of the Italian Republic. 



SWEDEN— TOP J GRAPHIC. 347 

-common chief, to which position, by general order of July 3, of the same 
year, Major General af Tibell was appointed. Shortly afterward it was 
•ordered by the Government that the corps thus united should bear the 
name of "The Royal p]ngineer Corps," but remain divided into two "bri- 
gades," the fortification and the field-survey brigade, each of which, main- 
taining its order of promotion, should continue with the same duties which 
liad hitherto been prescribed for it. The saving was slight and the union 
loose. It continued for twenty years. 

Doubts as to the practicability of the union with the fortification corps 
w^ere expressed officially in 1814, principally on account of the duties which 
in the field fell on the field-survey brigade. Explorations, projects for 
trails, camps, positions, quarters, defenses, and the like, which in time of 
war belong to officers of the field-survey, have the most intimate connec- 
tion with the services of the General Stafi', for which reason the brigade 
ought then to be in co-operation with the staff, and only in time of peace 
be separated from it. It was not until 1830, however, that in Sweden the 
question of the sepai-ation of the two brigades was brought up in earnest. 
This course was advised mainly by the then Chief of the Engineer Corps; 
after which, in 1831, the Government ordered that the field-survey brigade 
should be separated from the Engineer Corps, and, under the name of tlie 
Topogra]jliical Corps, should form a special division of the General Staff 
placed under the command of the Adjutant-General of the Army in all con- 
cerning the inspection of the corps and the general arrangement of the 
work. The new chief, the then brigade chief. Colonel Akrell, took charge 
and continued for a quarter of a century to devote his active care to the art 
of topography. In 1856 he resigned, and was succeeded by Col. J. A. 
Hazelius. 

By a royal order issued in 1831, the Topographical Corps was com- 
pletely organized. The force was to consist of one colonel and chief, one 
major, one professor, three captains, six lieutenants, one drauglitsman, and 
•one messenger. 

Since January 1, 1874, the Topographical Corps has been dissolved 
and united with the reorganized General Staff. The topographic work is 
now executed b}^ the "Topographical Division of the General Staff." 



348 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Force Employed at the Map Establishment. 

Some officers of the army had ah-eady served from 1805 to 1815 in the 
field-survey corps. To hasten the surveys, it was directed in 1821 that 
officers with some skill in map drawing should be ordered from the army 
every year as assistants in the summer work of the field-survey brigade. 
If this assistance was required at that time, it was still more called for when, 
through the organization of 1831, the strength of the corps from 21 per- 
sons, to which it had shortly before amounted, gradually decreased to 11 
officers of the regular service. 

In 1834 a rule was established that to fill the places of second lieu- 
tenants withdrawn, a number of army officers sufficient for the work at the 
time should be detailed, and together with the topographical officers and 
under the command of the latter, should make field-surveys and work per- 
taining thereto; these officers being required to have as much skill in field- 
surveying and map drawing as is demanded of the cadets at graduation. 
In this way the map work was hastened, and the army officers gained ex- 
perience in surveying. But most of the officers detailed served altogether 
too short a time to benefit the map v.ork in proportion to the expense. 
Experience has proved that two or more summers, according to difi'erent 
natural talent, are required for gaining sufficient skill in complete field-sur- 
veying; and as accoi-ding to custom only one-third continues the third 
summer, when the principal gain for the map work would begin, in 1847 it 
was ordered that there should be employed for continuous service, for a 
term of three years, six or at most eight officers who had previously served 
in the corps at least one year. The number of applicants was never equal 
to the demand. To supply the deficiency and to have a permanent work- 
ing force at command, the Royal Majesty or the Government permitted 
in 1858, at the request of the chief, the employment in the corps of eight 
sub officers {guider) who were to devote themselves exclusively to map 
drawing, in order to attain the technical skill desired. At the end of 1873, 
shortly before the topographic corps was entireh^ united with the General 
Staff, these sub officers were relieved, but those wishing to continue to 
devote their time to map drawing were retained under the name of extra 
assistants. Three of these who liud for some years been engaged in map 
engraving were employed as engravers. 



SWEDEN— TOPOGEAPHIC. 349 

In 1811 a map showing topographic reliefs was published. In 1825 
a new general map of Scandinavia to latitude 64° N. was constructed and 
engraved (scale 1:500,000). 

The projection employed for the General Topographic Map (scale 
1:100,000 — 232 sheets, including Lapland) is called the "Crescent" or in- 
creasing conic. It claims to give to the ground, provided it is not of too 
great extent, its absolutely true form, an advantage which is obtained by 
causing the scale to increase from the middle parallel both to the north and 
south. The cone, the development of which, determines the map surface, 
cuts the terrestrial spheroid along the parallels of 56° 37' ST'.S and 68° 22' 
59". 5, for which lines the error of projection is zero. 

The maximum error is 0.0021, and falls upon the frontier latitudes 
north and south 65° 50' 20".4 and 55° 21' 19".4, as well as upon the par- 
allel equivalent to the half sum of the degrees of the conic angle 60° 44' 29".6. 

The principal meridian adopted is that which passes 5° west of the 
Observatory of Stockholm, coinciding closely with the mean meridian of 
the Scandinavian Peninsula. The meridians appear as straight lines and 
the parallels as concentric circles. In the documents of the Royal Scientific 
Academy for 1817 appears an investigation of the formulae pertaining to 
this method. The compression of the globe is assumed :=: 1:304.2607, and 
the radius at the equator — 6,376,797.06 meters. 

A triangulation net of the first order surrounds the southern and mid- 
dle coast of Sweden ; it is in relation with different triangulation chains 
executed equally exact along both meridians and parallels.* Triangulation 
determinations of the second and third order within the chains of the prin- 
cipal net, have furnished from time to time, in the surveyed portions of the 
country, a sufficient number of points for the atlas. The northern part of 
Sweden is yet poor in similar determinations, but as soon as the triangula- 

* The following is takeu from a work entitled: " The astronomic and geodetic work of the topo- 
graphical division of the General Stati' of Sweden, by P. G. Ros6n, Professor in the General Staff, Nos. 1 
and 2, Vol. J, Stockholm, I8rii! and 1885." At the beginning of the Central European Degree Meaiure- 
ment, the operations in Sweden were left to the Royal Academy of Sciences, and were to embrace revi- 
sion of previous triaugulafiou, and new base measurements and astronomic determinations in the south- 
ern i)ortiou. This work is nearly completed. The General Staff had meanwhile, during the last decen- 
nial, executed astronomic determinations and triangulations in middle and northern Sweden, pursuant 
to the regulations adopted for the "Degree Measurements." This work, although primarily executed 
as a basis for the topographic map, may be considered as a continuation of the degree measurement, 
which, on account of its great meridional extension, will prove of considerable value. It will still 
have to be continued from 10 to 15 years. 



350 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

tion of the southern and middle parts is completed the geodetic work will 
be pursued with more vigor in the north. Already the Bureau of Hydrog- 
raphy has commenced its surveys by a triangulation net starting from the 
vicinity of Haparanda, a point of the Russo-Scandinavian degree measure- 
ment, and following the western coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. The work 
Avill be continued by the united forces of the Bureau of Hydrography and^ 
of the Topographical Section of the General Staff. 

The Observatory of Stockholm forms the point d'appui of all the tri- 
angulation of Ssveden. Besides, the Observatory of the University of Lund 
has been taken in the midst of a special triangulation into the principal net 
by the assistance of the Academy of Sciences of Stockholm. Different deter- 
minations of polar altitudes have, however, been made as control upon the 
several triangulation points; the situation of the net has been fixed by azi- 
niuthal operations upon one of the sides of the triangle, starting out from 
the Observatory of Stockholm and upon several other lines of the net. 

Bases determine the length of the sides, six alone responding to the 
actual exigencies from the point of view of accuracy. Of these lines one 
was measured in 1840 by the old Topographical Corps by means of the 
Bessels apparatus. Three older lines exist, measured on the ice by appa- 
ratus of older construction. The two last periods have inaugurated the first 
work of the complete hypsometric measure of the country. This measure 
was made, part by the Topographical Section and part by the Geological 
Bureau. The labors of these two corps are based on a common plan and 
are in mutual connection. The measures are performed by means of levels, 
and based upon the mean height of waters of the Cattegat and Baltic, as 
established by long years of hydrographic observations taken near the light- 
houses of Sweden. Lines of levels from several points joining one sea with 
the other have been established. They run in a general direction from east 
to west, and are cut by other lines going from north to south. From these 
lines, acting as a control, set out the detailed levels by means of Avliich the 
number of points necessary for the map are determined. The trigonometric 
leveling has also been connected with the triangulation. The scales of the 
different maps are: For the general map, 1:1,000,000; for the maps of 
provinces, 1:200,000; for special map, 1:100,000; field minutes, 1:50,000;. 



SWEDEN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 35 J^ 

for maps of position and special localities the scale is 1 : 20,000, or 1 : 10,000,. 
and even greater yet, according to the object of the map. 

The special map (1 : 100,000) is divided into rectangular sheets of 2 feet 
(Swedish, 594"-) in length and 1^ feet (445"") in width. The sheets, of 
which the sides are either parallel or perpendicular to the principal merid- 
ian, are numbered in Roman figures from east to west of this meridian ; 
from north to south they bear Arabic numbers, commencing at the perpen- 
dicular to the meridian at 72° latitude north. The ma|Ds to the east of the 
meridian aforementioned are marked with the letters (Oster = east) and 
those to the west with the letter V (Vester = west) ; thus, Stockholm belongs 
to the map V. 0. 32 (=5, East, N. 0. 32). Each map receives, besides, the 
name of a town or other marked locality situated within it. There existed 
in the Survey Bureau (General Landtmateri-Kontor) at Stockholm the cen- 
tral archives, where are preserved copies of all the geometric maps each 
Government possesses, besides special records where the originals are pre- 
served. By their number, and on account of the large scale upon which 
they have been prejiared, these maps are of assistance and value to the mil- 
itary cartography of the country. There has been established since 1812 
a system of cartographic sketches, upon which are transferred, at the scale 
adopted for field minutes, all the geometric maps which have not become 
useless because of age or other circumstances. The regions for which there 
exist no maps that can be utilized are submitted to a rapid reconnaissance 
and are laid down upon the canvas by aid of triangulation points. It is- 
upon copies of these sketches that the surveys upon the ground are laid down. 
Such has been and such is yet, to a certain extent, the process em- 
ployed^ for the composition of maps. A second process has been taken in 
hand since 1873, when the work went into the hands of the General Stafi". 
In making use of the determinations of places made by it, this authority 
prepares with the same projection (scale 1:20,000) a general map of the 
middle and southern country. In regions where the labors of the economic 
survey precede those of the military survey at 1:50,000, the maps of the 
economic surveys are reduced to that scale and the topographic work on 
the ground executed after copies of these reductions. The surveys on the 
ground for the military atlas had taken place at first upon the scale of 
1 : 100,000, at which had been reproduced all the coast region and the greater 



352 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

part of central Sweden, or all the region of the grand lakes — Vener, Vetter, 
Hjelmar, and Malar — a total area of 16,000 square kilometers. The scale of 
1:50,000 has been adopted since 1844, and 67,500 square miles covered up 
to 1871 in southern Sweden. The surveys on the ground executed by ten 
or twelve officers under the command of an officer of the General StaflP are 
made with all the exactitude possible for that scale. The peaks are esti- 
mated by the aid of a little hand level, and laid down upon the map by a scale 
of hachures. The hypsometric measures precede the topography. Wher- 
ever these measures have been made the absolute heights are inscribed upon 
the original map to the number of 20 to 25 points per square mile. The 
maps are then reduced to the scale of 1 : 100,000, to serve as a model for the 
engraver. Simultaneously with the survey of the ground is made up a topo- 
graphic description, military and statistical, of the district covered. Be- 
fore 1857 the map at scale 1 : 100,000 was held secret. In the main it was 
composed of originals drawn by hand, but it was ordered in 1826 that these 
should be engraved and the engraving executed by officers of the corps, 
who, pursuant to an oath exacted of them, were responsible for the secrecy 
of the map during as well as after completion. The engraving was by hand, 
on copper. When, in 1857, the King permitted, at the suggestion of the 
chief of the Topographical Corps, the publication of these maps, 20 were 
found too old to be published, and 11 only could be promulgated after cor- 
rections from new field observations. 

The engraving of the more recent maps is executed by hand on copper 
by permanent and contract employes. Since 1857, and up to 1882, 64 sheets 
have been engraved in this manner. The Topographical Corps is charged 
since 1832 to publish as fast as the map 1 : 100,000 is proceeded with, maps 
of the several Governments or provinces, scale 1 : 200,000, accompanied by 
statistical descriptions. Fifteen of these maps, comprising 10 provinces, have 
been engraved. This publication was suspended until further orders until 
1872. There has been in preparation since 1865, a general map, scale 
1 : 1,000,000, in 3 sheets, two of which have already appeared, and the third is 
being engraved. Besides, the General Staff is occupied in the preparation 
on a much larger scale of military maps of important strategic points. These 
last are held secret. The annual appi-opi"iation inscribed in the budget for 



SWEDEN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 353 

topographical work of the General StaflF is 90,000 crowns (about 125,000 
francs) since 1878, but this appropriation does not include the salaries of 
the General Staff officers. The revenue from the sale of maps reverts to 
the survey fund. 

The force employed on the topographical work in the summer of 1875 
was 28 persons, among whom were 8 officers, 1 professor and 2 assistants 
belonging to the General Staff, 12 officers of the army and 5 civil assistants. 
In the succeeding winter 24 persons were employed, 10 belonging to the 
General Staff, 5 civil assistants, 9 detailed officers, independent of 7 engravers. 

There had been expended from 1812 to 1874 for the Swedish Topo- 
graphical Atlas 1,682,799 Swedish crowns, or $451,831.53, at the rate of 
26.85 cents for a crown. 

Description of the Topographic Map — (^Sca/e 1:100,000). — Engraved 
on copper, partly in hachures, printed in four colors, and published at 
Stockholm. Commenced 1815. The area of each sheet is about 1,008 stat- 
ute square miles (24 Swedish square miles). The size of paper for each 
sheet is 31.7 by 23.3 inches, and the inside border 23 by 17.5 inches. Fol- 
lowing the plan resolved upon by the King in 1815, this map and that of 
Norway were commenced simultaneously and would have formed together a 
.system of Scandinavian maps, the same scale and projection being adopted 
for both countries, but agreement could not be had upon the dimensions 
and form of the sheets, nor upon the proposition to adopt a common initial — 
meridian 5 degrees west of Stockholm — which led to the establishment of a 
separate national map for Norway, based upon a different meridian. 

The trigonometric chains are connected with those of Russia by the 
topographers of both countries executed simultaneously upon both banks 
of the sea of Aland. The Danish geographical engineers have carried this 
connection to the coasts of Skaane and the Isle of Seland, and the triangu- 
lation of Norway has been connected with that of Sweden. In this man- 
ner a geodetic connection has been established between the three principal 
Scandinavian observatories, Stockholm, Christiania, and Copenhagen. The 
Swedish forms also an important link in the trigonometric system of Europe. 
This work has been performed by the best of observers, the most perfect 
instruments, and by using all known precautions for producing the best 

1366 WH 23 



354 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

results. The mean error of the longest base near Lake Vetter from Jiaholm 
to the Stockholm Archipelago (70 Swedish miles =. 465 English miles and 
87 stations) has been calculated not to exceed 2.75 Swedish feet, while the 
error of bases measured near Copenhagen, and upon the Isle of Aland has 
been determined to be 1 inch to 18,434 feet, or 1:221,208. Astronomic 
checks for longitude, latitude, and azimuths have been availed of in com- 
bining the Danish and Swedish triangulation. For the topographic details 
there have been reduced the cadastral charts (scale 1:15,000); others 
of the land survey Bureau of Stockholm, and those of other principal places 
have been reduced to scale 1 : 50,000. These reduced maps are gathered 
in a topographic sketch for assistance in the astronomic and triangulation 
operations. These minutes are completed upon the ground and reduced to 
1 : 100,000 scale for the engraver in regular sheets. 

The topographical drawing is based upon the system of equidistant 
horizontal curves. The projections along the greatest declivities are in- 
terrupted at the^ntersection of the horizontal curves, and broken hachures, 
shaded according to declivity, mark the space. 

The water is shown in blue. Rough ground is represented in a special 
manner by means of curves nearly equidistant, the thickness being propor- 
tioned to the declivity. This work is accompanied by topographical, 
statistical, and military memoirs, according to parishes, and reduced in the 
description of arrondissements and governments. 

The geological atlas of the Kingdom is based upon the topographic 
maps of the General Stafif at the above scale (1 : 100,000), and also that of 
1 : 200,000 for the more thinly inhabited portions. The Swedish General 
StaflP intends to use the Austrian method of heliogravure experiments, with 
which are in operation on an extended scale. 

Scale 1:200,000. — Projection, crescent conical; graduation, sexagesi- 
mal; sheets 0" 53 X 0" 71, prepared by the General Staff. These maps 
reduced from the larger topographic charts (scale 1 : 100,000) represent 
the means of communication by land and water, the rivers, even the slight- 
est water-course, canals, cities, fortified places, churches, villages, hamlets, 
marshes, relief of the ground, &c., all less detailed than the 1 . 100,0''0, but 
of the same general character. 



SWEDEN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 355 

The graduation is to minutes in arc, and the geographical longitudes and 
latitudes drawn for each 30'. The longitudes are counted from Stockholm, 
and on the border a reference is made also to the meridian of Isle of Ferro. 
On the margin of each sheet appears an explanation of conventional signs, 
special plans of cities and of fortifications on the scale of 1:20,000, and 
scales in Swedish miles for the map proper and in "ells" for the city plans. 
The mountains are represented by lines for the greatest declivities and gentle 
tints. The limits of governments, arrondissements, and parishes are indi- 
cated by different colors ; waters in blue. Topographical and statistical 
memoirs are issued with these maps. 

Independent of the above the following scales are employed: 1 : 1,000,- 
000 for a generalized map ; 1 : 50,000 for field-work of the special map ; 
1 : 20,000 for map of passes and positions, and 1 : 10,000 for more impor- 
tant passes and positions. Surveys on scales 1 : 2,000 and 1 : 5,000 have 
also been made for special studies and purposes; 

ECONOMIC SURVEY. 

For the geological examination of the Swedish parishes, which had been 
incumbent heretofore upon the Central Bureau, there was created in 1859 
a special administration, that of the "Economic Survey of the Kingdom" 
(Rikets ekonomiskaKartwerk),with the object of procuring a certain knowl- 
edge of the surface of the country and of its natural divisions from the 
point of view of agricultural and industrial economy. 

This work is divided into two sections, one general for the entire coun- 
try and one special for North Bothnia, which, comprehending the most 
northerly part of the country, necessitated a separate work, because of its 
great extent and poor state of culture. The maps are at a scale of 1 : 20,000. 
They are prepared by using the Arpentage maps in connection with those 
for fixing triangulation points. All the triangulation is made by the Topo- 
graphical Section of the General Staff. In North Bothnia the scales of 
1 : 20,000 and 1 : 50,000 have been used, the latter having been employed 
specially for Lapland. This is the first time that veritable topographic 
labors have been made in this distant region. The regions of which the 
cartographic survey has taken place until now are central Sweden (partly 
measured in 1860-74, 235 Swedish square miles =: 26,850 kilometers 



356 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

square), and a part of the government of North Bothnia (620 Swedish 
square miles =z 70,800 kilometers square). 

Lithographic maps have been published of the governments of Upsala 
and Orebro for some districts of the government of Koppai'berg of scale 
1 : 100,000 ; 62 sheets in all had appeared in 1882. Although the surveys 
are made at the expense of the State, the publication depends upon the com- 
munes and individuals. The appropriation found in the budget of 1876 is 
87,000 crowns (121,000 francs), of which 42,000 francs for North Bothnia. 
The personnel is composed of 19 cartographers, 11 aids (draughtsmen), of 
whom 8 ai'e females, and of 2 officers of the General Staff. The Economic 
Survey has had part of the time a special chief, again has been under the 
orders of the Director-General of Arpentage, and for North Bothnia under 
the governor of that province, but now proceeds under the Topographical 
Section of the General Staff. 

LAND SURVEY MAPS. 

The activity actually shown in cartography — geometric, geographic, 
hydrographic, and military — in Sweden belonged in olden times exclusively 
to the Surveyor-Geometers (landtmatare), of which the first chief, Bure, 
received his instructions as early as 1628. In the course of time the sur- 
veyors saw their labors reduced successively to a geometric survey of the 
ground. At the present time their Bureau coiTesponds pretty nearly, thanks 
to its collection of maps during 250 years, to that which is called in other 
countries the "Cadastre." One of the most ordinary operations of this 
service is that named " Lagaskifte," or legal subdivision. Everywhere 
there are grounds, belonging above all to large villages, that have been suc- 
cessively parceled out for cultivation in a mass of little lots. The necessity 
exists of reuniting them anew by a better exploitation in larger lots or more 
frequently into a single lot. All the lands thus measured and subdivided 
are distributed proportionately among the inhabitants of the village. 

The law authorizes the smallest proprietor even in demanding the aid 
of the Surveyor-Geometer for a new division and relocation of the entire 
village. This important law dates from 1827. The considerable parceling 
out of the ground of Dalecarlia has given birth to a special sort of repar- 



SWEDEN— TOPOGRAPHIC. 857 

tition, the "storskifte," or grand subdivision. There belongs to this service, 
besides, the "afvittring" — dehneations of grounds — of which the principal 
object is to separate private properties (particularly forests) from the public 
domain and turn them over to cultivation upon given conditions. These ai'e 
nearly completed, except in Lapland. 

The Arpentage maps are, as well as the descriptions of the domains, 
ordinarily prepared in triplicate, of which one is for the proprietor, the 
original is deposited in the Bureau of Arpentage of each Government, and 
the third goes to the Central Bureau. These maps up to a certain point 
correspond to foreign cadastral maps. They are not made public by print- 
ing, and their ordinary scale is that of 1 : 4,000, although the scales of 
1 : 2,000 and 1 : 8,000 are equally authorized. By compilation and reduction 
to 1 : 20,000 these sheets are prepared as district maps, the object of which 
is to give an accurate knowledge of the extent and the natural division of 
the country as regards agriculture and industry. These planimetric maps 
are reduced to 1:50,000, and reproduced by lithography. 

The Corps of Surveyor-Geometers, under the orders of the Director- 
General, numbered, in 1875, 600 functionaries and employes, distributed 
among the different Governments. 

Actually the proprietors of land pay in that manner alone for the "laga- 
skifte" a total annual sum of 700,000 Swedish crowns (approximately 
980,000 francs), not including the expenses occasioned by incidental work. 

The amount annually appropriated by the State is about 300,000 
crowns (approximately 420,000 francs), so that this service costs annually 
1,000,000 crowns^ 1,400,000 francs = approximately $280,000. The land 
in Sweden belongs principally to the peasants, and it is considered that this 
sum is well expended. 

Note. — Tho data for Sweden has been gathered from a translated memoir (dated November 16, 
1875) of Colonel von Vegesack, chief of the Topographical Division of the General Staff, found in Com- 
stock's notes, pp. 76 to 91, and from various other official authoritative sources. For the scales of the 
different maps, see "Lists of Maps," pp. 116 and 132. 



358 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SUEVEYS. 

S WEDJ^]JS . 

Geologic. 

The geological exploration of Sweden was organized in 1855, at the 
expense of the State, pursuant to a i-equest of the agricultural society of the 
Grovernment of Upsala and of the seventh Swedish agricultural convention. 
Upon the favorable report both of the Academy of Agriculture and of 
Sciences, the Government submitted to the Diet, for this purpose, a project 
of appropriation for 60,000 rixdalers or crowns (approximately 84,000 francs 
or $16,800) for three years from 1858-60, which was approved. 

The official instructions of April 27, 1858, for the execution of the 
work (Sveriges Geologiska Undersoking) prescribed a common plan for the 
entire investigation, with the principal object of studying the geognostic 
conformation of the country, having in view the requirements of science, 
agriculture, and industry, as well as to render the information public by 
means of maps and detailed descriptions. 

The first explorations (1858) were directed to the districts of Upsala 
and the neighboring portions of Stockholm and Westmanlan, looking to a 
map of the basin of the Malar. 

When the results of two years' work, based on the military topo- 
graphic map (scale 1:50,000), were submitted to the Diet in 1859, it was 
decided to publish them on a scale sufficiently large to reproduce com- 
pletely and with the necessary clearness everything that might serve as a 
guide to agriculture or technical industry. Hence the alluvial beds have 
been delineated, thus giving a true image of the country and especially its 
agricultural capacity. The scale of 1 : 50,000 has not always been employed 
for recording the field observations, especially in the uniform and sparsely 
populated regions, where the scale of 1:100,000 suffices for the wants of 
field exploration and the scale of 1:200,000 for the published maps. These 
latter maps are accompanied by others strictly petrographic, with rock indi- 
cations. The original topographic map (scale 1:50,000) of the General 
Staff" has generally been employed as the basis of the cartographic publi- 
cations, the geological colors being superposed directly thereupon, while as 
well economic maps and that of the (Etat-Major) General StaflP (scale 



SWEDEN— GEOLOGIC. 359 

1:100,000 as published) have been utilized. There had been explored to 
the close of 1874, at scale 1:50,000, about 366 square miles (Swedish) 
= 16,145 square statute miles, and at that of 1:100,000, 70 square miles 
(Swedish) = 3,088 square statute miles. 

In July, 1884, there had been published 83 lithographic maps (scale 
1 : 50,000) in colors, with geological descriptions and paleontological memoirs, 
and 10 at scale 1 : 200,000. Since this date the work has steadily progressed. 
Special levelings are made over lines of considerable extent, and simultane- 
ously material for a general geological map has been in com-se of collection. 

Special explorations have also been made in the most distant and least 
known portions of the country. Several monographs and various scientific 
memoirs have been published, based upon more detailed geologic and pale- 
ontologic investigations. The publications are continuous and increasing. 
An additional mission of this establishment is to answer to the wants of 
practical or economic geology. To this end special explorations are made 
in the oil and mining regions (the latter having been vigorously prosecuted 
in Lapland) and technic-economic and agronomic-geologic works issued. 
Special ancient burial fields, as well as monuments of prehistoric ages, are 
scrupulously noted, and reproduced upon the maps by special conventional 
signs. Thus the work called for has been not alone to produce a geological 
atlas of the country, but to constitute a scientific institution, and to 
meet wants of technical industry, metallurgy, as well as agriculture, by 
means of practical geologic researches, established on a scientific basis. 
The appropriations have successively increased, having reached, in 1876, the 
sum of 70,300 crowns, approximately 98,000 francs = $19, 600. 

There are 12 persons employed, including the chief or director, now 
Prof Otto Torell ; the first director having been Alex. Erdmann, from 1858 
to 1868, who was succeeded by A. E. Tornebohm, from 1869 to 1870. To 
the above there is added during the summer a greater or less number of geo- 
logical aids, whose duties are more of a mechanical nature. The winter 
months are devoted to the preparation and completion of the maps and the 
reduction of descriptions and monographs and to chemical analysis, to micro- 
scopic studies, all of which is carried on in a Grovernment building at Stock- 
holm, one feature of which is a long and high hall for a geological museum, 
with working chambers, library, chemical laboratory, &c. 



360 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



Besides the geological maps at the scales of 1 : 200,000 and 1 : 50,000, the 
Royal Geological Institute of Sweden has published other charts. A few with 
special reference to the superficial deposits and to agriculture, such as the 
environs of Skottorp, province of Halland, scales 1:20,000 and 1:4,000. 
Also some special maps referring to mining, as " Carte g^ologique de la 
Scania," scale 1:400,000, in relation to the carboniferous formation of 
Scania, by Ed. Erdmann ; the "Geologisk ofversigtskarta ofver Mellersta 
Sveriges Berglog," in 9 sheets, scale 1:250,000, by A. E. Tornebohm, for 
the iron district of Central Sweden. Finally, a general map at the scale of 
1:1,000,000, under the title of "Geologisk ofversigtskarta ofver Sverige,"is 
in course of publication ; the fii'st sheet was issued in 1884, with a description 
in French entitled "Annexe explicative k la carte gdologique de la Su^de; 
feuille m^ridionale par A. G. Nathorst," a remarkable work. Almost all 
the memoirs are in Swedish, but some are in French, German, and even 
in English. 

RUSSIA. 

Topographic. 

The principal topographic work now being executed for Russia by the 
General Staff of the War Department is the general topographic map of 
Russia in Europe (scale 1 : 126,000, approximately 972 sheets). 

The total area embraced by the Russian Empire in Europe, (including 
Poland and Finland) is 2,129,201* square miles, with a population in 1882 
of 83,909,945, or a mean of 39 to the square mile. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS AND AREAS.t 

Russia in Europe is divided thus : 





Divisions. 


Provinces 

or 

governments. 


Area, English 
square miles. 




6 

1 
1 
2 


51 

10 

8 

14 


1,898,760 
49, 158 
144, 226 
172, 835 


Polaud 








10 


83 


2, 264, 979 





• The authority for this area, which differs from that given in table helow, is fonnd in the " Super- 
ficies de I'Europe," a standard worli in the year 1881. 

tThe Civil and Military Divisions where given have been taken from " Notes on the Government 
Surveys of the Principal Countries," Intelligence Branch, War Office, London, 1882. 



RUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 



Eussia in Asia is divided thus : 



361 





DivisiosB. 


Provinces 

or 

governments. 


Area, English 
square miles. 


Siberia 

Central Asia... . 


1 
1 


9 


4, 826, 287 


Total 

Total of Empire 




2 


20 6, 170, 8f2 


12 


103 


8, «.i, 861 



The governments or provinces are again subdivided into districts or 
circles, called "ovyezds" and "okroogs." 

MILITAEY DIVISIONS. 

The Empire is divided into 14 military districts, subdivided into 81 gov- 
ernments or provinces, and again into local brigade regions. These are 
subdivided into circles (ovyezds). It is contemplated to redistribute the 
Empire into army-corps districts, a scheme which will probably be carried 
out by the year 1889. At present there are 19 army-corps districts distrib- 
uted amongst the 1 4 districts. 

It was intended to introduce the metrical system in Russia to be oblig-a- 
toryin 1883. 

The earliest known geographical knowledge of Russia, consisting of 
descriptions of real estate by Mongolian fiscal agents, dates from the middle 
of the thirteenth century. The first general map was made about the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century and a printed map of Russia (with Latin inscrip- 
tion), published at Amsterdam in 1614, is found in the General Stafi" Bureau 
Peter the Great was the first to fully realize the necessity of an accurate 
geographical knowledge of his country. He ordered surveys, the prepara- 
tion of maps, descriptions of districts in 1720, and provided for collecting 
all needful information as regards topography. Scientifically executed tri- 
angulation dates from 1816 in Russia. 

The Topographical Corps (constituting the topographic section of the 
Chief or General Staff), to which is confided the functions and duties of the 



362 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

great general survey of the country, consists of 6 generals, 15 colonels, 16 
lieutenant-colonels, 31 captains, 31 staff-captains, 31 lieutenants, 31 sub- 
lieutenants, 32 ensigns, 170 classed surveyors (from 7 to 14 classes), 240 
topographical under-oflScials, and 40 topographical pupils. A^Dpointment to 
the General Staff can only be obtained by those officers who have passed 
the Nicolas Academy creditably. The course in the surveying branch, to 
which only 10 officers are annually admitted, lasts four years. 

The Chief or General Staff is divided into six principal subdepartments 
and a number of others, among them the Military Topographic Department, 
with its own director, which carries out all astronomic, trigonometric, topo- 
graphic, and map-making work. It is divided into the trigonometric sec- 
tion (including the instrument office), the map-making establishment (includ- 
ing the drawing and coloring divisions and the bookbinding, engraving, 
printing, lithographic, aud photographic branches), the Chancery, the Mili- 
tary Topographic Depot, and the map-selling depot. 

Since surveys of this country took an organic form their administra- 
tion has been confided to the War Department There had been for a long 
period a geographical department of the Academy of Sciences, but all scien- 
tific land surveys of a general character are now made by the Topograph- 
ical Corps of the General Staff. 

In 1765 a general cadastral survey of all the real estate was begun, 
which terminated towards the commencement of the present century. 

The principal topographic works now being prosecuted in Russia are: 

(1) The field-work (scales 1:21,000 and 1:42,000, published in speci- 
fied instances) and office work requisite for the construction and publica- 
tion of the great general topographic map of Russia in Europe, in 972 
sheets, scale 1 : 126,000, which includes at same scale 59 sheets for Poland. 
This work connects and comprises a topographic survey and map on same 
scale of Bessarabia. 

(2) Topographic map (chromolithographed) of the government of 
Moscow, scale 1:84,000, 40 sheets; topographic map of the Caucasus, scale 
1 : 210,000, 77 sheets; topographic map of European Russia, scale 1 : 420,000, 
154 sheets; topographic map of Asiatic Turkey, scale 1:840,000; topo- 
graphic map of Military Districts in Turkestan, scale 1:1,680,000; topo- 



RUSSIA— TOP LIGRAPHIC. 363 

graphic map of Western Siberia, scale 1:210,000; outline map of Central 
Asia, scale 1:4,200,000; and various others with all necessary current revis- 
ions. 

HISTORICAL. 

The followins- has been taken from a Russian official document enti- 
tied "A Historical sketch of the operations of the Corps of Military To- 
pographers, 1822-1872."* The book itself is divided into four parts, the 
first containing a brief review of the astronomic, topographic, and carto- 
graphic work accomplished in Russia prior to the establishment of the 
Corps of Military Topographers; the second, an account of the organization 
of the corps and its operations up to 1832 (first reorganization); the 
third, its work from 1832 to 1867 (last reorganization); the fourth, a re- 
view of the (then, 1872,) present condition of this corps. 

The oldest geographical knowledge of Russia, consisting of descrip- 
tions of real estate by the fiscal agents of the Mongolian occupation, dates 
from the middle of the thirteenth century. The first general manuscript 
map of the Russian Dominions was prepared by order of the Czar of Mos- 
cow, in the middle of the sixteenth century, and was entitled "The Great 
drawing." This map, as well as a copy of the same known to have been 
made in 1627, are lost. 

Of the oldest printed maps of Russia, there is in the scientific military 
archives of the General Staff Office one published at Amsterdam in 1614 
with Latin inscriptions. The map is constructed on a conical projection, 
and contains many errors. 

Peter the Great was the first ruler of Russia who fully realized the 
necessity of an accurate geographical knowledge of the Empire. In 1720 
he issued an ukase ordering 30 young men from the Naval Academy to 
be sent into various provinces for the making of surveys, preparation of 
maps, and description of the various regions. These young men were des- 
ignated as Geometers. Surveys were to be made by districts ; the lati- 
tudes to be determined for cities, and a few points along the frontiers be- 
tween the districts, and the longitudes to be taken from old maps and 

* From translation by S. N. Biiynitzky, Customs Division, Treasury Department. 



364 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

catalogues. It is known that the latitudes were determined by means of 
quadrants. 

The general supervision of the work of the Geometers was intrusted to 
the Senate, and the maps were edited under the supervision of the chief 
clerk of the Senate. 

In 1726 the Empress Katherine I ordered all the maps prepared by 
the Geometers to be transferred to the Academy of Sciences for correc- 
tion and preparation of new and more accurate maps. At the same time 
the two French astronomers, the brothers Delille, had arrived from France, 
upon the invitation of the Empress, and were appointed members of the 
Acadeni}^ in charge of the Government surveys. While the brothers De- 
lille were engaged in the work intrusted to them, the chief clerk of the 
Senate, Mi*. Kiriloff, edited and published, at his own expense in 1734, a 
Latin atlas comprising 1 general and 14 special maps, con>tructed on a 
conical projection. The scale of the general map is about 1 inch to 142 
miles, and the scales of the special maps are from four to five times larger. 

In 1739 a special division was organized in the Academy of Sciences 
under the name of Geographical Department, under the joint supervision 
of Academicians Delille, senior, and Euler. In 1741, the Department was 
intrusted to Academician Heinzius. In 1745, the Geographical Depart- 
ment published an atlas, comprising 1 general and 19 special maps, 13 of 
which represent European Russia on a scale of about 1 inch to 32 miles, 
and 6 (maps), Asiatic Russia on a smaller scale. The general map, on 2 
sheets, embraces the whole Empire on a scale of about 1 inch to 103 miles. 

From 1727 to 1760 various astronomical expeditions had taken place 
which were continued up to the year 1789 with satisfactory results. 

In 1765 the Empress Katherine II ordered the making of a general 
survey of all the real estate of the Empire. In consequence of this order, 
a corps of Government surveyors was organized, and a school for the prep- 
aration of surveyors was established under the name of Constantine's Sur- 
vey Institute. Fifteen years later the Survey Department of the Senate 
and the special school for draughtsmen and surveyors were established. 
Towards the commencement of the present century the survey of all the 
landed estates in European Russia was completed. 



EUSSIA— TOPOGEAPHIC. 365 

The necessity of military topography had ah-eady been felt by the 
ancient rulers of Russia, but in this branch, as in every other, Peter the 
Great was the first to lay the foundation of a definite system. He estab- 
lished the office of Quartermaster-General (the commencement of the Gen- 
eral Staff), and made it part of its duties to collect all needful information 
in regard to military topography and roads for the movement of armies. 
Under the immediate successors of Peter the Great the military topogra- 
phy was centered in the Engineer Department of the War College. 

In 1763 Empress Katherine II established a General Staff, to consist 
of 40 officers, most of whom were attached to the Military College to serve 
under the special orders of the Quartermaster-General. In the latter part 
of the eighteenth century, a number of military route maps were prepared 
by the officers of the General Staff. The foremost place among the works 
of the staff for that period belongs to the survey completed in 1797 of the 
Government of Lithuania, which comprises about 40,000 square miles, the 
scale of one-half of which is 1 :56,000 and the other half 1 : 112,000. 

In 1796 Emperor Paul created the Imperial Office of Draughtsmen, 
which was converted in 1797 into an Imperial Depot of Charts, and thus 
laid the foundation for the Military Topographical Division of the General 
Staff. The Depot of Maps was intended not only as a military, but also 
as a complete State Depot of maps and plans. The collection of maps 
accumulated in the Engineer Department and the office of the Quarter- 
ter-General were transferred to the depot, which was placed under the 
immediate command of a Major of Engineers. 

The personnel of the depot was obtained by means of details of superior 
and subaltern officers from the Corps of Engineers and of other parts of the 
army. 

In 1798 an office of draughtsmen was added to the Depot of Charts. 
The office consisted of eight artists. 

In 1801 the Depot of Charts was put under the command of the 
Quartermaster-General. 

In 1811 the Quartermaster-General was authorized to establish a me- 
chanical workshop for the manufacture of surveying instruments. 



366 GOVEBNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVEYS. 

After the establishment of the Ministry of War in 1812, the Depot of 
Charts was transferred, under the name of Mihtary Topographical Depot, 
under the immediate supervision of the Minister of War, and was reorgan- 
ized so as to form a Bureau in the Ministry of War, vinder a special director, 
with a sufficient number of clerks, subdivided into six divisions, each with 
a chief 

The Minister of War was at the same time authorized to detail for 
service in the Militaiy Topographical Depot the necessary number of supe- 
rior and subaltern officers from the quartermaster and engineer branches of 
the army. 

For the expenses of the Military Depot the annual sum of 44,000 
rubles was appropriated, and the director was authorized to sell such maps 
as might be published and to apply the sums realized to defray the expenses 
of the depot. 

In 1816 the Military Topographical Depot was put under the command 
of the Director of the General Staff, and became an integral part of the 
staff, undergoing at the same time some modifications in regard to the per- 
sonnel and the subdivision of the work. The sphere of its action was 
gradually increasing up to 1822. 

Up to the second half of the eighteenth century the engraving for 
Russian maps was executed by means of aqua-fortis. The outlines of the 
maps of that period are coarse. Most of the inscriptions are represented 
by initials of the Sclavonian alphabet. In the second half of the century 
a marked tendency towards improvement in engraving is noticed. 

Between 1806 and 1815 the academician Vishnievski determined the 
latitudes and longitudes of 225 points of the vast area bounded on the west 
by Libau (38° 40' east longitude), on the east by Ecaterinburg (78° 21'), 
on the north by Mezen (65° 50' north latitude), and on the south by Elbrus 
Mountain (43° 21'). Upon a comparison of 40 of these determinations 
with the most modern observations, the academician Struve found that the 
latitudes are exact within 5 seconds in arc, and the longitudes within 2 
seconds in time. 

Up to the year 1816 the only completed trigonometric work was the 
survey, in 1809, of the city of St. Petersburg. Some work was done in 



EUSSIA—TOPOGEAPHIC. 367 

1810-11, with a view of connecting by a trigonometric net the cities of St. 
Petersburg, Narev, Reval, and Dorpat. The undertaking was brought to 
a stop by the war of 1812. 

Eighteen hundred and sixteen is the year of the commencement in 
Russia of strictly scientific triangulations, the series of which was opened 
by the trigonometric survey of the government of Wihia. The triangles 
• with a probable error of observation of ±0".62) were generally of a regular 
form, the average lengths of the sides being equal to 1 1 miles. 

Between 1816 and 1819, the economical association of Liefland in- 
trusted to Prof W. G. Struve the direction of a work which, aside from its 
immediate result, deserves particular notice on account of its far-reaching 
consequences. This was the astronomo-trigonometric survey of Liefland, 
which led ultimately to a great degree measurement along the western 
borders of Russia. The principal base, 6J miles in length, was measured 
upon the ice on the lake Vir Yarvi. The triangulation proved so accurate 
that 15 sides of it subsequently entered into the great Russian degree 
measurement, which is justly considered as one of the most accurate. 

The points determined by this net were placed upon the conical pro- 
jection of the map of Liefland, according to the method of rectangular 
cectilinear co-ordinates. 

In l820, Colonel Schubert was directed to prepare a trigonometric 
aet for the topographic survey of the district of Schliisselburg, and to 
connect the net with St. Petersburg, extending the tier of triangles over a 
space of about 50 miles. The order was, however, soon modified so as to 
lay a foundation for a connected triangulation of the government of St. 
Petersburg and other neighboring governments. 

At the issue of the great wars with Napoleon I, the Russian Govern- 
ment was thoroughly impressed with the necessity of military surveys of 
The western regions of the Empire, and became aware of the inadequacy 
of the means at its disposal for the carrying into effect of so vast an under- 
taking. The force at the disposal of the General Staflf consisted of 37 
generals and officers, and the force under the orders of the Quartermaster- 
General consisted of 189 generals and officers The details from this force 
for topographic purposes were therefore considerably restricted, both in 



368 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

the number of officers and the time to be given to such details. The force 
of draughtsmen and engravers at the disposal of the Military Topographic 
Depot was also too small, in view of the vast and pressing task proposed. 
These considerations led to the creation of a special institution upon a scale 
of particular magnitude heretofore unknown in the administration of the 
topographic branch. 

On January 28, 1822, the Emperor approved a plan for the establish- 
ment of a Corps of Topographers, as a branch of the Imperial General Staff. 

The corps to consist of an unlimited number of officers and of as many 
privates, to be designated as topographers, as may be found competent in 
the schools of military cantonists (sons of soldiers who died in the service), 
and to be commanded by a director under the orders of the Quartermaster- 
General. At the same time a school to be established for the instruction of 
topographers, to be imparted by officers of the General Staff and of the 
Corps of Topographers. A special uniform was granted to the officers and 
privates of the corps and to the pupils of the school. 

The organization of the Corps of Topographers was somewhat modified 
by the supplementary decree of May 14, 1822. The topographers of the 
corps (privates) are divided into two classes: Class 1, corporals; class 2, 
privates. The graduates of the school to be placed in one of the two classes, 
according to progress. The topographers of the first class theretofore exist- 
ing in the various corps of the army could be promoted to the rank of offi- 
cer in the Corps of Topographers, upon examination. The graduates of the 
school could be promoted without examination, upon meritorious service. 
It was made the duty of the director of the school of topographers to keep 
an exact register, not only of the topographers in the school, but also of all 
the topographers in tiie various corps of the army. After the completion 
of the course of studies (four years) in the school, each topographer was to 
be supplied at the Government expense with a complete set of surveying 
instruments. Officers of various corps who desired to be admitted to the 
Corps of Topographers had to pass a special examination. The quartei-mas- 
ters of the various corps of the army were directed to keep the director of 
topographers duly informed of the number, names, and conduct of the topog- 
raphers attached to the several corps. 



RUSSIA— TOPOGEAPHIC. 369 

Those of the officers of the army who desired to be transferred to the 
Corps of Topographers were allowed to follow a course of astronomy by 
Professor Struve, at the University of Dorpat. 

The organization of the Corps of Military Topograpliers did not remain 
without a corresponding favorable influence upon the condition of the mili- 
tary topographic depot The system of cataloguing was greatly improved, 
and two valuable catalogues were completed in the interval of time between 

1826 and 1830 — 1, a general catalogue comprising 17 volumes and over 
35,000 numbers ; and, 2, a special systematic catalogue comprising 50 col- 
umns of lists of maps, and also of copper plates, of which there were 
already 3,200 numbers. In 1 830 an index to the catalogues was prepared. 

Between the years 1825 and 1839 the triangulations (average error of 
observation 0".49) of the governments of Kourland, Grodna, and Minsk 
were completed. 

In 1 830 the triangulations of Eastern Prussia were connected with the 
Russian triangulations, and the work was done with considerable accuracy, 
as shown by the following insigniticant differences found between the com- 
mon sides of the two triangulations, viz : 2297000) -JaiToooi and 2327ooo- 

Between 1822 and 1827 Baron Wrangel, lieutenant of the Russian Im- 
perial Navy, effected, under the direction of Prof. W. V. Struve, the degree 
measurement of Liefland along the meridian of Dorpat. This measurement 
served to connect the measurements formerly made along the same meridian 
south of Hochland by Professor Struve, and with measurements made about 

1827 by Mr. Pauker, director of the observatory at Mitau, north of Jacob- 
stadt. 

In 1830 the degree measurement of Liefland was connected with a sim- 
ilar measurement of Lithuania, which had been just completed by Tenner. 

In. 1832 was completed a connected series of triangulations which was 
commenced in 1820, and covers the governments of St. Petersburg, Novgo- 
rod, Pleskor, and Witepsk Up to 1826 the field-work was done by the 
officers of the General Staff, and after that year exclusively by the officers 
of the Corps of Topographers. The probable error of observation for trian- 
gles of the first class was 1".05, and for those of the second class, 1".82. The 
1366 WH 24 



370 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

differences of the computed and measured lengths of the bases amounted to 

about 10,000 of the bases. 

In 1830, after the estabHshment of a permanent observatory at Reval, 
work was commenced on the Baltic triangulations projected in 1828 by 
General Schubei-t. This so-called Baltic triangulation was extended along 
the two shores of the Gulf of Finland and a part of the Gulf of Riga, and 
embraces astronomical determinations of many points. 

In 1835 a series of triangles was laid across the islands of Alend for 
the purpose of establishing a connection with the Swedish triangulations 
near Stockholm. This triangulation is also connected with Struve's degree 
measurement near Hochland, and in many points, with the triangulations of 
St. Petersburg, and at Pernov with the triangulations of Liefland. Tlie 
observatory at Reval was taken as the starting point of the co-ordinates. 

In 1826 the French Government proposed to the Russian Government 
to participate in a degree measurement of the 48th north parallel, by a contin- 
uation of the work of the French, Bavarian, and Austrian engineers from 
Chernovitz in Bukovina to the river Volga, or even to the Ural, so as to 
obtain the measurement of an arc of 48 degrees in longitude, of which 18 
degrees would constitute the Russian portion. Although the proposal was 
taken into serious consideration, and even instruments for the carrying of 
the plan into effect were ordered from abroad by the Russian Government, 
the execution of the plan was abandoned in 1830 on account of the political 
complications of the times. 

Much initial and comparison astronomical work was accomplished 
during the 10 years intervening between the establishment and first reor- 
ganization of the corps (1822-1832). 

These observations were connected with the triangulation of Wilna, 
Kurland, Liefland, St. Petersburg, Novgorod, Pleskov (Pskov), and in part 
Witebsk 

During the same period, a number of points in European Turkey, Asia 
Minor, and in the Caucasus were astronomically determined. 

The year 1819 was the starting point of a series of regular topographic 
surveys of all the governments of Russia, commencing with those along 
the western border. With a view to insuring uniformity of cartographic 



RUSSIA— TOPOGEAPHIC. 371 

work, detailed instructions were issued in 1822 from the office of the Quar- 
termaster-General, prescribing the conventional signs to be used in topo- 
graphical, geographical, and route maps and military plans. These signs 
were in many respects, such as colors and rendition of details, similar to 
those used at the present time. The surveys of that period may be sub- 
divided, according to degree of accuracy, into 4 groups: topographical in- 
strumental, topographical semi-instrumental, ocular surveys, and recon- 
naissances. 

The topographical instrumental surveys were those of the governments 
of Wilna, St. Petersburg, Grodno, and part of Kiev. The surveys of Wilna 
and Kiev were made at the scale of 1 inch = 12,200 square feet, and those 
of St. Petersburg and Grodno at the scale of 1 inch = 9,800 square feet to 
the square inch. The number of sheets representing these surveys are as 
follows: 

Wilna, 658. 
St. Petersburg, 526. 
Grodno, 224. 
Kiev, 50. 

The semi-ocular surveys of the period (1822-1832) were those of the 
governments of Minsk, Bessarabia, the Militaiy Colonies, the Province of 
Orenburg, New Finland, and surveys in Western Siberia. The scales of 
these surveys vary from 1 inch = 4,900 square feet (military colonies) to 
1 : 168,000. The plane-table sheets are colored, and the mountains are 
drawn according to Lehman's system. 

The ocular surveys of the period (1822-1832) embrace portions of 
Moldavia, Wallachia, Bulgaria, Trans-Caucasia, Kurland, and Novgorod 
The reconnaissances cover the then accessible regions between the Caspian 
and Ural seas, and were made by means of compass and odometer on a 
scale of about 1 inch to 10 miles 

The most important cartographic work of that period is the composition 
and printing of the so-called 100-sheet map (scale 1:840,000), of which 98 
sheets were finished in 1814, and 16 more sheets, embracing the Kingdom 
of Poland, were finished in 1816. The next prominent cartographic work 
was the commencement in 1821 of the composition of the special map 
(Schubert's) on a scale of 1:420,000 and according to the projection of 



372 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Bonne. The middle parallel of the map is 54° 30', and the middle meridian 
51° 30' from Ferro. 

Among the other cartographic works of the time may be mentioned: 
(a) topographical map of Moscow with surroundings, 4 sheets; (b) postal 
map of Russia, 12 sheets; (c) map of the theater of the war in Asia, 4 sheets, 
scale 1:840,000; (d) map of the theater of war in European Turkey, 7 
sheets, scale 1:420,000. 

Of the minor works, the following deserve particular mention: (1) 
map of Krasnoe-Selo and surroundings, 6 sheets, scale 1 : 840,000; (2) plan 
of the surroundings of Constantinople from ocular survey in 1827, 4 sheets, 
1 inch to 2 versts ; (3) postal map of European Russia, 12 sheets, 1 inch 
to 70 versts; (4) detailed plan of St. Petersburg, 24 sheets; the engraving 
of this plan is remarkable for its artistic execution; the cost was 4,000 rubles; 
and (5) military route map of a portion of Russia and the neighboring 
countries, 8 sheets, scale 1 : 1,680,000. 

In 1832, the Corps of Military Topographers was put under the imme- 
diate command of the Quartermaster-General of the General Staff. The 
office of director of the corps was abolished. The force of the corps was 
fixed at 70 officers and 456 topographei's, divided into three companies, 
designated by numbers. The topographers were, besides, divided into three 
classes, according to proficiency. 

The pi'omotion of topographers to the grade of officers remained as be- 
fore. In the absence of vacancies in the corps, the topographers of the 
first class having served 12 years, and passed the necessary examination, 
wei'e promoted to second lieutenant in the army. Those who could not 
pass the examination were promoted to third lieutenants in the army. The 
first company was designated by the name of Topographical Company o*" 
the Military Topographical Depot. Thus the school of military topograph- 
ers received an entirely military organization. 

During the period comprised between the year 1832 (first reorganiza- 
tion of the corps of military topographers) and 1867 (its last reorganization) 
a considerable amount of topographical and astronomical work was accoDi 
plished. 



RUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 



373 



In 1849, a committee under the chairmanship of the Quartermaster- 
General of the General StaflP, and composed of several superior officers of 
the staff, the director of the Military Topographical Depot, the consulting 
astronomer of that depot, 0. W. Struve, the director of the Observatory of 
Pulkova, Academician W. Struve, and Professor of Geodesy Colonel Bo- 
lotov, upon an examination of the various improvements accomplished up 
to that time in the art of topography, decided and ordered that the method 
of rectangular spheroidal co-ordinates heretofore in use should be aban- 
doned, that the plane-table sheet should be prepared according to the method 
of Muffling, and that preference should be given to the projection of Hauss, 
recourse being had to the projection of Bonne only in particular cases. 

Between the years 1832 and and 1867 several expeditions for geo- 
graphical purposes were undertaken as well by officers of the General Staff 
and Topographic Corps as by officers of the Navy and members of the 
Academy of Sciences, under the auspices of the General Staff. These 
expeditions resulted in an accumulation of valuable material for future 
topographical work Astronomical determinations have been obtained of 
several points along the eastern shore of the Black Sea, of Western Siberia, 
of Asia Minor, of Persia, of Khiva, of the shores of the Caspian Sea, of the 
Kirgis Steppes, along the rivers of middle Asiatic coimtries, along the Russo- 
Chinese frontier and the western coast of the Japanese Sea. 

All the topographic surveys undertaken between 1832 and 1844, were 
distinguished from the preceding surveys by the uniformity of the scale 
adopted therefor, viz: 1 inch =9,800 square feet, and a more nearly equi- 
lateral series of triangles. The following table shows the principal features 
of the surveys : 



Name of region. 


^?.*"^?7„t» Humberof 
m square oi-pBtq 
versts. , ""^ee's- 


Cost of survey 
per sqnate 
verst. 


Governments of— 

Pleskov 

Moscow (in part) 

"Wolynia 


1 
38,400 453 

8, 093 86 
62,667 721 
36, 910 426 

8, 183 107 


Bviles. 

2.01 
2.28 
1.32 
1.48 
2.00 


Podolia 


Blalostok 





374 



GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 



With a view of expediting the topographic surveys the Quartermaster- 
General obtained in 1 844 the Imperial authority for the adoption in future 
of a scale of 1 : 42,000. The first survey made on that scale was the survey 
of the government of Witebsk. The topographic work was considerably 
expedited and cheapened, as shown by the following table: 



Name of region. 


Area surveyed 
in sqriare 
verstB. 


Number of 
sheets. 


Cost of snrvey 
per square 
verst. 


Governments of— 

"Witehfllt: 


39, 708 
44, 730 
44, 994 
41, 987 
63,209 
27, 143 
20, 314 
69,485 
26, 956 

46, 042 

40, 243 
31, 474 
43, 686 

47, 835 
17, 351 

41, 074 
111,860 

40, 718 

102, 703 

57, 881 

73, 608 


128 
143 
159 
136 
242 
137 

49 
259 
109 
198 
169 
151 
140 
158 

93 
186 
474 
176 
402 
188 
190 


Kopecks. 




61.5 






63.6 




Kaluga 

Moscow (part) 




66.9 
66. S 










83.0 




Kharkov 

Estland 

Orel 

Kingdom of Poland 

Kursk 




104.4 


99.0 




91.8 
92.9 


Saratov 



Among the ocular surveys of the third period (1832-1867) may be 
mentioned those of the Kingdom of Poland, New Finland, and the navy- 
timber forests; also surveys for the delimitation of the frontiers between 
Russia and Turkey and Persia 

In 1853, by agreement between the General Staff and the Ministry of 
Govermnent Lands, a common system of conventional signs was adopted 
for both the military topographic surveys and the surveys of the corps of 
civil surveyors under this ministry. The most essential modification intro- 
duced thereby in the military charts consisted in the designation of wooded 
spaces by color. Since 1860, however, the improvements made in the 
photographic processes led to a rejection of colors and to a radical change 
in the methods of finishing charts by means of the pen. 



RUSSIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. . 375 

Reconnaissances of a number of districts previously surveyed were 
made between the years 1863 and 1867, which resulted in some additions 
to and omissions from the details of the surveys. 

In 1835, from ocular surveys, march routes, and information obtained 
from military prisoners, a map was composed of the northern inclines of the 
Caucasus on a scale of 1:840,000. Since that time, up to 1852, the topo- 
graphic work done at various times is represented by instrumental surveys 
covering about 3,537 square versts, semi-instrumental surveys, 3,400 square 
versts, and ocvilar surveys and reconnaissances of about 2,200 square versts. 
Towards 1856 an area of 15,771 square versts was surveyed instrvimen tally 
and semi-instrumentally at the Caucasus and in Asiatic Turkey. After 
the final conquest of the Caucasus, in 1859, a great number of instrumental 
surveys of various districts of the Caucasus were completed and the mate- 
rial accumulated was found sufficient to warrant the commencement of a 
new route map of the Caucasus on a scale of 1:840,000. At the same 
time the trigonometric levelings beyond the Caucasus led to the determin- 
ation of the difference between the levels of the Black and Caspian seas. 

The most important cartographic work of the period comprised be- 
tween 1846 and 1867 was undoubtedly the engraving of plates for the re- 
production, on the scale 1:126,000, of the topographic maps of the various 
governments, 30 in numbei", surveyed dm'ing that period. A number 
of atlases and special maps of various regions were published for general 
use and put on sale. The prices at which the publications of the Topo- 
graphical Depot are sold are calculated to exactly cover the expense of 
publication. Among the special publications of that period may be men- 
tioned: (a) the Atlas of Volga, 15 sheets, scale 15 square versts to the square 
inch, price 75 kopecks; (b) general map of land, water, and telegraphic com- 
munications of European Russia, 4 sheets, 80 square versts to the square 
inch, price 2 rubles ; (c) general map of Western Siberia and the Kirgis 
Steppe, 50 versts to the square inch, 4 sheets, price 2 rubles; (d) general 
map of Orenburg and portions of Khiva and Bukhara, 2 sheets, 50 versts 
to the inch, price Ij^ rubles; (e) map of Central Asia, 100 versts to the 
inch, 4 sheets, price 2 rubles. 



376 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

The decree of December 24, 1866, fixes the personnel of the Corps of 
Topographei's as follows: 6 generals, 33 superior officers, 156 subaltern offi- 
cers, 170 topographers of civil rank, 236 topographers of the rank of cor- 
porals, and 42 apprentices. The decree appropriates 124,000 rubles annu- 
ally for topographic, geodetic, and astronomic work in European Russia, 
and 46,000 rubles annually for the edition of maps. It raises the table of 
the compensations of the personnel of the corps and considerably increases 
the allowances for traveling expenses and the additional compensations of 
topographers detailed for work in remote regions. The 170 ranked topog- 
raphers were subdivided into 4 classes corresponding to the ranks 14-12, 
10-9, and 8-7 of the civil service, with compensations at the rates of 300, 
360, and 480 rubles per annum, respectively. The annual compensation 
of the corporals is fixed at 180 rubles, and that of the apprentices at 120 
rubles. The Military Topographic School was put on the same footing as 
other military schools. The number of professors was considerably increased 
and the curriculum of studies enlarged. The field exercises of the students 
were made the object of special detailed instructions. 

Entirely exact surveys were first initiated in 1870 in Finland and Bessa- 
rabia. The substance of the new method adopted since 1870 consists in 
the use of a greater number of points with accurately determined eleva- 
tions for a more reliable representation of the inequalities of the surface by 
means of horizontals. The measurement of distances by means of the chain 
being permitted only in exceptional cases. The relief on the field draughts 
is permanently shown by horizontals. These plats serve for the compila- 
tion of all the detailed maps. On the maps at a reduced scale the reliefs 
are expressed in short hachures with the assistance of accurately deHneated 
horizontals. Then photography and new improved methods of photo- 
engraving furnish excellent and cheap means for further reduction of these 
plans and the engraving of the maps on any desired scale. The cost of the 
field-work of these surveys is estimated by the director in 1885 at 29.5 
rubles per square mile (approximately* $22.78 per square mile). 

* One Table taken at 77 cents. 



EUSSI A— TOPOGR A PHIO. 



377 



The results of the surveys made since 1867 are shown in the following 
table: 



Name of tegiOD. 


Scale to the square 
inch. 


Area 

surveyed, 

versts. 


Dnration 

of 
survey. 


Number of 

topographers 

employed 

per year. 




1 square verst 

5 square sajens 

1 square Terst 

do 


44,720 

3,185 

35,764 

27,307 

1,862 

700 


3 years 

4 years 

...do 

3 years 

lyear 

...do 


SS 

4 
37 
36 
34 
36 


Sun-oundiDg8 of St. Petersburg. . . 
Government of Kazan 


Bessarabia (1870) 

JTinland (1870) 


250 square sajens.. 
do 







Accor(iing to the table of 1867, the cai-tographic establishment consisted 
of 4 divisions, viz: the 

(a) Draughting division, witli two sections attached, viz: bindery and water- 
])ainting. 

(b) Division of engraving. 

(c) Division of printing (copper-plate and lithography). 

(d) Division of' photography. 

The number of officers detailed for draughting remains the same as in 
1863, viz, 40. These forty officers give occupation to some 55 engravers. 

In the other technical branches of the cartographic establishment a 
slight reduction of the force was effected by the reorganization of 1867. 
Of all the cartographic works of the modern period, the new special map 
of European Russia (1:420,000) indispi;tably occupies the first place. It 
is an immense edition on 152 sheets, representing an area considerably 
greater than one-half of all Europe. 

The second place among the cartographic works of the establishment 
belongs to the composition, engraving, and printing now in progress of the 
military topographic map (1:126,000). 

The most recent works are the maps now being prepared (1872) of the 
Kingdom of Poland, of the government of Pleskov, and a portion of the 
government of Novgorod. These later publications undoubtedly testify to 
considerable progress in the art of engraving and printing accomplished by 
the military cartographic establishment. Among the works of the later 
years may be mentioned : 

1. The military route map, scale 1:1,050,000, 16 sheets. The first chromoUtho- 
graphic edition of this map was finished in 1871. 



378 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARESTE SURVEYS. 

2. The new map of the surroundings of St. Petersburg, or rather of the ma- 
neuvering grounds, 1:42,000; also a chromolithographic edition. 

3. Strategic map embracing the theaters of all the wars waged by Russia, on a 
scale of 1:1,680,000. 

4. Map of Asiatic Russia, scale 1:4,200,000 (still in progress), and the completion 
of which is, at the date of present writing (1885), in the hands of General Komaroff. 

Lithographic, and particularly chromolithographic, printing has reached 
considerable development. This printing is applied in Russia not only for 
engraving executed on stone, but also to maps engraved on copper. The 
art of transfer from copper is rapidly progressing under the lead of the 
superintendent of the printing branch. 

The development of chromolithography led, naturally, to the increase 
in the number of copies of modern editions. The artistic merits of the 
printing done by the Russian Military Topographic Division is recognized 
by other departments of the Government and private individuals and out- 
side orders for printing are frequently received by the Division. 

The following statement exhibits the sums realized from the sale of 
maps for the years mentioned: 

1861, 7,264 rubles. 1866, 2,587 rubles. 

1862, 6,576 rubles. 1867, 4,191 rubles. 

1863, 2,910 rubles. 1868, 5,961 rubles. 

1864, 4,446 rubles. 1869, 7,445 rubles. 

1865, 2,589 rubles. 1870,' 6,208 rubles. 

The Military Topographic Division of the General Staff Office sup- 
plies maps to the officers of the army at the so-called "material price," i.e., 
a price equal to the materials used for the printing of the maps, such as 
paper, ink, colors, and in the case of bound publications, pasteboard, 
leather, gold-leaf, &c., but no charge is made for work. 

The photographic branch of the cartographic division is believed to be 
as well advanced as the best establishments of this kind in Western Europe, 
and all modern improvements are being introduced as soon as their prac- 
tical value is recognized by special committees appointed to examine them. 
Photolithography and chromolithography are perfectly understood by the 
artists and mechanics employed in that branch, and every effort is now 
being made to transplant the new art of heliogravure or photo-engraving 
first adopted by the Military Geographical Institute of Vienna 



EUSSI A— TOPOGRAPHIC. 379 

Much of the trigonometric work in Russia has been of the first class, 
and o-reat geodetic works such as Struve's arc of the meridian from the 
Danube to the North Sea, and Russia's share of the great arc of parallel 
from Valentia, Ireland, to the Ural region, Russia, have been executed, but 
until later years, detailed topographic operations, of the primal order of 
accuracy, do not appear to have been carried on over large areas. 

Two or three trigonometric points are finally found for each plane- 
table sheet (1:21,000), and these become centers for detailed geometric con- 
nections. Plane-table sheets of Finland and Courland, scale 1:42,000, 
have been pubhshed. 

DESCEIPTION OF MAPS. 

Scale 1 : 126,000. — The meridians of reference are Ferro and Pulkowa. 
These maps are reduced directly from the plane-table sheets, usually exe- 
cuted at 1:21,000. The hill work is in hachures with vertical light; the 
engraving is on copper. Each sheet embraces 1 ° 8' in longitude, and 29' 
in latitude, and an area of 2,946 square versts (1,694 square miles), and is 
printed on paper 25.6 by 19.3 inches, with topography covering 22.6 by 
16.3 inches. There are at least one hundred special conventional signs for 
Russian topographic maps (See notes on Government Surveys, War Office, 
London, p. 107.) The above map was commenced in 1846, and 505 sheets 
were completed in 1885. The scale is smaller than any other of the gen- 
eral topographic maps of Europe. (See summary table and hsts of maps.) 
The Central Topographic Bureau at St. Petersburg is divided into seven 
sections, located at the principal places of the different governments, each 
issuing topographic sheets independent of the other, except for the above 
map and that at 1:420,000 and various generalized outline maps of the 

Empire. 

Scale 1:420,000. — This map, printed in four colors, was completed in 
1868, revised in 1877, and is engraved on copper. The hachures illumina- 
ted vertically (poorly executed) are printed in brown. 



380 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Each sheet embraces 3° 30' in longitude, and 1° 48' in latitude, or 
an area of 49,784 square versts (20,250 square miles), and is printed on 
paper, 32.3 by 24.6 inches, with topography covering 25 by 19 inches. 
The above topographic sheets are the basis of the geological map. Longi- 
tude is reckoned from Pulkowa, in Russian maps, except for the following: 

Poland 1:120,000, reckoned from Warsaw. 

Russia in Europe 1 : 126,000, reckoned from Paris and Pulkowa. 

Central Asia 1:4,200,000, reckoned from Paris. 

Orenburg 1:2,100,000, reckoned from Ferrj Island. 

Asiatic Turkey 1 : 840,000, reckoned from Ferro and Pulkowa. 

Caucasus 1:210,000, reckoned from Ferro Island. 

No other Government Bureau is charged with or has the authority to 
issue Government Topographic Maps except the topographic section of the 
General Staff at St. Petersburg and its seven branch offices. 

There was noticed at Venice, in the Russian section, a large manu- 
script index map, showing, independently of the general topographic map 
(1:126,000), the various topographic works of all grades in the Asiatic as 
well as the European Dominions of Russia, which, so far as can be learned, 
has never been published. 

BAIKAIST PEJSTIIS^STILA. 

[Survey of the Eussian Campaign of 1877, 1878, 1879.] 

Prior to the beginning of the war in 1877 the astronomic determina- 
tions and topographic surveys, executed from 1828-33 by Russian sur- 
veyors (geometers) and topographers, were the only available material, 
l)earing upon the cartography of Turkey, except the works of the Austrian 
General Staff in 1873-'77. 

These surveys were all based on astronomic points, which again were 
connected by triangulation, as far as obstacles of carrying the trigonometric 
extension into the enemy's country would permit. Differential longitudes 
were obtained by lunar culminations, signals by means of powder flashes 
and chronometer observations, hence the results were only adequate to the 
primitive methods employed. However, during a period of 4i years, 
Moldavia, Wallachia, and parts of Northern and Western Bulgaria, aggre- 



RUSSIA— TOPOGEAPHIC. 381 

gating 166,000 square versts (approximately 72,875 square miles), were sur- 
veyed at the scales of 1:42,000 and 1:84,000. This work being carried on 
simultaneously with the operations of warfare, is naturally somewhat 
imperfect. 

The war of 1877 necessitated, therefore, the preparation of maps of the 
theater of operations. With this end in view a Military Topographical 
Division, consisting of 1 chief and 16 officers, was attached to the staff of 
each army corps. The topographic operations of 1877 were limited to the 
narrow field then occupied, especially on account of the winter season. 
Succeeding events, however, enabled the topographers to extend their sur- 
veys over the greater part of the peninsula. During the entire campaign 
the area of the Bulgarian and Eastern Roumelian principalities was covered 
by triangulation, likewise poi'tions of Turkish territory, connecting Jamboli 
and Mustapha Pasha with Adrianople and via Tchorlu with Constantinople 
as well as Kirkilissa with Burgas. About 100 points were determined in 
Roumania, and in Servia the triangulation work was considerably extended. 
In carrying the triangulation from the Black Sea across the Balkans, 8 chains 
of triangles were established and connected with each other; in fact, the 
trigonometric points were in close proximity and hardly more than 25 versts 
apart, the total number of stations thus established aggregating 1,285, 
while with few exceptions altitude determinations of all these points were 
obtained. 

The astronomic work confined its functions to determinations of points 
within the boundaries of Bulgaria, Roumelia, and Roumania. For differ- 
ences of longitude telegraphic signals were employed so far as circumstances 
would permit, and thus 51 points were astronomically established (37 tele- 
graphically and 14 chronometrically). 

The minimum probable error was 0r2 seconds (in time) for the first 
class, and 0.1 second (in time) for the second. 

The latitudes were determined with high precision, and with a probable 
error not exceeding 0".2 in arc. The difference of longitude between 
Odessa and Constantinople was determined telegraphically. 

The operations in Eastern Bulgaria, under the direction of Captain 
Schmidt (1878-79), cover an area of 36,790 square versts, not including 



382 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

reconnaissances embracing 5,000 square versts, in the "Dobroudsha" embrac- 
ing 13,600 square versts; in the latter province 93 triangulation stations 
were established. The survey of Western Bulgaria was partly made on 
scales of 1:84,000 and 1 : 42,000, with equidistant horizontals of 5 fathoms 
(35 feet), which was carried to within 20 versts of Constantinople. 
The Bulgarian surveys sum up as follows: 

Square versts. 

At the scale of 1: 42,000, instrumentally 97,400 

At the scale of 1 : 42,000, partly instrumental 13, 150 

At the scale of l:b4,000, instrumentally 9,750 

At the scale of 1 : 84,000, reconnaissance 13, 450 

Total 133,750 

or, approximately, 58,715 square miles.* 

It may be mentioned that altitude determinations of points average 
one to every square verst. 

These surveys have clearly proven that all existing maps of these 
countries previously made were incorrect and valueless. The material col- 
lected with so much labor and exertion for an accurate representation of 
the relief and natural outline of this territory will not become obsolete for 
a long period. 

There was received in 1883 from the Ministry of War, at Sofia, Bulgaria, 
a small index map (in Russian) of a series of sheets numbering 67 (scale 1:126,- 
000), which embrace Bulgaria, Eastern Roumelia, and a part of Eastern Tur- 
key, including Constantinople. This index map was prepared at the Topo- 
graphic Bureau at St. Petersburg, and it is assumed that it is the outgrowth of 
the surveys in the Balkan Peninsula above described. This map was to have 
been issued and published in 1884, in black and two colors (one for the 
mountains, represented by contours at 10 sagenes, or 70 feet, interval, and 
another for the forests). These sheets, constructed at scale 1:105,000, were 
to have been photographically reduced to scale 1:126,000 and produced by 
heliogravure. 

" Oae verst = 0.6629 English mile ; 1 square verst = 0.4304 English square mile. 



RUSSIA— GEOLOGIC. 383 

RUSSIA. 

Geologic. 

This examination was instituted January 19, 1882, under the title of 
"Comite Geologique de Russie," and placed under the "Minist^re des 
Domaines," as a branch of the "Institut des Mines," at St. Petersburg. The 
directors are Messrs. B. Cheresheff and A. Karpinsky. 

The map, based on topographic slieets produced by the General Stati' 
of same scale, is on the scale of 1:420,000, to be completed in 154 sheets, 
of which 3 sheets, No. 71 (Kostroma), and No. 56 (Jaroslawl), and No. 93 
(Kamyshin) have already been published. 

Each sheet has explanation and title in Russian and French: "Carte 
Geologique Gen(irale de la Russie d'Europe, Public par le Comit^ Gdo- 
logique." Two maps of the Urals, prepared by the "Institut des Mines," 
have been published. 

The first is " Carte Geologique du Versant Occidental de I'Oural par 
Valdrien de Moller," 3 sheets, 1869, scale 1:840,000, with explanations in 
French. 

The second is " Geologische Karte des Ostabhanges des Urals" (mit 
Ausnahme des Centralgebirges), by A. Karpinsky, 3 sheets, 1884, scale 
1:420,000, with explanations in Russian and German. 

A map of the Baltic Provinces has been published by Prof Dr. C. Gre- 
wingk: " Geognostische Karte der Ostseeprovinzen Liv-, Est- und Kur- 
land," 2 sheets, 1879. Dorpat. Scale 1:600,000; with explanations in 
German. 

The publications comprise Bulletins, in Russian only, in octavo, and 
Memoirs, in quarto, in Russian, German, and French. 

Three volumes of Bulletins or Proceedings have already appeared, and 
two volumes of the "Mdmoires du Comitd Gdologique." 



384 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

EXPLOIlATIO:Nr OF FIIsTLAND. 

Geologic. 

Mineralosfical investigations have been carried on in Finland for sev- 
eral decades under the Administration of Mines, principally for the practical 
purpose of developing mineral industries in certain regions. Geognostic 
maps on small scales, embodying the results of these investigations, were 
prepared and published. The work, commencing in 1866 under Thorold 
and Furnhjehn, overseers of mines (bergmaston), was can-ied on irregu- 
larly and at intervals under different directors until 1877, when, by decree 
of March 14, it was decided to abandon the scale heretofore employed in 
the construction of maps {i e., 1:50,000) since the increased cost appeared 
incommensurate with the utility, and to adopt the scale of 1:200,000, con- 
forming thereby to the geological maps of Sweden. 

For this purpose a yearly appropi-iation of 15,000 francs (approximately 
$3,000) for ten years, commencing with January 1, 1876, was set aside. 
The personnel of the force making the geological examination of Finland 
(Finlands Geologiska Undersokning) is under the immediate control of the 
Administration of Mines, and consists of a director and a number of assist- 
ants, appointed annually. The total number of the latter since 1877 under 
the same director (Moberg) has been 19 in all, averaging 6 annually, 
selected from the students of the University and the Polytechnic Institute, 
as well as from employes of the Department of Mines. In 1882 the per- 
sonnel consisted of as follows : 

(1) Director (Prof. K. Artolph Moberg, since 1877) ; (2) 3 geologists; (3) 1 mining 
engineer; (4) 1 cartographer and surveyor; (5) 2 temporary assistants, for field-work 
only (pupils of the Polytechnic Institute). 

The director receives a fixed salary of 3,000 francs (approximately S600) 
in addition to his pay (3,300 francs, approximately $660), as an officer in 
the Administration of Mines ; the annual salaries of the assistants vary from 
1,000 to 4,000 francs ($200 to $800) while those serving afield season only 
receive 600 francs, and all receiving free transportation to and from and 



FINLAND— GEOLOGIC. 385 

subsistence while in the field. The instructions for the geological explora- 
tions are determined by the approval and confirmation of the Senate. 

The working maps of the geologists furnished by the Administration of 
Mines are prepared by the Geodetic Land Survey and the Topographical 
Corps on a scale of 1:100,000. The instruments used in the geological 
investigation are compasses, levels, thermometers, hammers, and small boring 
apparatuses. In different localities, especially where large swamp and 
clay deposits are found, in addition to ordinary surface borings others are 
carried often as far as 50 feet. The explanatory test for each atlas sheet 
embraces results from the chemical and microscopic analyses of rocks and soils 
thus collected. Field work is carried on from June to October; maps and 
reports are prepared by the geologists during the winter months. Although all 
possible accuracy from actually traversing the area is required, too great 
minuteness is to be avoided. Contemporaneously with the geological explo- 
ration in the field the determination of heights of prominent points is carried 
on, and the resulting elevation entered on the chart and bench-marks cut on 
mountain walls and large rocks. The compilation of the geological data 
from the working maps of the geologists is intrusted to the cartographer, 
who reduces them during the winter to the prescribed scale of 1:200,000, 
each sheet (scale 1:200,000) embracing approximately 2,635.6 square 
kilometers. The amount examined for each geologist has averaged 114 
square kilometers a month. Tlie finished sheets, accompanied by a report 
compiled by the director from data furnished by the geologists, is forwarded 
to the Administration of Mines (usually in May), on whose request the 
Imperial Senate sanctions their publication, which is done, and made ready 
for distribution during the following summer at the lithographic establishment 
of the General Staff at Stockholm. A single complete atlas sheet is here- 
after to be assigned each geologist. Since 1879 five maps, with descriptive 
text, have been issued, and two others are in course of preparation. During 
1883 the examination of Wyland will have been completed and an addi- 
tional area of 3,660 square kilometers will have been explored. Map No. 1, 
" Suomenmaan Geologillinen Tutkimus", is one of the regular atlas sheets 
on the scale of 1:200,000, and shows the general character of the explora- 
tion carried on, giving the result of three years' operations with reference to 
1366 WH 25 



386 GOVEEN^ME>sT LAXD AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

the geognostic relations, minerals, soils, &c. The remaining sheets, of which' 
six more, comprising the geology of the vicinity of Helsingfors and Hango, 
have been issued, are similar, indicating the results of the several }'ears. 
All the superficial deposits, including the great glacial drift, are shown; and 
the very deep fiords about Helsingfors, give to the sheets of that region, 
a very complicated appearance, from the singular combination of colors in 
spots. It is estimated that with the present personnel it will require 67 
years to complete the survey, but such an estimate involves too many 
indeterminable factors, as character of the country, number of points of 
great economic importance, &c., to possess much if any significance. It 
is not yet determined that the scale of 1 : 200,000 will be used for the more 
northern sections; a smaller scale, say, 1:400,000, being probable. The 
expense of carrying on the work to 1 882 was 93,602 francs ; an aniuial average 
of 18,900 francs, or approximately $'3,780. The expenditures have since 
slightly increased, owing to the necessity of increasing the pay of geologists, 
in order to secure their services more permanently, thus preventing fre- 
quent changes hitherto made. 

The explanations on each sheet of the geological map are given in Fin- 
nish and Swedish; but the descriptions in every instance (Beskrifuing) are- 
in Swedish only. 

BELGIUM. 

Topographic. 

The Topographic Survey of Belgium (reproduced on scales of 1 : 40,000, 
in 72 sheets, and 1:20,000, in 430 sheets,) is carried on by the Military Car- 
tographic Institute of the War Department at Brussels.* 

The area of Belgium is approximately 11,375 square miles, with a pop- 
ulation in 1882 of 5,655,197, or an average of 497 to the square mile; the 
largest of any one country in Europe, except Saxony, one of the states of 
the present German Empire. 

This Institute is a branch of the General Staff, and now under the 
direction of Major Hennequin, of the General Staff. 

* In 1878 the topographic and cartographic services of the " Dep6t de la Guerre," received the - 
titld of Military Cartographic Institute. 



BELGIUM— TOPOGEAPHIC. 387 

The personnel in August, 1 885, was as follows : Two superior officers, 1 the 
director and 1 the chief of the topographic brigade, 30 captains and lieu- 
tenants, of whom 9 are topographers, 7 officers for the plane-table surveys 
of fortified places, 2 for geodesy, 3 for the works scale 1:160,000 and the 
mobilization maps, 5 for the maps at 1 : 40,000 and 1 : 20,000, 2 for statistical 
and geological maps, 1, a photographer, and 1, an officer for the instrument 
office and Bureau service. There were also forty-six civil employes, as fol- 
lows : 1 secretary accountant, 13 engravers, 11 lithographers, 10 draughts- 
men, and 11 printers or printing employes. 

As well there were 72 subofficers, corporals and soldiers, of whom 20 are 
draughtsmen, copyists or storekeepers, 7 messengers, and 45 soldiers for 
the service of the Bureau, of the ateliers and the printing office, making 150 
in all. The above number is now somewhat less than heretofore. There has 
been established since January 1, 1883, a section of draughtsmen (subaltern 
officers) which has resulted in a saving in the cost of map revision and the 
introduction of a number of improvements especially advantageous as to 
the detailed maps more particularly required for current army needs. 

The personnel of the reproduction branch consists of an ordinary 
draughtsman, 1 lithographic draughtsman, engravers, a j^hotographer, and 
printers. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Belgium is divided into 9 provinces (administrative), subdivided into 
arrondissements (administrative and judicial), again into cantons (military 
and judicial), and finally into 2,582 communes. 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

There are 2 military districts (Lieutenant-General). Each of the 9 
provinces also constitutes a military command (Major-General). 

The French metric system is used, the " aune" being equivalent to the 
meter. 

Geodetic operations in Belgium date from 1844, and were first executed 
at the request of the French Government, in order to place the map of the 
battle-field of Ramillies in the Historical Atlas of the War of Succession in 
Spain. 



388 GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Triangulation of the field of Waterloo for a map, scale 1:20,000, com- 
menced in 1847. Political events of 1848 retarded geodetic work, which 
was, however, resumed in 1850. There are two main base lines for the 
entire territory. Astronomic observations are adjunctive to the main tri- 
angulation, and levels of precision are employed. The initial astronomic 
determinations, upon which the triangulation rests, were made by Mr. J. 
C. Houzeau, member of the Royal Academy, assisted by the late Col. Adan 
(then a lieutenant of the General Staff). This work, however, formed 
a part and was immediately under the direction of the "Depot de la Guerre" 
under the late General Nerenburger. 

The triangulation has been joined to that of the surrounding countries 
(see " Pr(icis historique des operations gdodesiques et astronomiques faites en 
HoUande, pour servir de base h la topographie de cet fitat"). The errors 
do not exceed those admitted in all main triangulations. The origin of 
geodetic co-ordinates is the east tower of St. Joseph's Church at Brussels. 
The field-work of triangulation was completed in 1873. A special triangu- 
lation for detailed map of Brussels (1: 2, .500) was commenced in 1874, the 
main triangulation revised in 1875, and the final computations completed 
two years later. 

The basis for the map has been — 

1. Data furnished by tlie geodetic branch, consisting of trigonometrically deter- 
mined points. 

2. Reduction of cadastral surveys of the several communes to the scale of 
1 : 20,000. 

3. The lines and situation of the bench-marks of the general leveling. 

Each sheet (scale 1: 20,000) is 8,000 meters in length by 10,000 meters 
in width, or 8,000 hectares, 8 of which compose 1 sheet of scale of 1:40,000. 
There are from 5 to 7 geodetic points for each plane-table sheet (scale 
1:20,000). 

The cadastral charts have been usually prepared at pretty large scales, 
the minimum being 1:2,500. These were reduced (1847 to 1855) to 
1: 20,000 for a planimetric base. 

The cadastre of each commune is divided into sections, called " plans 
parcellaires," and designated A, B, C, D, &c. The diff'erent sheets are 



BELGIUM-TOPOGRAPHIC. 389 

reduced and collected in one general plan for the entire commune, of which 
five copies are produced. 

The leveling has been both general and special, the former being 
levels of precision along main lines covering the entire country and as a 
base work for the special leveling required for the plane-table sheets. 

The general or main bench-marks are chosen for their greater or less 
stability, as mile-stones, bridge tablets, also points on viaducts and aque- 
ducts, sills of churches, chapels, communal or school houses, pubhc houses, 
or, in default of any of these, private houses solidly constructed. Ordinary 
bench-marks were established on all roads or avenues of communication 1 
kilometer apart. 

• The results for each plane-table sheet are from 15 to 25 of these points, 
a list of which accompanied by a descriptive sketch is then given to the 
topographer. 

These levels are referred to ordinary low water, the mean of low water 
having been found to be 2,135.5 meters below a point assumed as mean 
sea level, established by means of a canal lock at Ostend. A revision of 
all main lines of level was made by distributing the error according to the 
method of least squares. 

It has been the custom to place 32 of the plane-table sheets on one 
large table, within which the trigonometric points were projected, assuming 
the rectangular lines of the borders as co-ordinate axes. 

The detail of the cadastral plats is then adjusted to the trigonometric 
points. Each one of the sheets, 0.50 by 0.40 meter, is then placed in the 
hands of the topographer. The resulting detail is transferred to the plane- 
table sheet by a reverse tracing. This planimetry is drawn in pale india ink 
In addition, the list of levels is placed in the hands of the topographical 
engineer, who is a lieutenant. The latter are taken from the older pupils of 
the Military School, twelve or fifteen of these officers, under a captain, form 
a brigade of the liltat-Major. 

The duties of this brigade are— 

1. To rectify the line-work in all parts known to be defective in consequence of 
their subordination to the trigoaometric points. 



390 govee:n^ment land and marine surveys. 

2. To take bearings ou the ground and transfer upon the plane-table sheets all the 
interesting details, in conformity to the table of tints and conventional signs adopted 
by the Institute. 

3. To determine by the eclimeter adapted to the compass a great number of 
neighboring points, for showing the figure of the ground with exactness by equidis- 
tant level curves (at least 3,000 for 8,000 hectares). 

4. To delineate the ground by means of level curves traced lightly in crayon 
after the presumable calculation of the points. 

5. To take note of occurrences of all sorts which the ground presents. 

The level-wrork is the most important, and the instruments are chosen 
accordingly. 

The field season begins in April and lasts approximately six months. 

The defective linear work is perfected and omissions supplied. The 
objects claiming special attention are — 

Watercourses, communications of all sorts, houses, gardens, hedges, 
chapels, ditches and isolated crosses, bridges, wells, boundaries, toll-gates, 
&c. 

The curves are carried to a distance of 50 meters beyond the limits of 
each plane-table sheet for the purpose of facilitating the connection with 
adjacent sheets. Curves are drawn at distances of 1 meter, with more care 
for those 5 meters apart. 

The plane-table sheets are inked only after reaching the Brussels office, 
and two months' field-work is required for each sheet. 

These sheets, having from 4,000 to 5,000 level-points, executed with 
great care, are reduced by photography to scale 1:40,000. These plane- 
table sheets have proceeded in regular fashion since 1859, and were all 
completed in 1873. The map (scale 1:40,000) is constructed after the 
Flamsteed modified projection, the origin of co-ordinates being the inter- 
section of the meridian of the Royal Observatory at Brussels and the 56th 
parallel north latitude. 

The map is engraved on stone, and cxirves drawn 5 meters apart. 

The sheets (1:20,000) are published in chromolithography, commenc- 
ing in 1866 and ending in 1880. When joined they will form a rectangle 
of 13 by 14 meters. Fifty of the sheets (1 :40,000) had been revised (1879) 
for all changes. As high as 20,000 impressions have been taken from a 
single stone. 



BELGIUM— TOPOGEAPHIO. 391 

The sheets (1:20,000) are also reproduced by lithography and zincog- 
-raphy in black and brown, serving for the use of engineers and for the 
.geological chart. 

There is also produced at the Institute a general topographic map, 
scale 1:160,000. 

Geologic map. — The geological maps are reproduced in colors by the 
■Cartographic Military Institute to scale 1: 20,000, which since 1878 has 
introduced a number of improvements.* There are produced as well min- 
ing charts, and also itineraries followed by the principal African explorers, 
revised to 1880. The pubHcations other than maps are 30 volumes and 
pamphlets, relating to the main and subsidiary operations and scientific 
subjects bearing thereon. 

Description of wops.— Cadastral Atlas Maps of Belgium (based on the 
revenue surveys, made by the Governments of the United Netherlands) were 
issued by the establishment of Vander Maelen in 1837 (scale 1 : 5,000), and in 
1847 (scale 1: 2,500); also at a later date (scales 1: 2,500 and 1: 5,000) by 
Popp, formerly director of the Cadastre. 

This atlas comprises the plan in detail of each commune, made with 
the most scrupulous exactness and minutest care, with all changes. The 
limits of sections and the perimeter of the commune are in colors. Each 
I^lan is accompanied by an index table and the cadastral basis, which pre- 
sents the number of parcels; the names, the extent, the class, and the net 
revenue of properties improved and unimjjroved; the total extent of the com- 
mune, tariff of net valuations of each nature, and class of funded properties. 
It may be remarked that the comparatively small area of Belgium has 
permitted not alone the completion some years since of official maps of its 
entire territory, but to execute a field topographic revision of the greater 
part of the former surveys and levelings, and to commence the publication 
of revised editions of these maps. 

General topographic map (scale 1 : 40,000 — 72 sheets). — The projection 
is the Flamsteed modified, centigrade, and sexagesimal. It consists of sheets 
each 0". 8 by 0". 5. 

*The above, written in 1882, shonld be modified to say that these maps are now published by a 
.private lithographic establishment in Leipzig (see Belgium— Geologic). 



392 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

The engraving of this map, on stone, commenced in 1861, and was com- 
pleted in December, 1883; the number of levels upon which the reliefs were 
based exceeding 1,000,000. At this date the annual appropriation for the 
service was 100,000 francs, approximately $20,000. 

This map is found to be of the greatest service to the army, industry, 
commerce, and agric^^lture; nevertheless it has been admitted that that 
upon the scale of 1:20,000 is of greater value. 

Equidistant contours of 5 feet were found too great for the plains of 
the Meuse. It appears that all the administrative branches avail themselves 
of the large scale, finding thereon information not elsewhere accessible, and 
which could only be attained independently at very great cost, and then 
only in an incomplete form. Forty of the above sheets had been revised 
for paved roads in 1885. 

Where revisionary topographic work has been done, the revision includes, 
in addition to means of communication, all details of construction and culti- 
vation. A current general revision of all these sheets (1:40,000) will be 
complete in 1886. 

Special topographic map (scale 1: 20,000 — 427 sheets). — This map, com- 
pleted in 1880, is a vigorous reproduction of the field minutes or plane-table 
sheets, by means of photolithography, both with and without colors. It 
indicates distinctly all means of communication by land, the hydrography, 
buildings, woods, prairies, cultivated grounds, &c. Each sheet, both for this 
and the 1: 40,000 scale, bears a number, besides the name of the principal 
locality found thereon. 

The index map shows 452 sheets or parts of sheets at this scale, 25 of 
which have each appeared with the adjoining sheet as one, thus reducing 
the number of published sheets to 427. 

Since 1880, 56 of the above sheets have been reissued. This edition 
has, however, been interrupted, and is replaced temporarily by the publi- 
cation of sheets of the first edition revised to embrace paved roads. It (the 
second edition in colors) will soon, however, be resumed. 

This map in black (1:20,000 — 430 sheets) was completed in 1881, 
with 2 adjoining sheets issued as one in 22 instances. 



BELGIUM— TOPOGRAPHIC. 393 

Fifty-three of these sheets were reproduced by hehogravure and the 
balance by photozincography. 

3Iap of fieU of Waterloo.— Y\ns map of 20 sheets (scale 1:20,000) is 
among the number of miscellaneous charts issued by the Institute, and is 
after the Flamsteed modified projection, with graduation, centesimal and 
sexagesimal, size 0". 52 by 0". 42, and was first published between 1845-53, 

Independent of the horizontal curves 1 meter apart and numerous 
other elevations, there are indicated with much clearness, by conventional 
signs, the woods grown, cut, and saplings; vineyards, heaths, dunes, 
marshes, and water; hedges and gardens; turf-pits, sands, stone fences, 
levees, with and without trees; ditches, churches, chapels, crosses, ceme- 
teries, wells, wind-mills in masonry and frame; water-mills, trigonometric 
points, clocks, weighing bridges, paved routes, highways, parish roads and 
footpaths; canal ditches, and limits of state, province, arrondissement, and 
commune boundaries. There are also title, index, and conventional sign 
sheets, a triangulation sheet, and 3 showing levels. 

MEANS OF REPRODUCTION. 

The property of gelatine in contact with the salt of chrome, becoming 
insoluble under the action of light, has been variously utilized, thus aiford- 
ing photographic carbon prints, by the processes known as Woodbury 
type, heliotype, heliogravure, photozincography, and photolithography. 
The principal conditions for success appear to be (1) to obtain a brilliant 
negative, presenting sufficient contrast between the transparent and opaque 
parts, and (2) to establish a perfect connection between the negative and 
the printing surface in case of direct transfer, or first with the transfer film, 
in case one is introduced. All of these processes have been experimented 
with at the Belgian Military Institute, as well as a new method called 
"o-ravure heliogalvanique," being a combination of galvanoplastic and pho- 
too-raphy which, it is claimed, gives an engraving on copper almost as fine 
as handwork at about one hundredth part the cost. 

The map (scale 1 : 40,000) is engi-aved on stone, as also that of field of 
Waterloo, those (scale 1:20,000) by photolithography, photozincography, 
and chromolithography. 



394 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

There is also being irregularly reproduced, as required, by photographic 
enlargement from the plane-table sheets, scale 1:20,000, a map of parts of 
Belgium (by photozincogi'aphy) in sheets a quarter size at 1 : 10,0'.*0. Upon 
these the woods, gardens, and certain other details do not appear. The 
redrawing at scale 1 : 10,000 is performed by Army officers These sheets 
are issued as required for advance projects of routes of communication for 
the war game or " Kriegspiel," &c. 

Map, scale l:l(jO,000. — This map appeared in 1884 in six sheets. It 
may be considered as the first generalized topographic map of the whole 
country. It includes the exact condition of all means of communication up 
to Jvdy 1, 1884. This map also contains the revision of all water courses 
and new works of fortification, but forests and prairies remain as shown on 
map of same scale engraved in 1859, and from which many editions had 
been printed both in black and colors. There is soon to be commenced a 
generalized topographic map, scale 1:200,000 (to replace map 1:160,000), 
derived from a reduction of the sheets (1:40,000), thus eliminating any 
errors of position inherent to the map of 1859. The new map will be 
reproduced by heliogravure. 

At the close of season of 1885, the field topographic revision will have 
embraced 1,719,327 hectares, or about ^^ of the whole area of Belgium 
stated at 2,945,715 hectares, equivalent to 11,373.7 square miles. 

Commencing in 1879, each season's revisionary operations embraced 
about 320,000 hectares (40 sheets of 8,000 hectares each), at which rate it 
should be completed in 1889 or 1890. 

Each topographical officer is expected to make (except in particularly 
complicated ground) the complete revision of a plane table sheet in one 
month. 

This revisionary work at scales 1:40,000 and 1:20,000, it is intended 
shall in the most rapid and useful manner be made available to the public. 
The funds annually available for the expenses of the Institute are an appro- 
priation of 17G,000 francs (10,000 francs less than in 1883) and about 
15,000 francs realized from the sale of maps. It is divided under the fol 
lowing heads of expenditure : 



BELGIUM— TOPOGEAPHIC. 395 

Franca. 

Direction and interior service 12,000 

Material 12,000 

Field topographic revision 14,000 

Survey of fortified places and plotting field minutes 27,000 

Current work on maps of various scales 73, COO 

Service of the printing office 43, 000 

Scientific and other labors and duties 10,000 

Total 191,000 

(approximately $38,200.) 

It will be noticed that the principal part of the present annual cost is 
for current Avork on various maps and for printing. 

The expense for salaries, pay, &c., of all military officers and men 
detached for duty at the Institute are carried under another heading in the 
military budget. But, inasmuch as these officers and men are not replaced 
in the corps from which they are detached, where they may immediately 
return for duty in case of necessity, their cost to the state (about 141,000 
francs annually) is not reckoned in the total expense of the Great General 
Survey. According to "notice sur les cartes agricoles" (pp. G4 and 6S), 
by Major Hennequin, the total cost to the public treasury for all kinds of 
works by the "Depot de la Guerre" and the present Institute from 1832 
to December 31, 1883, had been 4,507,442 francs, or a little more than 
1.50 franc per hectare (approximately $79.25 per square mile). This cal- 
culation, brought forward to December 31, 1884, gives a total cost to that 
date, from special appropriations and receipts from sales, of 4,837,341.49 
francs. The cost of the topographic field revision is stated at 45 francs 
per square kilometer (approximately $23.31 per square mile). 

It has been estimated lately in Belgium that the total cost to the Gov- 
ernment for this work as a whole (including all expenses for military officers 
and men) has not been far from 10,000,000 francs (approximately $175.82 
per square mile). The Director of the Institute very properly maintains 
that the expense of the changeable military force is not properly charge- 
able, and also states that the above sum even, including the latter charge, 
is in excess of the true and actual cost to the Government. 

The total cost of engraving on stone the 72 sheets (scale 1 : 40,000) was 
found to be approximately 663,000 francs. This shows an average of 3.60 



396 GOVEENJSJENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

francs per square centimeter (S4.75 per square inch), wliicli is believed to 
be below rather than above the actual cost."* Equidistant horizontal curves, 
adopted at the commencement of the map series, 1:40,000 and 1:20,000, 
are still employed to represent elevations. For the first time (1885) the 
sheets (1 : 40,000), conjoined into a single map, figure at the Exposition at 
Antwerp, and it is stated by the Director that the method of curves for 
representing reliefs is very satisfactory for a country like Belgium. 

During 1881, modifications have been admitted in the execution of the 
map 1 : 160,000, by retaining the level curves, and adding lithographic crayon 
shadinrr (oblique light), to the intervening spaces, to accentuate the form of 
the terrain as a whole. This resembles the craj-on shading employed on 
the Norwegiao maps (1 : 100,000) the latter, however, using hypothetically 
direct light. The Eckstein chromolithographic process has been employed 
in the reproduction of diagraunnatic charts in the work on agricultural sta- 
tistics. This process is also being experimented with for maps proper. 
Experiments are now being made to replace the transfers on stone with a 
heliographic transfer on zinc, with good results for the map, 1 : 20,000, both 
in black and colors. The possibility of eff'ecting with clearness and facility 
corrections upon the engraved stone has been established. Volume II of 
the calculations of the triangulation of the Kingdom is about to issue froni 
the press. 

The issue of special maps of the vicinity of fortifications and fortified 
places, is restricted to the needs of the special military services entitled to 
them. The functions of the Institute are prescribed by royal decree of 
January 20, 1881. 

There are special instructions for the reduction of the "plans par cel- 
laires" of the cadastre (1846-1854); for topographic works (1860); for the 
chiefs of brigade of the topographic section (1861); and for officers charged 
with the revision of the map (February 15, 188J). 

There are executed by the Institute for the " Statistique de la Belgique," 
being published under the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry, and Public 

*■ It is estimated iu France that tbe cost of engraviDg on copper of the map 1 : 80,000 is 5 francs 
per square centimeter, or approximately $6.46 per square incli. (Topograpbie et G(5o(16sie ; cours de 
St.-Cyr, par le Capi"° Moessard, Delagrave, l-iSi, p. :i;W.) 



BELGIUM— GEOLOGIC. 3^)7 

Works, an administrative map of the agricultural districts, scale 1: 500,000, 
and diagrammatic charts at scale 1:1,000,000.* 

A permanent exhibition has been organized by the Military Carto- 
graphic Institute for the comparison of the numerous map results obtained 
by all countries at all epochs. 

BELGIUM. 
Geologic. 

The preparation of the detailed Geological Chart of Belgium (scale 
1:20,000 — 430 sheets), based on War Office Topographic Map of same 
scale, is being executed under the Royal Museum of Natural History 
(EdAvard Dupont, director), a sub-bureau of the administration of letters, 
sciences, and fine arts, a branch of the Ministry of the Interior. It is 
governed by a legislative grant of funds and royal decree (extracts of 
which are to be found herewith), and regulations thereunder established by 
the Minister of the Interior. 

The following extract bears upon the organization and functions of 

this service: 

Organic law for the execution and publication of the Geological Chart of Belgium 
at the scale of 1:20,000. * * * 

In view of the law of the budget of the Minister of the Interior, dated February 



o 



7, 1878, allowing a first credit destined to cover the cost of execution of a detailed 
Geological Cbart of Belgium at the scale of 1 ::iO,000, upon the proposition of our Min- 
isters of the Interior and of War, we have decreed and do decree: 

Article 1. The detailed Geological Chart of Belgium will be prepared and pub- 
lished at the expense of the State on the .scale of 1:20,000 and after the plane-table 
sheets ol the topographical map of the "depot de la guerre." 

Art. 2. The works will be executed under the control of a Commission, which 
shall be under the jurisdiction of the Minister of the Interior, and which shall be 
denomiuated the Commission for the Geological Chart of Belgium. 

Art. 3. This Commission is composed of members of the Eoyal Academy of Bel- 
gium, of representatives of the Departments of the Interior, of War, and of Public 
Works. Its members are named by us, as well as its president and secretary. 

Art. •!. The service of the preparation of the Geological Chart is attached to 
the Royal Natural ilistoiy Mu.seum. The chief of that establishment is to direct this 
service, under its responsibility, in a manner to assure the completeness of execution 
and scientific unity of the chart. 

Art. 5. The cartographic publication will be made by the " Depot de la Guerre" 
(now called the " Military Cartographic Institute"). 

*A cnso coutniuiu^' 'M sets of maps aud reports dispatclied by tbe tlirector of tbis lustitute iu 
August, 1S85, not haviug been received, most of the later statements liere given are necessarily con- 
fined to information kiudly furnished by letter of same date. 



398 GOVEKISTMENT LAND AND MARINE SUEVETS. 

Art. 6. In order to utilize the co-operation of all the "savants" of the country,- 
Geological Surveys, of which the cost shall be charged to the credit allowed for the 
work of the chart, should be executed by geologists, who, without belonging to the 
aduiinistration of the Museum, shall accomplish the requirements of the Commission. 
These surveys shall be published under the name of their authors, and shall, subject 
to the approval of the Commission, make a part of the chart specified in Article 1. 

Art. 7. The Commission exercises an administrative control over the geological 
service attached to the Royal Museum of Natural History. It assures the cartographic 
execution, by the means of the "depot de la guerre," and regulates the order of publica- 
tion of the works presented. It supervises the execution of decrees and regulations 
relative to the entire service. 

Art. 8. The (sharts and sheets of geological profiles, prepared by the service, 
attached to the Museum of Natural History, shall bear the title: "Geological Chart of 
Belgium, prepared by order of the Go^'ernment;" and alongside of the title, with the 
name of their directors, the two establishments that execute this work: " Royal Mu- 
seum of Natural History" and "Depot de la Guerre." 

Art. 9. The explanatory text of the charts and sheets of i)rofiIes mentioned in 
Article 8 will be published in the Annals of the Royal Museum of Natural History, 
under the charge of tbe director of tUat establishment. 

Art. 10. The director of the Museum submits annually to the Commission, in the 
first half of April, a summary report, and during the first half of November, a general 
report upon tbe part of the service with wiiich he is charged. The Commission trans- 
mits this report with its opinion to the Minister of the Interior. 

Art. 12. The director of the "Dei)6tde la Guerre" directs the cartographic pub- 
lication of the work. It lays annually before the Commission, during the first halt of 
April, a summary report, and during the first half of November, a general report upon 
the geological publications of the "Depot." The Commission transmits this report 
with its opinion to the Secretary of the Interior. 

Art. 13. He communicates each year to the Commission the estimates for the 
geological publications of the "D^p6t" as well as the general state of the accounta- 
bility for these publications. The Commission transmits these documents with its 
suggestions to the Minister of the Interior. 

Art. 14. The Commission receives, discusses, and approves, if possible, the 
requests of the non-functionary geologists of the Museum mentioned in Article 6. The 
nature and remuneration of the works of these geologists are determined by a con- 
tract that the Commission submits to the approval of the Minister of the Interior. 
» ##*#** 

Art. 16. The charts and profiles furnished by the non-functionary geologists of 
the Museum and admitted by the Commission are published by the "Depot de la 
Guerre." The printing of their explanatory text is regulated by the Commission. 

At present the examinations and resulting reports and charts are made 
by professional geologists attached to the service, the volunteer geologists, 
being no longer employed. 



BELGIUM— GEOLOGIC. 399 

The present work began in 1878, and should be completed in 1894. 
Each geological system of rocks in its entirety is traced over its whole 
extent in Belgium by a single observer. It is called the " monographic 
system," and is a very imj^ortant innovation, which ought and doubtless 
will be followed by all other geological works, not covering too wide an 
extent. There are 5 geologists appointed by the Minister of the Interior, 
upon the recomriiendation of tlie director, also 1 petrographer, 1 assistant 
in the chemical laboratory, and 4 or 5 paleontologists. The field season is 
usually limited to 100 days, and all the professional work is done by the 
geologists, aided by the above-mentioned specialists, and 2 draughtsmen 
for delineating the colors. The present annual cost for field and office 
is 67,000 francs (approximately, Sl3,400), and it is estimated that the 
total cost for preparing, engraving, and printing in colors the 430 sheets 
will be 1,100,000 francs ($220,000, apj^roximately), increased by 500,00a 
francs (approximately, $100,000), for the profiles and explanatory text. 
The basis of the cartographic illustrations are the plane-table sheets of the 
Military Topographical Survey (scale 1:20,000) and the same for the pur- 
poses of the field-work, when required, increased to a scale of 1 : 10,000. 

The map is prepared by superposing the colors and special geological 
conventional signs on the topographic base, already found constructed by 
the Military Cartographic Institute (see Belgium Topographic). The map 
is to appear in 72 main divisions, each containing when complete 8 sheets 
or " planchettes." Six sheets have been issued (March, 1885). 

The outcrop of rocks is colored in full dark shades, and the soil, the 
alluvium or modern deposit, and all the quaternary formations are marked, 
and the limits of each system, as obtained by digging and special borings, 
are indicated by a lighter shade called " teinte neutre," of the color used 
for each "^tage" or division. The map thus becomes a ti'anscript of nature, 
a carefully made geological dress, well fitted to a substantially perfect 
topographic form, true at least for the surface, and more than usually correct 
for what lies hidden underneath. The soil as well as the subsoil being 
equally represented on the same sheet, signalizes a new departure in geological 
cartography. On each sheet explanations, sufficient to give an exact idea of 
all the formations contained within its limits, are printed on three sides. The- 



400 GOVERNMENT LAND AND xMAllINE SURVEYS. 

upper part of the sheet has tlie title alone. The borings, executed to ascer- 
tain the extent of the formations beneath the soil, reduce the suppositious to 
very narrow limits. Professor Marcou is of the opinion that no geological maps 
have yet been published in any country, where may be found so great nn 
amount of accurate and valuable information with such clearness and precision. 

The sheet of "Dinant," issued in 1885, is pronounced a true "chef 
d'oeuvre," and Professor Marcou claims as a certainty that it will become a 
model for geological maps. 

Mr Dupont, in introducing the monographic method (i. e , the study of 
each system or formation of rocks of a whole country without regard to its 
extent, though it embrace a continent, by a single geologist, or a special 
group of geologists trained and devoted to it exclusively, and the repre- 
sentation both of the soil and subsoil on the same map) has introduced two 
of the most important innovations yet adopted since geological works beg;u). 

Explanations of each sheet are published separately, and an important 
innovation has here been introduced, in placing in the text at their projjer 
place, reduced colored sections, admirably executed Also, larger section 
views, like those employed by D. D Owen, in 1852, in the geological explo- 
ration of the Upper Mississippi, are placed at the end of each "explica- 
tion." These explanations are called the "Stratigraphical series" of tlie 
"Musee Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique." 

Three other series exist, i. e., for Paleontology, existing Fauna, and 
Lithology. Finally a " Bitlletin" is annuall}^ issued containing brief special 
memoirs. The maps are finely engraved and chromolithographed by a 
private iirm in Leipzig (Messrs. Giesecke and Devrient), the publishers of 
the excellent geological map of Saxony. It was only after repeated trials, 
first at the " Institut Cartographique Militaire," then in Paris, that Mr. 
Dupont, with the advice of a commission composed of cartographers from the 
" D^pot de la Guerre," geologists, and members of the Academy of Sciences 
of Belgium, selected and made a contract with the above large lithographic 
establishment. The topography is taken entirely from the original military 
plane-table sheets of the "Institut Cartographique Militaire;'' and the com- 
mission of control comprises General Brialmont, Chief of Engineers, the 
Secretary of War, &c. 



BELGIUM— GEOLOGIC. 401 

In the spring of 1885, one-third of the field-work had ah-eady been 
completed. 

The following historical data is presented concerning this highly per- 
fect geologic work. 

The first geological examination of Belginm, after the attempt of 
d'Omalius d'Halloy of the first French Empire, of which Belgium was then 
a part, was made by Andr^ Dumont from I806 to 1854. He published in 
1854 at the Imperial Printing Press at Paris, a general map under the title 
"Carte Gc^ologique de la Belgique ex^cut(ie par ordre du Gouvernement,'' 
scale 1 : 160,000, in 9 sheets, and also the same map for only the under- 
ground (sous-sol) under the title " Carte G^ologique de la Belgique indi- 
quant les terrains qui se trouvent au-dessous du limon Hesbeyen et du sable 
Camprinien," scale 1 : 160,000, in 9 sheets. Dumont published, also, a reduc- 
tion of the above map in one sheet, under the title "Carte Ge'ologique de 
la Belgique et des contr^es voisines," scale 1 : 380,00i). 

A second issue of these three maps was made in 1878 at the "Depot 
de la Guerre." The scientific and artistic execution of these maps is remark- 
able. They have attracted attention not alone from the originalit}' of the 
classification employed, but also and more especially for the great number 
of colors, there being as many as 48 distinct tints. The second geological 
examination has already twice changed its organization and personnel. In 
1878 the work was conducted by a committee of which Mr Jochams, 
inspector-general of mines, was president. The " Lev^ gdologique," or prac- 
tical work in the field, was executed by the Baron O. van Ertborn, with 4 
assistant volunteer geologists. This first organization published 21 sheets 
or "planchettes" (1 : 20,000) from 1879 to 1881. Then the work was made 
a part of the " Mus(^e Royal d'Histoire Naturelle," under the direction of 
Edward Dupont This second organization published six sheets from 1882 
to 1883. Its highly important results have been above described. For 
some reason this work was suspended in May, 1885, and a third organiza- 
tion is on the point of being made by the Belgian Government. 
1366 WH 26 



402 



GOVEENMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Table of geological maps {lopographicaVy hased) of Behjium. 



Examinations. 


Scale. 


No. of 
Bbeets. 


Remarks. 


r 

First geological examioation, 1836-1854 -. ■ 
Second t,eolosical examination, 1878-1885. . 5 


TEOtoOO 

ItiUUUO 

;tuuuuu 
3B505(r 

aooou 

20000 


9 
9 
9 
9 
1 
1 

21 
6 


1 (Subsoil). First edition, Paris, 1854. 

\ (Subsoil). Second edition, Brussels, 1877-'78. 

First edition, Paris, 1854. 
Second edition, Brussels, 1876. 
First organization, 1878-1882. 
Second organization, 1882-1885. 



Wherever observed in fc^urope (unlike the experience in the United 
States r, the geological services are perfectly in harmony and accord with 
the topographic works that produce the graphic base upon which the observa- 
tions of the geologist are recorded and published. 

Naturally and properly as topographic works have become better under 
stood and more highly appreciated, and called for outside of purely military 
channels, their direction has varied and elaborated the strictly technical 
representation of the ground and its improvements to meet the requirements 
of industry as well as scientific investigation. 

DENMARK. 

Topographic. 

The Kingdom of Denmark has for a long time prosecuted systematic 
topographic surveys, on a trigonometric basis, under the Topographical 
Section of the General Staff branch of the War Department. The area of 
Denmark is, approximately, 14,788 square miles, with a population in 1880 
of 1,969,039, or an average of, approximately, 133 inhabitants to the square 
mile. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Denmark proper is divided into 8 provinces, and further, for adminis- 
trative purposes, into 18 bailiwicks. 

MILITARY DIVISION S. 

For military purposes the Kingdom is divided into 2 general com- 
mands, which consist together of 5 territorial brigades. Each brigade is 
subdivided into 2 demi-brigades or 4 territorial battalions. 



DENMAEK— TOPOGRAPHIC. 403 

The measures of length are the meile or mill (equal to 4.6807 English 
miles) the rode, the favn, the alen, the fod, or rhineland foot, the tomme, 
and the linie. 

The oldest map of Denmark appears to have been executed about the 
middle of the sixteenth century, under Christian III, by the mathematician, 
Professor Jerdanns, and may be found in Braun's "Theatrum Orbum." A 
hundred years then elapsed before any important topographic works were 
undertaken. By command' of Christian IV, the Royal Mathematician, 
Johan Meyer, undertook the survey of the duchies Schleswig and Holstein, 
from 1638 to 1648, and already in 1652, 37 general and special maps 
appeared as a supplement to Caspar Dankwerth's description of the two 
above-named duchies then published. After this, Johan Meyer received a 
royal order to survey and map the Kingdom. 

This work was begun, but was suspended in 1658, presumably on 
account of the war with Sweden. From 1681 to 1687 there was under- 
taken, under Christian V, as a basis for a new taxation, a survey and regis- 
tration of the whole Kingdom, with the exception of the island of Born- 
holm, under the direction of Jens Dinesen, Professor of Mathematics at the 
University of Copenhagen. In the royal instructions to the Registration 
Commission it was commanded that simultaneously with the survey and 
registration there should be prepared a map of the country, but only a 
beginning was made. The survey itself was completed in 1688, and is 
minutely described in Mandix's Handbook, &c. Under Christian V and 
Frederick IV, the Royal Map Director, Jens Sorenson, undertook a com- 
plete sea and land chart, according to which, Husmann, in the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, probably prepared and published his map of Zea- 
land and Fyn. Besides, under Frederick IV, the " Rytter" districts were sur- 
veyed and mapped, and later Bornholm, Iceland, Jutland, and Holstein. 

The need for better and more connected surveys and maps caused the 
Royal Danish Scientific Society, established in 1742, finally, under Frederick 
V, to take the matter in hand, according to the suggestion of Peter Hofod, 
Professor of Mathematics at the Odense Gymnasium, in 1757, and decided 
that one bailiwick should be surveyed every year at royal expense. Its exe- 
cution was put under the charge of Hofod, who worked at it indefatigably 



404 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAE[NE SURVEYS. 

until his death in 1761, after which there was fouod i clearly drawn map 
of the bailiwick of Copenhagen and also rough draughts of the entire map. 
The Society now appointed a commission which should prepare a general 
plan for the geographical survey of Denmark (afterwards extending to 
include the Duchies). In accordance with this plan, which was approved 
by royal decree of June 26, 1761, the land should be surveyed on prin- 
cipal parallel lines from which all objects should be determined ; the land 
survey map thus obtained should be tested and corrected by means of 
trigonometrical surveys and astronomical observations. The direction was 
intrusted to Counseller of Justice, Professor Hee, who should at once 
instruct the necessary surveyors, draw up the plan for each summer's survey 
and give his attention to the publication of the map. The survey began 
in 1762 with only 2 surveyors, but later on the number was increased. 
Thus the first triangulation of the country was made. 

Under the direction of Thomas Bugge, Professor of Astronomy, there 
was surveyed, in 1764, a base of 14,515 ells in length from Ting Hill to 
Brondby Hill, west of Copenhagen, which was completed in 1765, also a 
belt of triangles in the neighborhood of Copenhagen, which, in the follow- 
ing year, were carried in different lines from Sjaeland over F3-n and Lange- 
land to Halvren, and gradually at the end of the century they embraced the 
whole country from Skagen to the Elbe. (Besides this tiiangulation of the 
first order, there was made also one of the second order, on which churches, 
mills, and the like were marked, and also barometric measurements ) 

The necessary longitude, latitude, and azimuth determinations were 
made by Bugge in the year 1765.* The detail measurement of the map 
was completed about 1820. It was undertaken on the scale of 1 : 20,000 
and the maps were engraved and issued from time to time, from 1766 to 
1834. From 1763 to 1781 appeared Pontoppidan's statistical topographical 
description of Denmark and Schleswig, under the name of the "Danish Atlas," 
:a work of great merit for its time. Shortly after the Scientific Society had 
set its surveys on foot, a plan was approved by the royal resolution of May 
7, 1 768, for the establishment of a new registration of the country, and as 

* The oldest reliable obsorvatious of the lougitude and latitude of Coiienhagen were made by 
the French Astronomer, Picard, in 1671, and Petro Horreboe in 1719. 



DENMARK TOPOGRAPHIC. 405 

ji basis for this, that there should be made a survey and map. This was 
begun in 1768 in the southern part of Zeahmd, but the work was stopped 
in 1772 in consequence of the royal decree of June 3, but was again begun 
in 1806 in accordance with the royal resolution of May 16, 1804, at the 
suggestion of the exchequer. There were employed 130 land inspectors 
and surveyors, and the work was to be completed in five or six years, but 
was prevented by the war of 1807. The field-work of the general regis- 
tration of the Kingdom was completed in 1822. 

Before 1808 there are found but few traces of maps prepared for the 
special use of the army, and these are limited to the sketches drawn for the 
great maneuvers; such are found still of the environs of Copenhagen in 
18£)2, of Rendsburg, 1800 and 1802, of Segeburg and Oldeshohe, 1804. 

By the royal resolution of January 20, 1808, the General Staflf was 
established, divided into 2 sub-divisions, the Adjutant-General and the 
Quartermaster-General. 

The newly created General Staff perceived that the Scientific Society's 
maps, whose excellence however was acknowledged, could not be consid- 
ered as sufficient for military requirements, as it was not undertaken with 
a view to military purposes, and besides that since the survey was begun 
in 1762 many changes had come to pass. The Staff" determinated there- 
fore to make a "Military Geographical Map," and began in 1809 an inde- 
pendent survey on the basis of the Scientific Society's original measure- 
ments on the scale of 1 : 20,000. The fixed points of these were laid off on 
plane-tables, and on these points the military survey was based. The 
scale was also 1:20,000. In the beginning the surveying was done by the 
officers of the Staff onl}^, but later other officers were also required. Before 
1819 no preparations appear to have been made for the printing and issu- 
ing of the military map. In that year there was begun the preparation of 
"Maneuver and Road Maps," and also the reduction of a part of the envi- 
rons of Copenhagen, on the scale of 1:60,000, but the Military Road Map 
No. 1 was not ready for publication before 1828, and did not represent 
reliefs 

In 1822 a map of the whole of Zealand was begun by the Staff, but 
was not completed. 



406 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

From 1807 to 1814 there were made special maps of the batteries and 
fortified places in the country and on the coast with their environs. 

At the close of 1830 the General Staif received orders to publish a 
"MiUtary Topographical Map of the entire country" forming a connected 
whole. 

The survey was to rest on the Scientific Society's triangulation (from 
which organization in 1843 all map making was transferred to the General 
Staff), to be executed on the ground at 1 : 20,000, and to be published at the 
scale of 1 : 80,000, after the Lehmann system of relief representation. 

This work was commenced immediately, partly by Staff officers, and 
partly as before, by officers assigned to it, and for securing uniformity, 
rules and instructions for map drawing were issued under the name of 
"Art of Topographical Drawing." 

The Topographical Map of Denmark should, according to the original 
plan, consist of 81 engraved sheets on the scale of 1 : 80,000, but after the 
war in 1864 the number of sheets was reduced to 66. In 1871, after 29 
sheets had been published, embracing the islands (with the exception of 
Anhalt Laeso and Bornholm), it was decided that for the future the map of 
Jutland should be pubhshed at the scale of 1 : 40,000 (131 sheets, exclusive 
of Bornholm), and that the modified conical projection should be used instead 
of that hitherto employed, the "Flamsteed modified." The map sheets 
for both maps have a rectangular form of 1 2 by 15 inches. The terrain is 
given with equidistant horizontal curves of 10 feet; but 4 sheets of Lealand, 
Falster, and the neighboring small islands have 5 feet equidistance, and' the 
first 7 sheets were published without terrain representation, or hachures. 

In consideration of the great benefit to be derived from a map on the 
original scale of 1 : 20,000, the topographical section of the General Staff 
decided, in 1865, to publish such a map. Until 1861, when the General 
Staff began to make use of photography, it was very expensive for the 
public to obtain copies of the original survey sheets The only maps which 
had been engraved and published before that time on the original scales 
were — 

1. The plane-table sheet " Vejrhoj" proof-sheet, 1845. 

2. The environs of Copenhagen in 6 large sheets, 1 853-1857. 

3. Hoje Moen in 2 sheets, 1854. 



DENMARK— TOPOGRAPHIC. 407 

From 1861 to 1865 photographic copies of the sheets were drawn on 
transparent paper, which were accessible to the pubhc as photographs. But 
real progress in that direction was made first after photographing by the 
camera was introduced in 1865, when photographs were made from 1866 
to 1879, when photography was replaced by photozincography. 

Of the plane-table sheets of Jutland 500 had been issued in 1883. By 
degrees as time and opportunity permits the 125 plane-table sheets, which 
belong to the western group of islands, have been photolithographed and pho- 
tozincographed ; 47 had already been issued in 1882. In the same manner the 
eastern group of islands is to be issued in 284 plane-table sheets, but only 
after these have been corrected on the giound, and entirely new draw- 
ings made, the present ones being more that twenty years old. The con- 
formation of the ground is of course unchanged, but as in the first survey 
the woods were not leveled, this work must now be done. 

The present Topographic Atlas of the Kingdom of Denmark com- 
prises two district groups of maps, viz: 

(«) Map of the Dailish Islands to the east of the "Little Belt," along with Samso 
and Thuno. 

(6) Maps of Jutland (Jytland) and the isle of Bornholm. 

The former map, of scale 1 : 80,000, is constructed after the modified 
Flamsteed projection. The controlling meridian is laid down at 2° 12' to 
the west of the old observatory at Copenhagen, and the tangent parallel is 
66° north latitude. 

The atlas consists of a title sheet and 29 sheets, each of which com- 
prises a space of 20 Danish (438.16 Enghsli) square miles. The map of 
Jutland and Bornholm, of scale 1 : 40,000, is constructed after the modified 
conical projection. This map, 69 sheets of which have been published, is 
to consist, when finished, of 131 sheets, comprising each a space of 5 Danish 
(109.54 English) square miles. This atlas is based upon a thorough trian- 
gulation, for which the labors of the Danish degree measurement have 
latterly been availed of that a£Ford belts of great triangles to which a sec- 
ondary triangulation has been connected extending over the whole Kingdom, 
and on original levelings and measurements, scale 1 : 20,000, the ground 



408 GOVEHNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

being represented by means of equidistant horizontsil curves of 5 Danish 
(^5.15 English) feet. 

Every possible object that can serve as a fixed point for detailed meas- 
urements is made use of, the whole map thus resting on thousands of points, 
the vertical co-ordinates of which are determined by trigonometiic level- 
ings. The origin of co-ordinates from which the latitude and longitude are 
computed is the center of the Observatory of Copenhagen (Round TowerJ, 
the latitude of which is 50° 40' 53". 

The globular compression is assumed at ~th, and the length of a mean 
degree or 1.90 of a quadrant is taken at 57,000 toises 

Tlie bottom of the sea also has been represented by a system of curves, 
the equidistance of which, however, is 6 (6.18 English) feet, and has been 
carried to the depth of 24 (24.71) feet only. Whenever the depth of the water 
is greater, certain soundings only have been indicated in fathoms. This 
part of the map is based on the hydrographic measurements of the Royal 
Danish Navy. 

The economic survey charts (scale 1 : 40,000) reduced by the pento- 
graph, are made use of as a planimetric basis, where practicable. About 
100 principal altitude points to the square mile are determined, while with 
a hand-level the additional number required as a basis for the 5-foot curves 
are observed for. The work in its detail is substantially of the plane-table 
order. The altitudes above the sea are given in Danish feet for all trigono- 
metrical and other important points. Each plane-table sheet is 4' in lati- 
tude and 6' in longitude The parish limits are taken from the records of 
the Royal Exchequer. The correct spelling of the names of places is 
determined according to present pronunciation, a reference to the origin of 
which is sought in the district in older writings or etymology. So far as 
possible prehistoric monuments are shown on the map. 

The border lines of the atlas sheets are formed by two systems of 
straight lines parallel with the main axis. The maps are issued both with 
and without topographic reliefs 

Regarding the contents of tiie atlas sheets (being mainly reproductions 
of the original plane-table sheets, scale 1:20,000), with the exception of 
very small areas, disappearing in the scale of the map, descriptions appear 



DENMARK— TOPOGRAPH IC. 409 

in the two principal title or index sheets. It may, however, be remarked 
that for the Islands of Lealand and Falster, with the small islands adjoin- 
ing, the atlas sheets (Nos. 12, 13, 20, and 21) are provided with i")-foot hori- 
zontal curves; all the other sheets, on the contrary, have them only at 10 
feet; also that the first seven atlas sheets published, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 16, 
and 21, are offered to the public in three different forms: (a) without ter- 
rain, (b) with terrain, executed according- to the Lehmann method; and (c) 
with terrain, represented by parallel curves. This expensive manner* 
was given up by the decision of the Ministry of War in 1853. While there 
has not been made in the course of time any really essential alteration in 
the plan for the contents of the atlas sheets, a very great one has been made 
with regard to the manner of execution. 

In the beginning the whole sheet was engraved by hand, which, 
together with the troublesome tracing of the pentograph reduction, made 
the preparation of an atlas sheet tedious and expensive. A very important 
advance in that direction was made by the introductionof theSerensen engrav- 
ing-machine, the chalcographer, by which it not only, as before mentioned, 
sets down on the copper plate, directly from the plane-table, all kinds of lines, 
but at the same time engraves perfectly all coast lines and the parallel 
curves, which latter require especially much time in hand engraving. This 
instrument was employed for the first time in 1860, and has since effected a 
very important saving. The engraving of the atlas sheets cost now only 
about one-half, while the time required is likewise reduced at the same ratio. 
The corrections on all the engraved work are made by the officers. 

Of the entire atlas the eastern group of islands (Zealand, Moen, Lea- 
land, and Falster) and the western group (Fyn, Samsoe, Taasinge, Lange- 
land, and Q^roe) were published on the scale of 1 : 80,000, in 29 sheets and 
title page, in 1845-1872, while of that of Jutland, on the scale of 1 : 40,000, 
there have been j^ublished from 1870 to date 69 sheets and title. The rest 
of Jutland, several sheets of which are in preparation, and also Bornholm, 
will require at least 12 years. By a carefully calculated computation, made 
in 1853, in accordance with which the whole atlas (South Jutland included) 

* Two of the engravings, answering to "b" and " c," were producecl by galvano-plastic from " a," 
and with the terrain afterwards added. 



410 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SURVEYS. 

could not be expected to be finished until the year 1960, but unexpectedly 
the course of the work has rapidly grown since the time above mentioned, 
partly through introducing better and more rapidly working instruments, 
partly from the greater practice of the individual worker and the better 
methods employed, but principal!}^ from the fact that the Topographical 
Section of the General Staff acquired in 1867 an important expansion, 
brought about by the representations of that organization to the Govern- 
ment and the Diet, that such a measure was necessary for hastening- the 
survey and the publication of the map. Since 1865, however, the task to 
be completed has been very much increased over that set in 1830, i. e., a 
map of 1:80,000. The scale of 1:40,000 being adopted for Jutland, the 
number of atlas sheets required for that portion of the country was increased 
fourfold. It has been held also since the year 1865 to be of the greatest 
importance, for pui'poses both military and civil, to issue a map on the scale 
of 1: 20,000 for the whole country. 

DESCEIPTION OF MAPS. 

Scale 1: 80,000.— There are 81 sheets, each 0".38 by 0^47, representing 
an area of 20 Danish square miles. The triangulation has been calculated 
with great exactness by the method of least squares. The Cadastral Maps 
(scale 1 : 20,000) are made use of, reviewed and corrected, and all possible 
topographical details added. The heights of the principal points are stated 
in feet. The reliefs are in contours. For the hydi'ography of the coasts 
the surveys of the Royal Danish Marine is availed of, and the depth of the 
first four fathoms is indicated by fathom curves (1 fathom = P'.SS), the 
deeper soundings being given in figures. The map thus constructed has 
been reduced to the scale of 1: 80,000, and engraved upon copper with all 
possible care. Each sheet is sold separately. Upon each sheet is shown a 
scale in meters and another in Danish alens. A separate title or index sheet 
is issued, with explanations of topographical signs and a statement regard- 
ing the entire work. The Island of Bornholm occupies the 81st sheet. The 
size of paper is 26.6 by 19.4 inches, and of the border 18,8 by 14.5 inches 
(inside). 



DENMARK— TOPOGRAPHIC. 411 

Scale 1 : 40,000. — These are engraved on copper, and tinted by hand in 
three colors. Each sheet embraces 18' in longitnde and 8' in latitude, or an 
area, approximately, of 109.6 square miles. The size of the paper is the 
same as for scale 1 : 80,000. 

In 1882 the tirstfour sheets of the general map of Jutland (1 : 160,000) 
appeared. This map is reproduced, by photolithography, in six colors — 
vermilion for railroads and roads (three classes), blue for water, brown for 
forests and jjlantations, green for meadows, moors, and marsh lands, car- 
mine for heaths, and black for outlines, as boundaries, &c. There ai'e many 
altitudes, but the general relief is not shown. This map is prepared with 
great care, and for the scale comprises a large amount of information. 

The following re'sMwe indicates the changes that have occurred since the 
General Topographical Map, scale 1: 80,000, was ordered, which, including 
Bornholm, was to have consisted of 8 1 sheets : First, this number was reduced 
to 66 after decrease of territory in 1864. Second, when Jutland was reached, 
its publication was undertaken on a scale of 1: 40,000, 131 sheets (the num- 
ber of plane-table sheets of Jutland is 646, scale 1:20,000). Third, the 
eastern group of islands will be produced in 29 sheets, scale 1: 80,000 (the 
number of plane-table sheets upon which these are based is 284, scale 
1:20,000); hence the final atlas of Denmark, now in progress, will consist 
of 29 sheets, 1 : 80,000 (Eastern Islands); 131 sheets, 1:40,000 (Jutland); and 
approximately 1,055 plane-table sheets, 1:20,000, embracing in aggregate 
the entire territory. 

The field minute sheets (1 : 20,000) are reproduced both by photolith- 
ography and photozincography. Nine-tenths of Jutland, one half of Funen, 
and one-quarter of Zealand have been published at this scale. The topo- 
graphic maps of the vicinity of garrisons and of sections specially visited 
by tourists are chromolithographed in four or more colors. 

Plans of the vicinity of fortified places and war game maps have 
appeared at 1 : 10,000 



412 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

de:n^makk. 

Geologic. 

No geological work has been established in Denmark; but the Bureau 
of Statistics at Copenhagen has published a small geological map, with 
explanatory text, which may be considered as an official account of the 
geology of this country. It appeared in " Danmarks Statistik, Vol. I, Kj(;>- 
benhavn" (Copenhagen), 1882. The title is "Geognostisk Oversigtskort 
over de oeldre Dannelser i Danmark og skaane." No scale. The above is 
accompanied by a geological report "Oversigt over de geognostiske For- 
hold i Danmark," by F^ Johnstrup. 

GREENLAND. 

Geologic. 

In 1876, the Royal Danish Government and its legislative body 
(Rigsdad) instituted for five years a Commission for the Exploration of 
Greenland (geologically and geographically). 

The director is Prof. F. Johnstrup, at Copenhagen. 

Every year during the very short summer of the Polar Arctic circle, 
two or three explorers are engaged in the examination of all the coast, 
fiords, and even the interior, as far as practicable. The reports are pub- 
lished in Danish, with a French resume at the end of each volume or part. 
From 1879 to 1884, six parts were issued under the title "Meddelelser over 
Gronland " (Exploration of Greenland), besides a separate volume, pub- 
lished by the Commission in 1878, under the title of "Gieseckes Mineralo- 
giske Reise i Gronland, 8°, Copenhagen." Each volume contains several 
geological and geographical maps. Those showing the great surface occu- 
pied by the actual glaciers are most important. 

The period for which the explorations were established has been 
extended by law, and it is expected the examination will continue until 
complete, so far as explorations are possible in this most inhospitable and 
little accessible region. 



NOEWAY— TOPOGEAPHIC. 413 

IN^ORWAY. 

Topographic. 

Maps of Noi'way prior to the beginning of the 18th century are rare, 
although many old maps (without date) exist among the archives at the 
Military Geographical Survey at Christiania. The oldest with dates are : 
"A map of part of the (" Amt") bailiwick of Bahus adjacent to Idefjord," 
i c, inlet of Ide; scale approximating 1:50,000 — 1661 ; also, "a land and 
boundary map of the South Mountain range in Norway," &c., approximat- 
ing scale 1:400,000 — 1696; as well as " a correct and accurate bound- 
ary map between Aalen, Tydalen in the "Amt" of Drontheim on the 
Norwegian, and Herdahlen on the Swedish side," approximating scale 
1:80,000—1696. Maps of the sea coast from Fredrikshald to Arendal 
and Hesnaes and of the Bay of Christiania are of prior date in the reign of 
Christian V. "Bailiwick" maps are found of date of 1704, and a general 
map of Norway, of the year 1761. By rescript of October 16, 170b', the 
Norwegian clergy were required to prepare a description of their parishes, 
and transmit them to the royal histoiiographer, in order that the material 
might be used in a statistical and topog-raphical description of Norwa}', 
which was, however, never completed. A so-called " Forest and Timber 
Commission" was established in 1725, afterwards abolished, and again 
re-established in 1732, and abolished finally in 1737. Its purpose was to 
promote a knowledge of rural matters ; also to encourage and direct indus- 
tries connected therewith 

A commission of German foresters was established in 1737, whose duty 
it was to collect information concerning forestry and the timber interests in 
a single diocese, of which a topographical description and map was to be 
published. This commission was merged (1739) into a Forestry Depart- 
ment, attached to the Department of Finance, with semi-independent func- 
tions. 

The want of a good map being felt led to detailed horizontal surveys 
in several of the southern dioceses, and continued to the year 1746, long- 
before a map of all Norway, originally intended, had been completed. These 
explanatory maps were drawn on the scale of approximately 1 : 100,000. At 



414 GOVEEXMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

the same time topographical-statistical descriptions concerning boundai-iesanU 
soils, rivers and streams, minerals, mines, and smelting-works, forests in gen- 
eral, &c., arranged according to bailiwicks, were prepared. These maps 
contained the principal rivers and mountains, roads and churches, the saw- 
mills, farms, with the woodland and cultivated spaces in colors. 

These topographic labors were soon forgotten, and only brought to 
light by Pontoppidan while preparing his map of Norway published in 1785. 
The originals ai-e now incorporated with the archives of the Geographical 
Institute. A certain amount of interest for topographic works in Norway 
appears to have been awakened during and subsequent to its operations. 

Many Norwegian maps are still preserved made during the interval from 
the abolishment of the Forestry Department to the establishment of the 
Topographical Survej^ (1746 to 1773). 

Many maps containing boundaries, roads, conscription districts, and 
churches (date 1765) were prepared by military authority and known as 
regimental maps. General maps of Norway were published by Falken- 
skjold (1757), Wangensteen (1761), and HoflF (1762). Pontoppidan made 
use of all the material existing in 1785. As the demand for maps became 
greater the need for a general topographic survey was more and more felt, 
the establishment of which became possible through the Mathematical Mili- 
tary School, where topography and map drawing were made special studies, 
thus gradually providing a number of men specially qualified for the work 
of the survey. 

A map of Norway, scale 1 : 200,000, conic projection, the private enter- 
prise of Captains Ramm, Munthe, and Glessing, engraved on copper, was 
commenced, to be issued in 1826. 

Note : This brief notice is taken from an " Historical sketch of the Geo- 
graphical Survey of Norway," by Captain de Seue, Royal Staff.* 

The area of Norway is approximately 125,646 square miles, with a 
population in 1875 of 1,806,900, or an average of approximately 14 to the 
square mile ; although the greater share of the population is confined to the 
southern half 

' Selected translations from this document were made by Mr. Henry L. Thomas, official trans- 
lator of the State Deijartment, from which the above has been condensed. 



NOEW AY— TOPOGRAPHIC. 415 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Norway is divided into 6 administrative dioceses or provinces, " Stiffen :" 
these are subdivided into 17 "Amts" (counties) or bailiwicks, two of which 
are north and south portions. 

The "Amts" are subdivided in descending order of area into "Fog-der" 
(districts), " Praestegjelds" (parishes), and "Anneks" (communes). 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

For miHtary purposes Norway is divided into 6 brigade districts, sub- 
divided into 20 battahon conscription districts, each of which contains from 
2 to 8 muster circles, of which there are 83. These latter are divided as-ain 
into 204 lot- drawing districts (Lodtroeknings distrikter). 

The metric system was adopted in Norway May 22, 187/1, and was to 
be generally used from and after 3 years from that date. 

The principal work of the Geographical Institute (Norges Geogratiske 
Opmaaling) at present is the preparation of the material for a detailed topo- 
graphic map (scale 1 : 100,000, in 54 sheets) embracing the southern portion, 
each sheet of which is divided when published into 4 parts, and each of the 
latter into 12, representing ^ of an entire sheet, or one Norwegian square 
mile. The total number of the quarter-sheets necessary to cover the entire 
country would be about 350. This work in the field is conducted under the 
Geographical Institute formed by merging the Geographical Survey of 
the Department of the Interior with the Topographical Section of the Gen- 
eral Staff. 

The administration of this service rests with the War Department. 

The following note taken from Lieutenant Nissen's memoir serves to 
give an idea of the present organization, supervision, and administration of 
this work : 

In 1828 the survey received the name of the "Combined Topographic and Hy- 
drographic Survey," which in 1833 was changed to the " Royal Norwegian Geograph- 
ical Survey," which again was changed to that of "Norwegian Geographical Survey." 
With this, since 1872, has been united the "Topographical Section of the General 
Staff," which consists of 1 lieutenant-colonel, chief (and also chief of Bureau) of the 
Norwegian Geographical Survey ; '2 captains, 2 assistants (as a rule), 2 cadets, 1 lith- 
ographer, 1 photogia[)her, and 4 noncommissioned officers. For the " Norwegian 



416 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

Geographical Survey" there were added to these a fixed personnel of 1 naval officer, 6 
officers of the army by detail, 1 accountaDt, and the necessary technical j^prsowne/ (at 
times 21 persons). Besides these, as a rule, 1 or 2 naval officers, and at times several 
additional army officers by short details. Officers of the army and navy are also spe- 
cially detailed for field work. The general management of the survey is committed 
to a "directory,'' consisting of the chief of the General Staff and two others selected 
for the purpose by the War Department. The special direction and management is 
held by the chief of Bureau. For his immediate assistance there is a "Secretariat" 
(one assistant and one non-commissi(.ned officer), while the personnel is divided into 
the following sections: 

1. Section for trigonometric and topographic works (the chief of it being a 
captain of tlie General Staff). 

2. Section for detail surveying and publication of maps (chief a captain of the 
General Staff). 

3. The Hydrographic Section (chief, a specially assigned naval officer). 

4. The Section for engraving and printing (chief, the litliographer of the Gen- 
eral Staff). 

5. The photograpbic galvauo-plastic Section (chief, the photographer of the Gen- 
eral Staff), and also the office of the accountant, by which the sale of the maps is 
carried on 

The frequent wars between Denmark and Sweden and Norway appear 
to have been the particular cause which gave rise to the establishment of 
the survey of Norway. The necessity for maps for military purposes on 
the border districts induced the chief of the Artillery and Engineer Corps to 
obtain an appropriation for making a military survey of the region, between 
Enningdalen and Stene Skandse in the Vaerdalen, along the Swedish border." 
An officer of the General Staff was selected as leader of this survey and the 
special regulations for it are found in a letter of instructions (the oldest found 
in the archives) dated Christiania, December '4, 1773. 

The scale first adopted for field-work was 1 : 8*^,400, which was changed 
to 1:72,000 in 1781. In 1815 it was decided that the field minutes for tlie 
map of 1 : 100,000 should be taken on the scale 1 : 20,000. Subsequently 
the scales of 1 : 50,000 and 1 : 100,000 were employed for mountain work 
and 1 : 50,000 generally for cultivated districts. It appears now to be the 
rule to conduct the field-work generally to the scale of 1 : 50,000, with that 
of 1 : 25,000 for thickly populated districts, and that of 1 : 100,000 for luoiin- 
tain tracts. 

The topographic relief was formerly shown by hachures for ciihivatod 
portions, and crayon stippling for the mountains. Since 1870, however, 



NORWAY— TOPOGRAPHIC. <; 1 7 

reliefs are represented by horizontal curves at equidistances of 100 feet, 
(now 30™) for scale 1 : 50,000 and 1 : 100,000, and 25 feet (now lO") for 
that of 1 : 25,000. Between these curves hachures are introduced for cul- 
tivated areas and crayon stippling for the mountains. Forests are repre- 
sented by special conventional signs, aneroid barometers, and small alt- 
azimuth instruments have been employed for altitudes. Each plane-table 
sheet for the scale of 1 : 50,000 embraces about 4 Norwegian square miles. 
The originals are always accompanied by a topographic, military, and 
partly statistical description. Up to the close of 1878 there had been sur- 
veyed the greater portion of the country lying south of a line between 
Wumso and Stenkjaer and the bailiwicks of Tromsoe and Finmark, sketched 
at a scale of 1 : 100,000. The general topographic map (known as the rec 
tangle map) is published in rectangles of 14.4 by 10.8 Norwegian inches, 
representing 3 by 4, or 12 Norwegian square miles. 

The publication was begun in 1869. Each sheet aggregates about 
630 square miles. Reliefs are in contours, with effective crayon shading, 
vertical light. Water is represented in blue, letterings and outlines in black. 
These parts are engraved on copper and the remainder on stone. A base 
was measured on the ice during the winter of 1834-35, near Christi- 
ania, which connected with the position of the Astronomical Observatory, is 
the origin of co-ordinates from which the entire triangulation proceeds. 
Between the years 1845-50 Norway participated in the Russo-Scandina- 
vian degree measurement from which resulted a belt of triangles between 
Fuglenes at Hammerfest and the Swedish boundary. Since 1863 the geo- 
graphical survey first, and now the Geographical Institute, participated in 
works of the Commission for European degree measurements, which had 
led to the connection of other belts of triangles with the European net. 
Upon these belts rest all the subordinate triangulation. Various hydro- 
graphic maps of the coast have been undertaken by the Geographical 
Survey, and upon its maps have been based the geological representations 
of the formations by the latter service. Deep-sea soundings have been 
added of later years, and special reference may be had to the quoted works 
in Danish by Captain de Seue and Lieutenant Nissen, of the Norwegian Staff, 
as well as for numerous and instri:ctive details that it has been impracticable 
136G WH 27 



418 GOVEENMENT LAND AKD MARINE SURVEYS. 

to include herein. The various maps published in Norway, and descriptions 
of which appear in "Comstock's Notes," are as follows: 

1. General chart of Soutbern Norway, scale 1:400.000. 

2. Topographical chart (rectangle map), scale 1:100,000 — 54 sliects, published 
in quarto sheets of 12 square miles each. 

3. Amt charts, scale 1:200,000. 

4. Sea coast charts, of which there are five series. 

The first are charts of sea banks along the coast (scales 1:100,000 and', 
1:200,000), the remaining four series consist of two kinds of general charts, 
one at the scales of 1:350,000 and 1:800,000, another at scale 1:200,000, 
together with two sorts of special charts, one on scale of 1:100,000 and: 
1:50,000, respectively. (See "Comstock's Notes.") 

The sum appropriated during the year 1875-1876 is stated in Captain 
de Seue's historical account as 28,263 specie dollars 40 skillings, distributed, 
as follows : 

Specie dollars. Skilluigs. 

1. The survey 12,000 

2. Publication of maps 8,000 

3. Progress of coast survey 2, 400 

4. Deep-sea soundings 4,600 

5. Exploring Tromsoe bailiwick 1,263 40 

Total ; 28,263 40 

The above is, approximately, $31,089 United States money, one speci'j- 
dollar being equivalent to $1.10. 

The total sum granted from 1869 to 1876 was 288,608 specie dollar?,, 
or about 36,000 specie dollars annually, the sum granted for the earlier- 
years being, approximately, 12,000 specie dollars. 

The instruments employed for the regular topographic, exploratory, 
and coast-survey work have followed in general the improvements made in. 
Europe during the period of j^ears involved. 

The "Storthing" granted, in 1875, a sum for the expenses of an expe- 
dition sent out to explore that part of the Atlantic Ocean and the Nortli- 
Sea lying between Norway, the Faroe Islands, and Iceland, with regard to 
its physical and zoological relations, a work which came under the direc- 
tion of the "Geographical Survey," and, according to the plan, to consist 
of deep-sea soundings, meteoiological observations, sea temperatures anit 



NORWAY— GEOLOGIC. 419 

chemical composition, magnetic observations and zoological investigations, 
extending over a period of three years. 

Special military topographic works have been executed at the scales 
of 1:40,000 and 1:10,000 by officers of the General Staff, by virtue of its 
general appropriations, and also a map of the vicinity of Christiania at 
1 : 25,000. (See List of Maps, p. 133.) 

There has been issued also by photolithography a war exercise map 
(scale 1: 8,000), in 16 sheets, not accessible to the public. A survey of the 
vicinity of Christiania had been begun in 1883 at the scale of 1: 10,000. 

The Index Map of 1885 shows 43 quarter atlas sheets as completed. 
The work as a whole continues in vigorous progress, having steadily 
increased gradually since its commencement, with a knowledge of and 
requirements for the uses to which the graphic results of topographic 
works are applied from decade to decade. 

Note. — From ofacial data lately received from the chief of the General Staif (Col. C. G. With) at 
Christiania, it aijpears that a Lieuteuant-Colouel of the General Staff is now the director in chief of the 
Geographical Institute with the title " Chef for Norges Geografiske Opmaaling," while also a Com- 
mission (principally consultative) lias been organized, known as the Norwegian Geographical Com- 
mission (Norges Geografiske Commission), consisting of 6 members, military and civil, with the chief 
of the General Staff as its president. This Commission is found under the administration of the War 
Department, now known as the Ministry of Defense, since the War and Marine administrations are united. 

NORWAY. 

Geologic. 

The Geological examination of Norway was commenced in 1858 after a 
plan drawn up by Th. Kjerulf, Professor of Geology at the University of 
Christiania, in conjunction with his collaborator (T. Dahl), and placed by 
the Home Department (Ministfere de ITnt^rieur) under the directorship of the 
former. 

Its object is to prepare and publish a Geological Map of Norway, with 
accompanying sections. The work is conducted with the topographic 
mape of the Topographical Survey (scale 1:100,000) as a base. Two or 
three months of each year since 1858 have been employed in the field by 
the gentlemen above mentioned, as well as by others specially retained. 
Maps for recording field minutes of the scales 1:20,000, 1 :50,000, 1 : 100,000, 



420 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

and 1 : 200,000 are used. Maps are also published on the scale 1 : 400,U00, 
and a large manuscripfmap has been prepared on the scale of 1 : 200,000. 
Two of the detailed sheets (scale 1 : 100,000) had appeared in 187G, since 
which date the work has steadily progressed by the use of the inconsiderable 
annual sum of 10,080 kroner (8 kroner = 9 marks) — 11,340 marks z= 
approximately, $2,835. Seventeen sheets have been issued since 187G ; 
comprising the provinces of Christiania and Fredrickstadt (5 sheets), Hamar 
(2 sheets), Bergen (12 sheets), and Trondhjem (8 sheets). 

From 1858-1865 the provinces or dioceses of Hamar, Christiania, and 
Christiansand were examined by Kjerulf and Dahl, and a map published in 
10 sheets (scale 1 : 400,000), with sections, explanations of signs, and a con- 
cise pamphlet. The special personnel consists of either mining candidates 
or other students at the University, independent of the services of ordi- 
nary assistants, who could be employed from year to year. A synoptical 
map of the province of Trondhjem was issued in 1874. The provinces 
of Trondhjem, Bergen, Finmark, Tromsoe, and Nordland have been taken 
lip as the topographical published or manuscript maps have become avail- 
able. The synoptical map of Southern Norway appeared in 1877, the 
examination of which region has meanwhile been carried forward. 

In 1879 Dr.Theodor Kjerulf published a general description of Southern 
Norway " Udsigt over det SydHge Norges Geologi," Christiania, 4°, with a 
folio atlas of 39 plates and a geological map, "Geologisk Oversigtskart 
over det Sydlige Norge," 1878 (a very large sheet), scale 1:1,000,000. A 
German translation, by Dr. A. Gwelt, of this important Avork appeared in 
1880. 

Dr. Tellef Dahl completed the cartographical work in publishing in 
1879, at Christiania, a large geological map of Northern Norway, on the 
same scale of 1:1,000,000, comprising the rest of the Kingdom of Norway, 
the Lofoden Islands, and the North Cape, as far as Russian Lapland. Dahl 
had four assistants in the exploration for and compilation of this difficult 
geological map, executed between 1866 and 1879. 

Special attention has been given to the glacial formations, and two 
maps with memoirs were published by Kjerulf, one in 1859 for the region 
of Christiania fiord, and the other, more general, embracing the whole 



PORTUGAL— TOPOGllAPHIC- 421 

of Southern Norway, in 1877, under the title of " Les Stries, les Moraines 
et les Blocs erratiques Dans la Norvcige me'ridionale." The publications are 
in Scandinavian, French, German, and English. They appear irregularly, 
sometimes isolated, more often disseminated in the following journals 
and University publications: " Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne " 
(New Magazine of Natural Sciences), and "Universitets Program af den 
Kong. Norske Universitet," Christiania. Dr. W. C Brogger, the paleontolo- 
gist of the Survey, has published lately very important memoii's or mon- 
ographs of the primordial and secondary fauna of the Lower Paleozoic 
rocks. The collections made by the Survey are deposited in the mineralog- 
ical cabinet of the University of Christiania. 

PORTUGAL. 

Topographic. 

In Portugal the trigonometric, topographic, hydrographic, and geologic 
works are united under one direction, which is now under the Ministry of 
Public Works. 

The area of Portugal is approximately 34,418 square miles, with a 
population in 1881 of 4,708,178, or an average of approximately 136 per 
square mile. 

CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

For administrative purposes Continental Portugal is divided into 8 
provinces, subdivided into 17 districts, and again into parishes, "Freguesia." 

MILITARY DIVISIONS. 

Portugal is divided into 8 military districts, identical with the civil 
provinces. 

The measures of length and surface have, since October 1, 1868, been 
the same as those of France, but with Portugese denominations (see Notes 
on Surveys — Intelligence Branch, War Office, London, 1882, p. 97). 

Geographical works have been fostered for long periods by this Gov- 
ernment, and topogi'aphic w^orks resting on a trigonometirc basis were 
inaugurated toward the close of last century. These works, experiencing 



422 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MARINE SURVEYS. 

various vicissitudes, seem to have been revived at the creation of the 
Ministry of Public Works in 1852. 

The "general direction" of geodetic, cliorographic, and hydrographic 
works was created by order of this Ministry December 9, 1856. A 
decree of December 30, 1864, fixed its character and gave the name of 
"Geographical Institute." This institution was transferred in 1868 to the 
War Ministry and given the name of "Ddpot G^ndral de la GueiTe." In 
December, 1869, the present "general direction" of geodetic, topographic, 
hydrographic, and geologic works was established under the Public Works' 
administration. It is divided as follows: 

I. Main geodetic works. 

II. Secoudary geodetic works. ' 

III. Chorographic and topographic. 

IV. Hydrographic. 

V. Geologic. * 

VI. Reduction of notes, engraving, printing, accounts, &c. 

Provisionally there had been also a special astronomic work under 
this direction, looking to the establishment of an observatory of the first 
class, near Lisbon. 

MAIN GEODETIC WORKS. 

The geodetic or trigonometric works are limited in the main to those 
needed, preparatory to the construction of maps. 

An arc of meridian of 6"^ 45' has been measured, which joins the 
Observatory of Lisbon with that of Paris, which in turn had been thus con- 
nected with Greenwich. The reconnaissance for the main triangfulation 
was made between 1790 and 1803, during which time 2 bases were meas- 
ured. This branch was interrupted till 1834, and again taken up and 
enlarged in 1856. 

Portugal joined the International Commission for European degree 
measurements, since which date the triangulation has been revived. 

The angles have been observed with all the care and skill known to 
modern science, and in 1878 about three-fourths of the entire main net had 
been completed. The origin of co-ordinates is the Observatory at Lisbon; 
two latitude and numerous azimuth checks have also been introduced. 



PORTDGAL— TOPOGEAPHIC. 423 

Different special lines of levels of precision (the lines of sight not exceeding 
10 kilometers) have been run, starting from points on the coast and con- 
necting with main triangulation stations. Initial altitudes have been deter- 
mined by reference to tide-gauges and registers at 10 different points, the 
zero being taken as a 5-year mean sea-level of a locality near the villa of 
the "conde." The above are independent of the mass of levels required 
for hych-ographic and topographic determinations. Various calculations 
have been prepared in this branch. New check bases and other astronom- 
ical latitudes and azimuths are to be measured. 

SECOND AKY GEODETIC WORK (secoud section). 

Following the main triangulation, a secondary one (with sides of 
approximately 2,500 meters) is made, covering the entii'e country. They are 
well conditioned, connected triangles, taking advantage of all natural and 
artificial points. In 1878 four-fifths of the Kingdom had been covered and 
more than 7,000 points established. 

Each triangulation (main and secondary) is platted to the scale of 
1: 100,000, the altitude of each station computed and alphabetically 
recoi'ded. The triangulation of the second order is found sufficient for estab 
lishing the points for the map scale 1 : 100,000. Where special plans (more 
detailed) are required a tertiary triangulation is introduced. All resulting 
points become available for the topographic section. 

TOPOGRAPHIC WORKS. 

These works, independent of those purely topographical, comprise the 
surveys for geographic and chorographic maps, the cadastre and leveling of 
the country. One of the regular duties of this section has been the constant 
revision of a general topographic map, scale 1: 500,000 (125 meter curves) 
for the public services in general and for the geological reconnaissance. 
This map has been considered only as a first reconnaissance of the country. 
Based upon it, and the material gathered later, a map for genei'al uses has 
been executed (scale 1: 1,000,000); also a map (scale 1: 200,000) express- 
ing reliefs (based upon the general topographic map, scale 1: 100,000, — 37 
sheets) is in progress. The main, general topographic map of this country 



42 t GOVEENMENT LAJifD AISTD MARINE SURVEYS. 

consists of 37 sheets (each of size 0"". 8 by 0™. 5, embracing approximately 
1,550 square miles) published in black from engravings on stone at scale of 
1: 100,000. The field minutes or plane-table sheets, upon which it is based, 
have, of later years, been taken at the scale of 1 : 50,000, and these in turn, 
as required, are being and to be, published at this scale. It is assumed that 
the detailed triangulation has been so conducted that from each plane-table 
station three others shall be visible. The order of occupation is determined 
by the chief of the topographical section. Everything that can be deline- 
ated on this scale is shown, i. e., cities, villages, isolated houses, mills, lime- 
kilns, means of communication, water-courses, canals and lakes, woods and 
copses, as well as everything under cultivation or inclosed. Territorial 
divisions are indicated, and in a separate sketch the limit of cultivation as 
well as the various kinds of forests. (For detail regarding conventional 
signs see lists for each country and plates in "Notes," War Office, London, 
1882, pp. 15, 24, 35, 47, 58, 71, 84, 89, 99, 107, 113, 124, 128, and Plates 
I to XVII.) 

Curves at equidistances of 25 meters, the result of trigonometric 

levelings, are employed. All of the above are drawn in pursuance of 

' standard conventional signs. Of the 37 regular atlas sheets, 22 had been 

engraved and pubHshed in 1885, and 10 others (scale 1:50,000), resulting 

from the plane-table sheets, had been issued in 1878. 

Several special topographic works, of limited localities, have been 
undertaken on scales 1 : 1,000, 1: 2,500, 1:5,000, and 1:10,000, such as the 
national forest of Leira, the country between Lisbon and Cape Roche, &c ; 
as well, certain fortified places have been surveyed at the scale of 1 : 5,000. 
In these more detailed works use is made of the stadia and chain for dis- 
tances. River maps have been issued at scales 1 : 2,500 and 1 : 20,000. 

There is a map of Lisbon and vicinity, scale 1 : 5,000, revised to 1879. 
Mention is made in the annual repoi't of this office for 1884, of tlic reduc- 
tions of sheets 1 : 100,000 to scale 1 : 250,000 for a new general map of the 
Kingdom. 

Special topographic labors on larger scales are also in prospect for 
thickly settled localities, the mouths of rivers, &c. 



rORTUGAL— GEOLOGIC. 425 

EEDUCTION WORK, &C. 

After the decree of 1869 this section was charged with drawing, engrav 
ing, accounts, &c., and has been divided into the three following classes : 

1. Accounts, depo-ts, administratiou, and general affairs. 

2. Office, library, and archives. 

3. Atelier and artistic works of the General Directii n. 

Engraving on stone has been the rule, although the hydrographic 
charts are to be engraved on copper. The process "Eckstein" has been 
employed for chromolithography. 

There had been engraved in 1878, independent of the maps and the 
regular atlas, 32 other maps and plans of various scales, with many in prog- 
ress. The three classes of works, topographic, hydrographic, and geologic, 
are still in progress under the "Direction of Geodetic Works" (Trabalhos 
Geodesicos) with General C. Arbues Moreira as director. 

The director gives an estimated cost for the field-work of 4,000 hectares 
at scale 1 : 100,000, at about 120,000 reis or 667 francs (approximately S8.64 
per square mile). 

PORTUGAL. 

Geologic. 

In 1857 the Geological examination was organized under the name of 
"Commission Gdologique du Portugal," with the Colonel of Artillery (after- 
wards General), Carlos Ribeiro, director. Since his death, in 1882, the 
director is Joaquin F. N. Delgado, Colonel of the Corps of Military Engi- 
neers. Many geologic and paleontologic memoirs have been published, 
as well as a fine geological map, in 2 sheets, scale 1:500,000, 1876, which 
figured at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. 

The memoirs are monographs (quarto), in French or Portuguese; some- 
times both languages are employed together on the same page. A bulletin, 
called "Communica9aes, " (octavo,) is also published. All publications bear 
as title, "Sec9ao dos Trabalhos Geologicos de Portugal," if in Portuguese; 
and if the memoir is printed in French, the title !« "Section des Travaux 
Geologiques du Portugal." 



426 GOVERNMENT LAND AND MAEINE SUEVEYS. 

It is General Ribeiro who conceived and executed the project of lead- 
ing (amener) water from a spring, found in the Cretaceous Sandstone, more 
than 100 kilos from Lisbon, to feed the capital of Portugal. 

The Portuguese Geological Examination which since its reorganization 
in 1869 bears the name of "Sec^ao dos Trabalhos Geologicos de Portugal," 
is a section, and forms a part of the General Direction of Geodetic Works 
called "Direcqao Geral dos Trabalhos Geodesicos," under the Minister of 

Public Works. 

The geological examination of Portugal was organized by decree of 
August 8, 1857. A decree of August 31, 1852, creating the Geologic Com- 
mission, ordains that it shall be composed of a central direction and of 
adjunctive members. The decree of 1857, giving the final organization, 
determines that the central direction shall be composed of two members 
with equal powers, and it shall have within its jurisdiction to establish the 
general plan of operations, to visit the field and to give to the employed 
technical instructions necessary to special studies, in order to combine and 
hamionize all in a single system, and to co-ordinate the partial works exe- 
cuted for the preparation of the geological map. The adjunctive members 
specially destined for field-work are defined under the same decree to the 
number of four or more, according to the development which could be 
given to the work, and chosen from among the most capable of those des- 
tined to the Service of Mines. In 1857 a single assistant was nominated, 
and the old Geological Commission found itself composed of three members, 
who divided their services between field and office. 

In September, 1862, a fourth employ^ was added and specially charged 
with chemical examinations and photographic work, but in 1865 this place 
became vacant. ' As to the auxiliary personnel, their minimum number was 
not defined, and consisted of one engraver, two lithographers, three or four 
collectors, one librarian and curator of specimens, and, temporarily, one 
person in charge of office and one lithographic printer. 

The Geological Commission was incorporated with the General Direc- 
tion of Geodetic Works of the Kingdom, and constitutes a special section 
having independent functions in all its scientific work. Quite recently the 
technical personnel of this section has been augmented by two assistants, 



PORTFGAL— GEOLOGIC. 427 

and was actually composed (in 1878) of one chief, three assistants, one sec- 
retary, having the library under his charge, and four collectors. 

In 1878 General Ribeiro succeeded in securing the services of a Swiss 
geologist and paleontologist of capacity and reputation, Mr. Paul Choffat, 
who has since explored and described monographically several parts of 
the Portuguese secondary rocks (Jurassic and Cretaceous). Mr. Choffat is 
an "attache" of the survey as paleontologist. 

The two establishments have for their internal administration and their 
relation with the Government a single chief, the Director- General of the 
Geodetic Work. In 1868 the commission was dissolved, but geological 
studies were continued by two of its old principal employes. 

In December, of the same year, these studies received another organ- 
ization; and the material required for theii* continuation — that is to say, the 
lithological and paleontological collections obtained on the ground or pur- 
chased, the library and the chemical laboratory — passed to another scientific 
establishment. In fact, the geological works were interrupted until the 
actual organization of the General Direction of Geodetic Works, which took 
place December 18, 1869, the epoch at which they are incorporated anew 
in tha.t General Direction where they now form a distinct section. As to 
the two members of the old commission, who were until 1867 charged with 
field labors, they were named the one chief, the other assistant. 

From this point of view, the labors executed until now, although they 
can be considered as a solid base for future researches, have still a certain 
want of completeness. 

The works of this section and of the old Geological Commission are 
divided naturally into two distinct groups, according as they have been 
executed in the field or office. 

The first group comprehends the taking of geognostic notes and journals 
of travel, the collection of fossils, of rocks and of minerals found isolated or 
dispersed according to geological profiles, collections having for an aim to 
make known the composition of the soil and the stratigraphical relations of 
the beds, the graphic representation of the profiles, the copy of the explan- 
atory designs of the various geognostic phenomena, in fine the ti-ace upon 
the map of the limiting lines of the different formations. The second group 



428 GOVEENMENT LAlsD AND MAEINE SUKVEYS. 

comprises the airangement of geognostic facts collected upon the ground 
and in the note-books. The study and disposition of the collection of rocks 
and fossils for the distinction and classification of the various sedimentary- 
groups, the reduction of geological and paleontological memoirs accom- 
panied by drawings of fossils, of profiles and views, to serve for the descrip- 
tion of each group, the works of physical and chemical analysis, having for 
an aim the knowledge of rocks and lastly the execution of all the works of 
drawing and engraving for the preparation of the geological map. Among 
these works executed upon the ground by this section and the old Geological 
Commission, there may be mentioned among others the following: 

Geological stmly and graphic representation of the cliffs of the littoral of Algarve, 
between Lagos and Cape St. Vincent. 

Tbe part already engraved is printed from this design executed at the scale of 
1:2,500 in an atlas of 13 sheets. The drawing of the marine escarpment, which rep- 
resents really a geological profile, shows tbe exact order of superposition of the beds 
of the mesozoic and cainozoic systems of which the soil is composed, and at the same 
time the repeated accidents which have displaced them. 

Detailed geological stud^' of Setubal and of the littoral region in tbe neighbor- 
hood of the mouth of the Tagus, laid down on the topographic map of the new coast 
scale 1 : 30,000. These studies took till the autumn of 1SG3, and serve as a basis of two 
memoirs and a notice published by the chief of section ; also the exploration and study 
of various grottoes in the calcareous Jurassic region o'/Cesareda near Penicheand the 
tertiary " molasse" of the Palmella, where there has been discovered evident proof of 
tbe existence of prehistoric men of tbe paleolithic and neolithic periods, and full of 
jtrecious gifts for the ethnographic knowledge of the tribes which have inhabited 
there, and for the knowledge of the contemporaneous fauna; also the detailed strati- 
graphical study of the Silurian basin of Bussac, having for an object to determine the 
tlifferent fossil horizons and the order of appearance of the species thatiieopled them. 

Reconnaissance studies have also been made of the entire country for tbe prepa- 
ration of the general geological chart of the Kingdom, traced upon the geographical 
map, scale 1:500,000, accompanied by a detailed study of the ground represented by 5 
chorographic sheets (scale 1 : 100,000). 

Dredgings have been made near tbe mouth of tbe Tagus in order to compare tbe 
fossils of tbe neighboring tertiary with living forms. Among office labors tbe follow- 
ing may be mentioned : 

Classification and disposition of natural paleontologic collections. Arrangement 
and classification of 9,000 foreign paleontological specimens. Clasification and dispo- 
sition of the lithological collections. Disposition and description of numerous partial 
profiles of rocks and classification of fossils which they inclose in the different beds 
for the true knowledge of the stratigrapliic successiou of the formations. Among the 
profiles, demonstrative of the geological constitution of tbe soil, tbe most extended and 
at the same time the most important are those which express the relations between the 



INDIA— TOPOGRAPHIC. 429 

secondary and tertiary formations which are developed, between the Tagus, the ocean, 
and the Sierra of Moute Junto. 

Classification and description of vegetable fossils from the carboniferous, the 
secondary, and tertiary rocks. 

Arrangement of information for the knowledge of the cultivated and uncultivated 
surface of our Territory, labor which has served in the reduction of the report upon the 
general timber growth of the Kingdom, and the compilation of the map accompany- 
ing it. 

Arrangement of the library of 4,100 volumes, brochures, and maps, and prei)ara- 
tion of respective catalogues. As office labor may also be mentioned other miscella- 
neous designing of maps and plates, the engraving and chromolithographic impres- 
sion of the general geological chart, scale 1:500,000, and 5 detailed sheets, scale 
1:100,000, that had been completed in 1878, and 13, 4° and 8° pamphlets and publica- 
tions ou general or specical geological subjects. A new general geological maj) 
(1:200,000) is in course of execution. Meanwhile data for the several chorographical 
ma|>s, based on the military topographic map on the scale of 1 : 100,000, with occasional 
enlargement to double this scale, is constantly being collected. The map will be i